|Country of origin||Ireland|
|Alcohol by volume||40–94.8%|
|Colour||Pale Gold to Dark Amber|
|Variants||Pot Still Irish Whiskey, Malt Irish Whiskey, Grain Irish Whiskey, Blended Irish Whiskey|
The word "whiskey" is an Anglicisation of the first word in the Gaelic phrase, uisce betha, meaning "water of life" (modern Irish: uisce beatha, Scottish: uisge beatha and Manx: ushtey bea). The phrase was a translation of the Latin term aqua vitae, which was commonly used to describe distilled spirits during the Middle Ages.
Peat is rarely used in the malting process, so that Irish whiskey has a smoother finish as opposed to the smoky, earthy overtones common to some Scotches. There are notable exceptions to these rules in both countries; an example is Connemara peated Irish malt (double distilled) whiskey from the Cooley Distillery in Riverstown, Cooley, County Louth.
Irish whiskey was once the most popular spirit in the world, though a long period of decline from the late 19th century onwards greatly damaged the industry. So much so that although Ireland boasted over 30 distilleries in the 1890s, a century later, this number had fallen to just three. However, Irish whiskey has seen a great resurgence in popularity since the late twentieth century, and has been the fastest growing spirit in the world every year since 1990. With exports growing by over 15% per annum in recent years, existing distilleries have been expanded and a number of new distilleries constructed. As of late 2016, Ireland now has sixteen distilleries in operation, with a further eleven in the planning stages. However, only five of these have been operating long enough to have products sufficiently aged for sale, and only one of which was operating prior to 1975.
- 1 History
- 2 Regulations and labelling
- 3 Distilleries in Ireland
- 4 Types
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The word 'whiskey' (or whisky) comes from the Gaelic uisce beatha, meaning water of life. Irish whiskey was one of the earliest distilled drinks in Europe, arising around the 12th century (see Distilled beverage). It is believed that Irish monks brought the technique of distilling perfumes back to Ireland from their travels to the Mediterranean countries around 1000 A.D. The Irish then modified this technique to obtain a drinkable spirit. Although termed "whiskey", the spirit produced during this period would have differed from what we currently recognise as whiskey. The uisce beatha or whiskey produced in historical times would not have been aged, and was often flavoured with aromatic herbs such as mint, thyme or anise. Irish Mist, a whiskey liqueur launched in 1963 is purportedly based on such a recipe.
Although known to have occurred for hundreds of years, records of whiskey production in Ireland in the can be difficult to come by, in particular in the earlier years when production was unregulated. Even in later years, as production was frequently illicit, official records bear little reflection of reality. In addition, as many Irish records were traditionally oral, rather than written, details on early production are likely lost.
The oldest known written record of whiskey comes from Ireland in 1405 in the Irish Annals of Clonmacnoise, where it was written that the head of a clan died after "taking a surfeit of aqua vitae" at Christmas, and its first known mention in Scotland dates from 1494. However, it is known that by 1556 whiskey was widespread, as an Act passed by the English Parliament declared whiskey to be "a drink nothing profitable to be drunken daily and used is now universally through the realm of Ireland". This Act also made it technically illegal for anyone other than "the peers, gentlemen and freemen of larger towns" to distil spirits without a license from the Lord Deputy. However, as Crown control did not extend far beyond the Pale, a fortified area around Dublin, this had little effect.
The start of licensed distillation
In 1608, King James I granted one such license to Sir Thomas Phillips, a landowner in Bushmills, County Antrim. It is through this license that the Old Bushmills Distillery lays claims to be the oldest surviving licensed distillery in the world, although the current distillery company was actually registered in 1784.
In 1661, the Crown introduced a tax on whiskey production in Britain and Ireland. Therefore, in theory, all whiskey distillers in Ireland were to register and pay taxes. Although Crown control now extended far beyond the Pale, there is limited official record of whiskey distillation during this period. One reason for this, is that until 1761 registration was done on a voluntary basis. Therefore, as registration entailed paying a tax, it was much avoided for obvious reasons. Another reason, is that those tasked with enforcing the law were frequently local landlords, and if their tenants were the illicit distillers, it was not in their best interests to enforce the law. However, it is known that more distillation occurred than is officially recorded, as when registration later became compulsory, several registrations detail the use of existing facilities.
