Environmental impact of irrigation
The environmental impacts of irrigation relate to the changes in quantity and quality of soil and water as a result of irrigation and the effects on natural and social conditions in river basins and downstream of an irrigation scheme. The impacts stem from the altered hydrological conditions caused by the installation and operation of the irrigation scheme.
- 1 Direct effects
- 2 Indirect Effects
- 3 Adverse impacts
- 4 Simulation and prediction
- 5 Mitigation of adverse effects
- 6 See also
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
- 9 References
An irrigation scheme draws water from groundwater, rivers, lakes or overland flow, and distributes it over an irrigated area. Hydrological, or direct, effects of doing this include reduction in downstream river flow, increased evaporation in the irrigated area, increased level in the water table as groundwater recharge in the area is increased and flow increased in the irrigated area. Likewise, irrigation has immediate effects on the provision of moisture to the atmosphere, inducing atmospheric instabilities and increasing downwind rainfall, or in other cases modifies the atmospheric circulation, delivering rain to different downwind areas. Increases or decreases in irrigation are a key area of concern in precipitationshed studies, that examine how significant modifications to the delivery of evaporation to the atmosphere can alter downwind rainfall.
Indirect effects are those that have consequences that take longer to develop and may also be longer-lasting. The indirect effects of irrigation include the following:
Irrigated land area worldwide occupies about 16% of the total agricultural area and the crop yield of irrigated land is roughly 40% of the total yield. In other words, irrigated land produces 2.5 times more product than non-irrigated land. This article will discuss some of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of irrigation.
Reduced river flow
The reduced downstream river flow may cause:
- reduced downstream flooding
- disappearance of ecologically and economically important wetlands or flood forests
- reduced availability of industrial, municipal, household, and drinking water
- reduced shipping routes. Water withdrawal poses a serious threat to the Ganges. In India, barrages control all of the tributaries to the Ganges and divert roughly 60 percent of river flow to irrigation
- reduced fishing opportunities. The Indus River in Pakistan faces scarcity due to over-extraction of water for agriculture. The Indus is inhabited by 25 amphibian species and 147 fish species of which 22 are found nowhere else in the world. It harbors the endangered Indus River dolphin, one of the world’s rarest mammals. Fish populations, the main source of protein and overall life support systems for many communities, are also being threatened
- reduced discharge into the sea, which may have various consequences like coastal erosion (e.g. in Ghana) and salt water intrusion in delta's and estuaries (e.g. in Egypt, see Aswan dam). Current water withdrawal from the river Nile for irrigation is so high that, despite its size, in dry periods the river does not reach the sea. The Aral Sea has suffered an "environmental catastrophe" due to the interception of river water for irrigation purposes.
Increased groundwater recharge, waterlogging, soil salinity
Increased groundwater recharge stems from the unavoidable deep percolation losses occurring in the irrigation scheme. The lower the irrigation efficiency, the higher the losses. Although fairly high irrigation efficiencies of 70% or more (i.e. losses of 30% or less) can occur with sophisticated techniques like sprinkler irrigation and drip irrigation, or by well managed surface irrigation, in practice the losses are commonly in the order of 40% to 60%. This may cause the following issues:
- rising water tables
- increased storage of groundwater that may be used for irrigation, municipal, household and drinking water by pumping from wells
- waterlogging and drainage problems in villages, agricultural lands, and along roads - with mostly negative consequences. The increased level of the water table can lead to reduced agricultural production.
- shallow water tables - a sign that the aquifer is unable to cope with the groundwater recharge stemming from the deep percolation losses
- where water tables are shallow, the irrigation applications are reduced. As a result, the soil is no longer leached and soil salinity problems develop
- stagnant water tables at the soil surface are known to increase the incidence of water-borne diseases like malaria, filariasis, yellow fever, dengue, and schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) in many areas. Health costs, appraisals of health impacts and mitigation measures are rarely part of irrigation projects, if at all.
- to mitigate the adverse effects of shallow water tables and soil salinization, some form of watertable control, soil salinity control, drainage and drainage system is needed
- as drainage water moves through the soil profile it may dissolve nutrients (either fertilizer-based or naturally occurring) such as nitrates, leading to a buildup of those nutrients in the ground-water aquifer. High nitrate levels in drinking water can be harmful to humans, particularly infants under 6 months, where it is linked to "blue-baby syndrome" (see Methemoglobinemia).
Reduced downstream river water quality
Owing to drainage of surface and groundwater in the project area, which waters may be salinized and polluted by agricultural chemicals like biocides and fertilizers, the quality of the river water below the project area can deteriorate, which makes it less fit for industrial, municipal and household use. It may lead to reduced public health.
Polluted river water entering the sea may adversely affect the ecology along the sea shore (see Aswan dam).
Affected downstream water users
Downstream water users often have no legal water rights and may fall victim of the development of irrigation.
Flood-recession cropping may be seriously affected by the upstream interception of river water for irrigation purposes.
