Iron-binding proteins are carrier proteins and metalloproteins which play many important roles in metabolism. Iron is required by humans and bacteria for enzymes and metabolism to function properly. Iron-binding proteins bind iron tightly which make it unavailable for microbial use, limiting growth. Four iron-binding proteins are Hemoglobin, Ferritin, lactoferrin and transferrin. Hemoglobin is located in red blood cells. Transferrin is found in blood and tissue fluids. Lactoferrin is found in milk, blood, tears and saliva. Ferritin is found in every cell type.
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