From a regulatory perspective, the introduction of this Act is a historical milestone as it provides a clear distinction between licit and illicit whiskey distillation in Ireland. For many years following the introduction of this Act, whiskey produced by registered distillers was known as "Parliament whiskey", while that produced by illicit producers was, and still is referred to as Poitín, a Gaelic term meaning "small pot" (often anglicised as poteen) in reference to the small pot stills used by the illicit distillers. However, although traditionally the product of illicit production, many legal varieties of Poitín have come to market in recent years.
In the 18th century, demand for whiskey in Ireland grew significantly, driven both by strong population growth, and by displacing the demand for imported spirits. Growth in the latter is very much visible in the share of Irish duties paid on legal spirits in the late 1700s. In 1770, whiskey only accounted for 25% of the total duty on spirits received by the exchequer, while duty on imported rum accounted for 51%, with the remainder divided equally between brandy and gin. However, by 1790, only twenty years later, whiskey's share accounted for 66%.
As a consequence of this increased demand, some distillers prioritised quantity over quantity, to the detriment of their product. This prompted parliament to pass an Act in 1759 prohibiting distillers from using any ingredient other than malt, grain, potatoes or sugar in the production of whiskey, and specifically prohibiting several unsavory ingredients. Another consequence, was that the potential revenue lost to the exchequer through the under-reporting of output at legal distilleries, and the tax avoidance of illicit producers became more significant, prompting parliament to introduce another Act of Parliament. This was enacted in 1779 and significantly reformed how the taxes payable on whiskey production were calculated. Previously, taxes were payable on production volumes, which were subject to manipulation. However, this Act removed the potential for under-reporting by making taxes payable on a distillery's potential output (based on the capacity of its pot stills), rather than its actual, or reported output. In addition, the Act penalised smaller distillers in an attempt to reduce reporting fraud.
Due to the stringency of this Act, which made assumptions about output (for instance, a 500-gallon pot still was assumed to produce 33,075 gallons a month) and the minimum numbers of days which a still was in operation per annum (112), many of the smaller, or less efficient registered distilleries were forced underground. In 1779, when the Act was introduced, there were 1,228 registered distilleries in Ireland, however, by 1790, this number had fallen to 246, and by 1821, there were just 32 licensed distilleries in operation. This had the effect of concentrating licit distillation in the a smaller number of distilleries based mainly in the larger urban centres, such as Cork and Dublin, which offered better markets for legal producers. Whereas, in the rural areas distillation became a more illicit activity. In particular, in the northwest of Ireland, where agricultural lands were poorer and poitiín provided a supplemental source of income to the tenant farmers, an income which landlords were again slow to curtail as it would have weakened their abilities to pay rent. The scale of this illicit activity was such, that one surveyor estimated that duty was paid on only 2% of the spirit consumed in northwestern provinces of Ulster and Connaught, while Aeneas Coffey (an excise officer at the time, and later inventor of the Coffey Still) estimated that there were over 800 illicit stills in operation in Inishowen, County Donegal alone. By contrast, illicit distillation in Munster and Leinster was less extensive.
By some measures the Act was successful, as the volume of whiskey on which excise was paid increased from 1.2 million to 2.9 million gallons. In addition, it prompted capital investments in establishing larger distilleries (which were more easily regulated), due to the need for economies of scale to profit from legal distillation. However, when demand for whiskey increased in the early 1800s, due to population growth, and changing consumption patterns (which saw it becoming more ingrained in Irish cultural activities), much of the demand was initially met by small-scale illicit distillers who did not need to pay tax or comply with the restrictions of the 1779 Act. In fact, so much illicit spirit was available during this period that the licensed distillers in Dublin complained that it could obtained "as openly in the streets as they sell a loaf of bread".
Reform and expansion
In 1823, the authorities, acknowledging the problems with the licensing system, cut the duties by half, and published an Excise Act which significantly reformed the existing legislation, making legal distillation much more attractive. In particular, the reforms removed the need for distillers to rush production in order to produce as much (or more) whiskey than duties would be paid on, leading to improvements in fuel efficiency and product quality, as distillers could operate the stills at a more appropriate pace. In addition, restricitions on the type and capacity of stills used were removed, granting distillers more freedom to tailor their equipment. Another significant reform, was a change to how duty was paid. Previously, duty was charged monthly, based on still output, meaning that distilleries paid tax on whiskey before it was sold. However, under the reforms, duty was to be paid only when the whiskey was actually sold, making its storage in bond more attractive, as less of the distillery's working capital would be tied up in stock.