- In Baluchistan, Pakistan, the development of new small-scale irrigation projects depleted the water resources of nomadic tribes traveling annually between Baluchistan and Gujarat or Rajastan, India
- After the closure of the Kainji dam, Nigeria, 50 to 70 per cent of the downstream area of flood-recession cropping was lost
Lost land use opportunities
Irrigation projects may reduce the fishing opportunities of the original population and the grazing opportunities for cattle. The livestock pressure on the remaining lands may increase considerably, because the ousted traditional pastoralist tribes will have to find their subsistence and existence elsewhere, overgrazing may increase, followed by serious soil erosion and the loss of natural resources.
The Manatali reservoir formed by the Manantali dam in Mali intersects the migration routes of nomadic pastoralists and destroyed 43000 ha of savannah, probably leading to overgrazing and erosion elsewhere. Further, the reservoir destroyed 120 km² of forest. The depletion of groundwater aquifers, which is caused by the suppression of the seasonal flood cycle, is damaging the forests downstream of the dam.
Groundwater mining with wells, land subsidence
When more groundwater is pumped from wells than replenished, storage of water in the aquifer is being mined and the use of that water is no longer sustainable. As levels fail, it becomes more difficult to extract water and pumps will struggle to maintain the design flowrate and consume more may fenergy per unit of water. Eventually it may become so difficult to extract groundwater that farmers may be forced to abandon irrigated agriculture.
Some notable examples include:
- The hundreds of tubewells installed in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, with World Bank funding have operating periods of 1.4 to 4.7 hours/day, whereas they were designed to operate 16 hours/day
- In Baluchistan, Pakistan, the development of tubewell irrigation projects was at the expense of the traditional qanat or karez users
- Groundwater-related subsidence of the land due to mining of groundwater occurred in the USA at a rate of 1m for each 13m that the watertable was lowered
- Homes at Greens Bayou near Houston, Texas, where 5 to 7 feet of subsidence has occurred, were flooded during a storm in June 1989 as shown in the picture
Simulation and prediction
The effects of irrigation on watertable, soil salinity and salinity of drainage and groundwater, and the effects of mitigative measures can be simulated and predicted using agro-hydro-salinity models like SaltMod and SahysMod
- In India 2.19 million ha have been reported to suffer from waterlogging in irrigation canal commands. Also 3.47 million ha were reported to be seriously salt affected,
- In the Indus Plains in Pakistan, more than 2 million hectares of land is waterlogged. The soil of 13.6 million hectares within the Gross Command Area was surveyed, which revealed that 3.1 million hectares (23%) was saline. 23% of this was in Sindh and 13% in the Punjab. More than 3 million ha of water-logged lands have been provided with tube-wells and drains at the cost of billions of rupees, but the reclamation objectives were only partially achieved. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) states that 38% of the irrigated area is now waterlogged and 14% of the surface is too saline for use
- In the Nile delta of Egypt, drainage is being installed in millions of hectares to combat the water-logging resulting from the introduction of massive perennial irrigation after completion of the High Dam at Assuan
- In Mexico, 15% of the 3 million ha of irrigable land is salinized and 10% is waterlogged
- In Peru some 0.3 million ha of the 1.05 million ha of irrigable land suffers from degradation (see Irrigation in Peru).
- Estimates indicate that roughly one-third of the irrigated land in the major irrigation countries is already badly affected by salinity or is expected to become so in the near future. Present estimates for Israel are 13% of the irrigated land, Australia 20%, China 15%, Iraq 50%, Egypt 30%. Irrigation-induced salinity occurs in large and small irrigation systems alike
- FAO has estimated that by 1990 about 52 million ha of irrigated land will need to have improved drainage systems installed, much of it subsurface drainage to control salinity
Reduced downstream drainage and groundwater quality
- The downstream drainage water quality may deteriorate owing to leaching of salts, nutrients, herbicides and pesticides with high salinity and alkalinity. There is threat of soils converting into saline or alkali soils. This may negatively affect the health of the population at the tail-end of the river basin and downstream of the irrigation scheme, as well as the ecological balance. The Aral Sea, for example, is seriously polluted by drainage water.
- The downstream quality of the groundwater may deteriorate in a similar way as the downstream drainage water and have similar consequences
Mitigation of adverse effects
Irrigation can have a variety negative impacts on ecology and socioeconomy, which may be mitigated in a number of ways. These include siting the irrigation project in a location which minimises negative impacts. The efficiency of existing projects can be improved and existing degraded croplands can be improved rather than establishing a new irrigation project Developing small-scale, individually owned irrigation systems as an alternative to large-scale, publicly owned and managed schemes. The use of sprinkler irrigation and micro-irrigation systems decrease the risk of waterlogging and erosion. Where practicable, using treated wastewater makes more water available to other users Maintaining flood flows downstream of the dams can ensure that an adequate area is flooded each year, supporting, amongst other objectives, fishery activities.
Delayed environmental impacts
It often takes time to accurately predict the impact that new irrigation schemes will have on the ecology and socioeconomy of a region. By the time these predictions are available, a considerable amount of time and resources may have already been expended in the implementation of the that project. When that is the case, the project managers will often only change the project if the impact would be considerably more than they had originally expected.