Together, these reforms greatly improved the distilling landscape, leading to a drop in illicit whiskey production, and a boom in investment in legal distilleries. In 1821, two years before the reforms, there were 32 licensed distilleries in Ireland. However, just four years after the reforms, this number had risen to 82 in 1827, while by 1835 it had reached 93, a 19th-century peak. The increased attractiveness of legal distillation is evident in the scale of the equipment used. Prior to the Excise Act of 1823, the largest pot still in Ireland had a capacity of just 750 gallons. However, by 1825, just two years later, the Midleton Distillery would open with a 31,618-gallon pot still, which remains the largest ever built; the largest pot stills currently in operation in the world (as of 2014), located next door in the New Midleton Distillery, are roughly half this size, at 16,498 gallons (75,000 litres).
Though domestic demand would reduce somewhat in the mid-1800s, due to the Temperance movement of the 1830s, and the Great Famine of the 1840s, during which a million died, between 1823 and 1900, whiskey output in Ireland increased fourfold, and with access to the overseas markets provided by the British Empire, Irish whiskey became the most popular spirit in the World, with "Dublin whiskey" being particularly well regarded.
Dublin whiskey peak
In the early 1800s, Ireland was the largest spirit market in the United Kingdom, with demand for spirit exceeding that even of more populous England. Therefore, as capacities expanded, Ireland became the largest producer of spirits in the United Kingdom, and Dublin, then the largest market for spirits in Ireland, emerged as a major distilling centre. By 1823, Dublin boasted the five largest licensed distilleries in the country. At their peak, the distilleries in Dublin would grow to become the largest in the world, with a combined output of almost 10 million gallons per annum, the largest of which, Roe's Thomas Street Distillery, had an output exceeding 2 million gallons per annum.By 1878, the reputation of Dublin whiskey was such that Distillers Company Ltd., a Scottish distilling firm, having built a distillery in Dublin, claimed that Dublin whiskey could sell for a 25% premium over other Irish whiskey, and that it had a demand five times that of Scotch at the time. Although these figures are likely inflated, the give an indication of the esteem in which Dublin whiskey was held, even by Scottish distillers. During this period, the four largest Dublin distilling firms, of John Jameson, William Jameson, John Powers and George Roe (all family run, and collectively known as the "Big Four") came to dominate the Irish distilling landscape. The chief output of these distilleries, known as single or "pure pot still" whiskey, was made from a mix of malted and unmalted barley, and solely distilled in pot stills. The style, having initially emerged as a means of avoiding a 1785 tax on malt, endured although the tax had been later repealed. In fact, even by the late 1880s, only two of Ireland's then 28 existing distilleries were producing single malt whiskey, the rest steadfast in their devotion to "pure pot still".
In this period, when Irish whiskey was at its zenith, it would have been difficult to imagine that Scotch, then produced by small-scale producers, and almost unheard of outside of Scotland, would soon becomes the world's preeminent drink. Whereas, Irish whiskey, then the world's most popular whiskey, would enter a century of decline, with all of Dublin's great distilleries shutting their doors. So much so, that by the late 20th century, the once popular pure pot still whiskey had almost disappeared entirely, with only two specialist bottlings, Green Spot and Redbreast remaining in existence. However, since 2010, several new single pot whiskeys have been launched.
The Coffey still
There were a number of factors, both internal and external which lead to this decline. However, one of the main turning points was the patenting in 1832, of the Coffey still by Aeneas Coffey. Ironically, Coffey was both the former Inspector General of Excise in Ireland, and subsequently, after leaving the excise service, an Irish distiller himself. His patent, the Coffey still, was a continuous distillation apparatus which offered an improvement on the traditional pot still. Although similar continuous stills had been proposed in the past, including by other Irish distillers themselves, the Coffey still was the most effective, and soon entered widespread use.
Unlike traditional pot stills, which were operated in a batch manner, Coffey stills could be operated continuously. This made them cheaper to operate as they required less fuel, and more efficient to run, producing a continuous, rapid output of spirit. In addition, as technically, continuous distillation entails the conduct of a series of distillation runs in sequence internally within a self-contained unit, rather than the conduct of a single distillation within a pot still, Coffey stills were capable of producing a far higher strength output than pot stills. However, this advantage also came with a downside. As a consequence of increasing the alcohol concentration in the product, Coffey stills removed some of the other volatile components responsible for flavour. As a result, their use proved extremely controversial when first introduced.
Ireland was the initial testing ground for the Coffey still, with Coffey showcasing them in his own distillery and offering them to other Irish distillers, Although, there were seven in operation in Ireland by 1833, their use did not become widespread amongst the larger distilleries. In particular, the big four Dublin distillers, proud of their existing produce scoffed at its use, questioning if its product, grain whiskey, which they termed neutral or silent (i.e. tasteless) spirit, could even be termed whiskey. It wasn't that the distillers were Luddites, afraid of change, their distilleries being amongst the most advanced in the world. The distillers were simply steadfast in the belief that their existing methods yielded a superior whiskey. For instance, John Jameson trialled a Coffey still at his distillery, but chose not adopt the technology as he was not satisfied with the quality of product it produced. Therefore, in the face of opposition in Ireland, Coffey offered his still to the English gin and Scottish whiskey distillers who proved more receptive, and where the technology gained widespread use.
The adoption of the Coffey still in Scotland was indirectly assisted by Ireland's Great Famine of the 1840s, which lead to the repealing of the Corn Laws, which between 1815 and 1846 had restricted the import of cheaper foreign grain into Britain and Ireland. After the laws were repealed in 1846, cheap American corn could be imported and used to produce neutral spirit in Coffey stills. This spirit, though lacking in taste, could then be blended with traditional pot still derived spirit to produce, a cheaper, "blended whiskey". This blended whiskey, which was less intense in taste than pure pot still, was to prove popular in Britain, capturing much market share from Irish pure pot still whiskey.
Despite changing tastes and falling market share, the adoption of Coffey stills were stubbornly resisted by Irish distillers for many years, with some arguing for restrictions on its use. For instance, in 1878, the big Dublin distillers jointly published a pamphlet entitled Truths about Whisky in which they referred to the output of Coffey stills as "Good, bad or indifferent; but it cannot be whiskey, and it ought not to be sold under that name". While in 1904, almost seventy years after it had been patented, the Senior Manager of Ireland's largest rural distillery, Allman's of Bandon, placed an outright ban on the introduction of Coffey stills at his distillery in face of opposition from a director.
The issue came to a head in 1908, when a royal commission was appointed to investigate the issue, by which point 60% of all whiskey produced in Britain and Ireland was made in Coffey stills. In 1909, a royal commission settled the argument once and for all, declaring that whiskey could refer to the output of by either Coffey or pot stills. By comparison, it is interesting to note that a similar debate occurred in France; such that under French law, to be termed "Cognac", a spirit must be produced using a pot still. Whereas, Coffey stills are permissible in the production of Armagnac.
An industry in decline
In addition to the introduction of blended whiskey, and the Irish distillers failure to account for its appeal to changing tastes, there were a number of additional issues which placed further pressure on the Irish distillers: the Irish War of Independence, the subsequent civil war, and trade war with Britain (which cut off whiskey exports to Britain and all Commonwealth countries, then Irish whiskey's biggest market); prohibition in the United States (1920-1933), which severely curtailed exports to Irish whiskey's second biggest market; widespread counterfeiting of Irish whiskeys in America and Britain; protectionist policies introduced by the Irish Free State Government which significantly capped whiskey exports in the hope of taxing domestic consumption; and finally over-expansion and mismanagement at several Irish distilleries. Together, these factors greatly hampered exports and forced many distilleries into economic difficulties and out of business, and by the early 20th century, Scotland had surpassing Ireland to become the World's largest whiskey producer.
When Alfred Barnard, a British historian published his account of the distilleries of Britain and Ireland in 1887, there were 28 distilleries in operation in Ireland. By the 1960s, there was only a handful of these remaining in operation, and in 1966 three of these (John Jameson, Powers and Cork Distilleries Company) chose to amalgamate their operations under the name of Irish Distillers and to close their existing facilities, and concentrate their operations in a new purpose-built facility to be constructed beside the Old Midleton Distillery in Co. Cork. In 1972, these were joined by the only other remaining Irish operation, Bushmills, so that by the mid-1970s there were only two whiskey distilleries in operation in Ireland, the New Midleton Distillery and the Old Bushmills Distillery, both owned by Irish Distillers, and with only one of these having operated during Irish whiskey's golden years.
Production reached a nadir at about 400,000 - 500,000 cases per annum during this period, down from a height of 12 million cases around 1900. However, the late 1980s saw the beginnings of a long and slow resurgence in the Irish whisky industry, with the establishment of the Cooley Distillery in 1987, and Pernod Ricard's takeover of Irish Distillers in 1988, which led to increased marketing of Irish whiskeys, in particular Jameson, overseas. Since then Irish whiskey has undergone a major resurgence, and for the past twenty years, has been the fastest growing spirit in the world, with annual growth of approximately 15-20% per annum. In 2010, the Kilbeggan Distillery (which had closed in 1954) reopened, bringing the number of operating distilleries up to four. By late 2016, this figure had grown to sixteen, with a further thirteen in the planning stages. As of 2015, production of Irish whiskey stands at 7.7 million cases, up from 4.4 million cases in 2008, with production projected to exceed 12 million cases (it's historical peak) by 2020, and 24 million by 2030. As of 2013, roughly 800 people were employed on a full-time basis in the whiskey industry in Ireland.
Regulations and labelling
Irish whiskey is a protected European Geographical Indication (GI) under Regulation (EC) No 110/2008. As of 29 January 2016, production, labelling and marketing of Irish whiskey must be verified by the Irish revenue authorities as conforming with the Department of Agriculture's 2014 technical file for Irish whiskey. Key requirements include specifications that:
- Irish whiskey must be distilled on the island of Ireland (comprising the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland) from a mash of malted cereals with or without whole grains of other cereals and which has been:
- saccharified by the diastase of malt contained therein, with or without other natural enzymes;
- fermented by the action of yeast;
- distilled at an alcoholic strength of less than 94.8% alcohol by volume in such a way that the distillate has an aroma and taste derived from the materials used;
- subject to the maturation of the final distillate for at least three years in wooden casks, such as oak, not exceeding 700 litres (185 US gal; 154 imp gal) capacity
- The distillate, to which only water and plain caramel colouring may be added (E150a), retains its colour, aroma and taste derived from the production process referred to above
- Irish whiskey is to have a minimum alcoholic by volume content of 40%
- Individual technical specifications for the three varieties of Irish whiskey, "single pot still", "single malt", "single grain", and "blended" whiskey (a mix of these two or more of these varieties) are also outlined in the technical file. The use of the term "single" in the aforementioned varieties being permissible only if the whiskey is totally distilled on the site of a single distillery.
- Maturation only takes place on the island of Ireland
There are several regulations governing the labelling of Irish whiskeys. In particular:
- Spirit drinks must not be labelled, packaged, sold, advertised or promoted in such a way to suggest they are Irish whiskey or any of the sub -varieties unless they meet the relevant requirements
- Any age statement, must refer to the age of the youngest whiskey used
- Although traditionally spelled with an 'e', Irish whiskey may be marketed as "Irish whisky"
Distilleries in Ireland
According to the Alcoholic Beverage Federation of Ireland (ABFI), as of November 2016 there are sixteen whiskey distilleries in operation in Ireland. However, many of these are recently established and have not yet aged their own spirits for sale as whiskey:
- Blackwater Distillery (est. 2015) - does not yet (2017) have spirit aged for sale as whiskey. Currently produces a range of gins.
- The Connacht Whiskey Company (est. 2014) - plans to release a single pot still whiskey at the end of 2019. Currently produces gin, vodka and poitín. Also markets a single malt sourced from other distilleries.
- Cooley Distillery (est. 1987) - when opened it was the only independent distillery in Ireland. Along with its sister distillery in Kilbeggan, it produces the Connemara, Tyrconnell, Kilbeggan and 2Gingers whiskeys. It has been owned by Beam Suntory since 2011.
- Dingle Distillery (est. 2012) - distills gin, vodka and whiskey. The first batches of whiskey were released in late 2016.
- Echlinville Distillery (est. 2013) - the first Northern Irish distillery to be granted a distilling license in almost 125 years. The distillery is relaunching the Dunville's brand, previously produced at the Royal Irish Distillery in Belfast. The distillery also produces gin and poitín.
- The Great Northern Distillery (est. 2015) - John Teeling, founder of the Cooley distillery developed two distilleries on the site of the Great Northern Brewery in Dundalk. The distilleries began operations in 2015, have a capacity of 50 million bottles per annum.
- Kilbeggan Distillery (est. 1757, re-commissioned 2007) - the distillery re-opened in 2007, 54 years to the day after it closed, and 250 years after it was first established. A sister distillery of the Cooley Distillery, both were bought by Beam Suntory in 2011.
- New Midleton Distillery (est. 1975) - produces Jameson, Powers, Paddy, Midleton, Redbreast, and others, including the independently sold rarity Green Spot. Owned by Pernod Ricard since 1988
- Old Bushmills Distillery (est. 1784) - through a 1608 license to distill, lays claim to be the oldest licensed distillery in the world. Produces a range of blends (Bushmills Orignal, Black Bush) and single malts (Bushmills 10, 16 and 21 year olds). Previously owned by Pernod Ricard, and Diageo, since 2014 it has been owned by Jose Cuervo.
- Rademon Estate Distillery (est. 2015) - the distillery plans to release malt whiskey, it's first mature stocks will become available in August 2018. The distillery also produces gin.
- The Renegade Waterford Distillery (est. 2016) - a craft distillery established in a converted Diageo facility. Production of spirit began in January 2016. The distillery will produce a single malt.
- The Shed Distillery (est. 2014) - production began in December 2014, therefore, the spirit has not yet (Jan. 2017) aged enough for sale as whiskey. The distillery also produces a gin.
- Teeling Distillery (est. 2015). - the first new distillery built in Dublin city for over 125 years, it was founded by the Teeling family, who previously established the Cooley Distillery. When the Cooley Distillery was sold in 2011, the Teelings negotiated the purchase of mature stock, which is being used in their whiskeys until mature stock from the new distillery becomes available.
- Tullamore Distillery (est. 2014) - opened in September 2014, returning production of Tullamore Dew to Tullamore after a break of sixty years. The distillery has a capacity of 1.5 million cases per year, and is owned by William Grant & Son.
- Walsh Whiskey Distillery (est. 2016) - an Irish-Italian venture, 50% owned by Illva Saronno the makers of Tia Maria. The distillery is expected to have a capacity of 500,000 cases per year.
- West Cork Distillers (est. 2008) - the distillery produces whiskey, whiskey liqueur, vodka, gin and poitín.
- Glendalough Distillery (est. 2013) - the Glendalough distillery currently ages and finishes whiskeys from other distilleries, and also markets gin and poitin. It is in the process of building a new distillery.
- Alltech Craft Distillery (est. 2012) - established in Carlow in 2012. However, the distillery has ceased operations, and is set to reopen in a converted church on Dublin's Thomas Street in early 2017. Thomas Street has a long association with whiskey production, previously being home to several distilleries, including George Roe's Thomas Street Distillery, and John Power's John's Lane Distillery.
Planned or under construction
According the Alcoholic Beverage Federation of Ireland, as of November 2016, at least thirteen distilleries with planning permissions in Ireland, with many other projects in various stages of planning. In addition, to the Alltech and Glendalough distilleries mentioned above, which had previously distilled spirit, planned distilleries include:
- Ballykeefe Distillery, County Kilkenny
- Boann Distillery, Drogheda - a combined distillery and brewery in Drogheda was announced in September 2015. The €20 million Boann Distillery and Boyne Brewhouse project is led by drinks industry businessman Pat Cooney.
- Cape Clear Distillery, County Cork
- Dublin Whiskey Company, Dublin
- Lough Gill Distillery, County Sligo
- Nephin Whiskey Distillery, County Mayo - construction is underway after planning permission was granted in 2015.
- Powerscourt Distillery, County Wicklow
- The Quiet Man Craft Distillery, Derry - to be built by Niche Drinks who are investing £15 million in the project.
- Slane Castle Distillery, County Meath - in 2013 Lord Henry Mount Charles received planning permission to build a €12 million distillery in the grounds of Slane Castle.
- Sliabh Liag Distillery, County Donegal
Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, around 1,000 registered distilleries opened and closed across Ireland - with multiples of this number operating illegally. Most of these have disappeared without a trace, only to be remembered by local street names e.g. Bond Street in Dublin. For instance, the excise return for 1800 lists 40 distilleries operating in Dublin city alone, while Drogheda is estimated to have had 15 distilleries in the 1780s, with as many as ten operating in Cork city in the 19th century. Of these numerous ventures, only one, Bushmills, has remained in continuous operation until the present day. However, the Kilbeggan Distillery (est. 1757) which closed in 1954, reopened in recent years, while a new distillery was constructed in Tullamore to replace an existing distillery which also closed in 1954. Some of the notable distilleries previously in operation across Ireland are listed below.
- Avoniel, Belfast, County Antrim (1882-1929)
- Belfast Distillery, Belfast, County Antrim (1823-1868)
- Cromac Distillery, Belfast, County Antrim (1776-1930)
- The Irish Distillery, Connswater, Belfast, County Antrim (1886-1929)
- The Royal Irish Distillery, Belfast, County Antrim (1868-1938 or later) - Amongst Ireland's largest distilleries in the 1890s, the Royal Irish was the home of Dunville's whisky. Although the distillery is now gone, Dunville's was resurrected as an Irish whiskey brand by the Echlinville Distillery in 2013.
- Bandon Distillery, Bandon, County Cork (1826-1929) - At its peak, Allman's distillery in Bandon was the largest rural distillery in Ireland, with an output of over 500,000 gallons per annum.
- Glen Distillery, Kilnap, County Cork (1802-1925)
- Hackett Distillery, Midleton, County Cork (1824-circa 1845)
- Old Midleton Distillery, Midleton. County Cork (1825-1975) - Once home of the World's largest pot still, the Old Midleton Distillery closed in 1975 when Irish Distillers concentrated production in a new purpose-built facility constructed along the distillery. It now operates as a visitor centre.
- North Mall, Cork, County Cork (1779-1920)
- Watercourse, Cork, County Cork (1795-1975)
- The Green, Blackpool, County Cork (1796-1870)
- Daly's Distillery, County Cork (1807-1869)
- Burt Distillery, Co. Donegal (1814-1841)
- Comber Distilleries, County Down (1825-1953)
- Bow Street Distillery, Dublin (1780-1971) - Run by John Jameson & Son, Bow Street was one of the "big four" Dublin distilleries and the original home of Jameson Irish Whiskey. At its peak Bow Street was the second largest distillery in Ireland and one of the largest in the World, with an output of one million gallons per annum. In the 1970s, production was moved to the New Midleton Distllery, Co. Cork and the Bow Street Distillery now operates as a visitors' centre.
- Dodder Bank Distilleries, Dublin
- John's Lane Distillery, Dublin (1796-1976) - Run by James Power & Son, John's Lane was one of the "big four" Dublin distilleries, and the original home of Power's Irish Whiskey. The distillery had an output of 900,000 gallons per annum in the 1880s. Production was moved to Midleton in the 1970s.
- Jones Road Distillery, Dublin (1873-circa 1945)
- Marrowbone Lane Distillery, Dublin (late 1700s-1920s) - One of the "big four" Dublin distilleries, Marrowbone Lane was run by William Jameson & Co. (not to be confused with John Jameson & Son above). At its peak Marrowbone Lane had some of the largest capital equipment of any whiskey distillery worldwide.
- Phoenix Park, Chapelizod, Dublin (1878-1921)
- Thomas Street Distillery, Dublin (1757-1926) - Run by the Roe Family, one of the "big four" Dublin Distilling Dynasties, Thomas Street Distillery was once the largest in the British Isles, with an output of two million gallons per annum at its peak. It was located opposite Guinness' St. James' Gate brewery, which itself was the largest brewery in the World at one point. After the distillery was closed, some of its buildings were purchased and incorporated into the Guinness Brewery. In particular, the landmark St. Patrick's Tower, which dates from 1757 and is one of the oldest smock windmills in Europe, is still visible on the site of the Guinness brewery.
- Burke's Distillery, County Galway (mid 1820s-circa 1850)
- Nun's Island Distillery, County Galway (1846 or earlier - 1915)
- Monasterevan, County Kildare (1784-circa 1921)
- White Horse Distillery, Mountrath, County Laois - named after a local river, this distillery is notable as local folklore suggests that either the distillery or its name were purchased by a Scottish whisky firm in the 1800s. If true, this would mark an interesting turning point in the rise and fall of the whiskey industries in the respective countries.
- Walker's/Thomand Gate, County Limerick (circa 1820 - circa 1905)
- Abbey Street, County Londonderry (circa 1790-1925)
- Waterside, County Londonderry (1820-1925)
- Coleraine, County Londonderry (1820-1978)
- Limavady, County Londonderry (1805-1914)
- Drogheda Distillery, County Louth (1782-1850 or later)
- Dundalk Distillery, County Louth (1708-1926) - one of the oldest distilleries in Ireland, Dundalk Distillery had the distinction of having Ireland's largest chimney.
- Westport Distillery, County Mayo (1826-circa 1860)
- Birr Distillery, County Offaly (1805-1890)
- Tullamore Distillery, County Offaly (1829-1954) - once one of Ireland's most successful distilleries, Tullamore Dew, one of Ireland's most well known whiskeys was originally produced here.
- Marfield Distillery, Clonmel, County Tipperary (1820-1860)
- Bishop's Water, Wexford (1827-1915)
Irish whiskey comes in several forms, with the name of the style depending on the type of grain used and the distillation process. Traditionally, Irish whiskey was produced in pot stills. Irish whiskeys made in a pot still fall into two categories.
Single malt Irish whiskey
Whiskeys made entirely from malted barley distilled in a pot still within a single distillery are referred to as single malt whiskeys, a style also very commonly associated with Scotch whisky. These may be double or triple distilled.
Single pot still whiskey
Single pot still whiskey is made from a mixture of malted and unmalted barley completely distilled in a pot still within a single distillery. This differs from single malt whiskey through the inclusion of raw, unmalted grain in the mash. This style has also historically been referred to as "pure pot still" whiskey and "Irish pot still whiskey", with older bottlings and memorabilia often bearing these names. Single pot whiskeys were the most common style of Irish whiskey until the emergence of blends in the 20th century.
Whiskey produced from continuous distillation in a column or Coffey still, rather than a pot still is referred to as grain whiskey. This may be produced from a variety of grains. Lighter and more neutral in taste, this spirit is rarely found on its own, though some examples exist. The vast majority of grain whiskey is used to make blended whiskey, a product made by mixing column still product with richer and more intense pot still product.
A mixture of the above styles. Regardless of whether the blended whiskey is made from combining grain whiskey with either single malt whiskey or with single pot still whiskey or both, it is labelled with the same terminology. Blended whiskeys are now the most common style of both Irish and Scotch whiskeys.
- Blends: Black Bush, Bushmills Original, Clontarf, Inishowen, The Irishman Founder's Reserve, Jameson, Kilbeggan, Locke's Blend, Midleton Very Rare, Millars, Paddy, Powers, Tullamore Dew, Writer's Tears
- Single pot still: Green Spot, Midleton Barry Crockett Legacy, Power's Three Swallows, Redbreast (12, 15, 21 years), Yellow Spot
- Single malt: Bushmills (10, 16, 21 years), Connemara Peated Malt (Regular, Cask Strength and 12 years), The Irishman Single Malt, Locke's Single Malt (8 years), Tullamore Dew Single Malt (10-year), Tyrconnell
- Single grain: Kilbeggan Single Grain (8, 10, 15, 18 years), Teeling's Single Grain, Greenore 18-year old
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Whiskey from Ireland.|
- The Irish Whiskey Society Irish Whiskey discussion forum
- Poteen Making / Déantús an Phoitín DVD – 'Singling' & Story from John William Seoige YouTube – documentary on the origins and process of whiskey making
- Irish Whiskey Act, 1980 Government of Ireland