Potential benefits outweigh the potential disadvantages
Frequently irrigation schemes are seen as extremely necessary for socioeconomic well-being especially in developing countries. One example of this can be demonstrated from a proposal for an irrigation scheme in Malawi. Here it was shown that the potential positive effects of the irrigation project that was being proposed "outweighed the potential negative impacts". It was stated that the impacts would mostly "be localized, minimal, short term occurring during the construction and operation phases of the Project". In order to help alleviate and prevent major environmental impacts, they would use techniques that minimize the potential negative impacts. As far as the region's socioeconomic well-being, there would be no "displacement and/or resettlement envisioned during the implementation of the Project activities". The original primary purposes of the irrigation project were to reduce poverty, improve food security, create local employment, increase household income and enhance the sustainability of land use.
Due to this careful planning this project was successful both in improving the socialeconomic conditions in the region and ensuring that land and water are sustainability into the future.
- Environmental issues with agriculture
- Environmental impacts of reservoirs
- Alkali soils
- Irrigation in viticulture
- Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
- Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
- T.C. Dougherty and A.W. Hall, 1995. Environmental impact assessment of irrigation and drainage projects. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 53. ISBN 92-5-103731-0. On line: http://www.fao.org/docrep/v8350e/v8350e00.htm
- R.E. Tillman, 1981. Environmental guidelines for irrigation. New York Botanical Garden Cary Arboretum.
- A comparative survey of dam-induced resettlement in 50 cases by Thayer Scudder and John Gray
- Download of simulation and prediction model SaltMod from: 
- Download of simulation and prediction model SahysMod from: 
- "SaltMod: A tool for interweaving of irrigation and drainage for salinity control": 
- "Modern interferences with traditional irrigation in Baluchistan": 
- Rosenburg, David; Patrick McCully; Catherine Pringle (2000). "Global-Scale Environmental Effects of Hydrological Alterations: Introduction". BioScience. Sep 2000: 746–751. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0746:GSEEOH]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- M. H. Lo and J. S. Famiglietti, Irrigation in California's Central Valley strengthens the southwestern U.S. water cycle, Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 40, Issue 2, pages 301–306, 28 January 20132 
- O. A. Tuinenburg et al., The fate of evaporated water from the Ganges basin, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, Volume 117, Issue D1, 16 January 2012 
- P. W. Keys et al., Analyzing precipitationsheds to understand the vulnerability of rainfall dependent regions, Biogeosciences, 9, 733–746, 2012 PDF
- Bruce Sundquist, 2007. Chapter 1- Irrigation overview. In: The earth's carrying capacity, Some related reviews and analysis. On line : 
- World Wildlife Fund, WWF Names World's Top 10 Rivers at Greatest Risk, on line: http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/mar2007/2007-03-21-01.asp
- Timberlake, L. 1985. Africa in Crisis - The Causes, Cures of Environmental Bankruptcy. Earthscan Paperback, IIED, London
- World health organization (WHO), 1983. Environmental health impact assessment of irrigated Agriculture. Geneva, Switzerland.
- Himanshu Thakkar. Assessment of Irrigation in India. World Commission on Dams. On line : http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/contrib/opt161.pdf
- Modern interferences in traditional water resources in Baluchistan. In: Annual Report 1982, pp. 23-34. ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Reprinted in Water International 9 (1984), pp. 106- 111. Elsevier Sequoia, Amsterdam. Also reprinted in Water Research Journal (1983) 139, pp. 53-60. Download from :  , under nr. 10, or directly as PDF : 
- C.A. Drijver and M. Marchand, 1985. Taming the floods. Environmental aspects of the floodplain developments of Africa. Centre of Environmental Studies, University of Leiden, The Netherlands.
- Ecosystems Ltd., 1983. Tana delta ecological impact study. Nairobi, Kenya.
- A. deGeorges and B.K. Reilly, 2006. Dams and large scale irrigation on the Senegal river: impacts on man and the environment. UNDP Human Development Report. On line: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/DeGeorges%20Andre.pdf
- Peter Bosshard. A Case Study on the Manantali Dam Project (Mali, Mauritania, Senegal), Erklärung von Bern/internationalrivers: Berne Declaration/internationalrivers. March 1, 1999
- Center for development studies (CDS), 1988. A study of water distribution and management in new design public tubewells in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Lucknow, UP, India
- Anthropogenic subsidence
- D.K. Todd, 1980. Groundwater hydrology. 2nd edition. John Wiley and sons, New York
- US Geological Survey, Land Subsidence in the United States. on line: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/pubs/fs00165/
- SaltMod: A tool for interweaving of irrigation and drainage for salinity control. In: W.B. Snellen (ed.), Towards integration of irrigation, and drainage management. ILRI Special report, pp. 41-43. Free download from :  , under nr. 8: Saltmod application, or directly as PDF : 
- N.K. Tyagi, 1996. Salinity management: the CSSRI experience and future research agenda. In: W.B. Snellen (Ed.), Towards integration of irrigation and drainage management. ILRI, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1997, pp. 17-27.
- N.T. Singh, 2005. Irrigation and soil salinity in the Indian subcontinent: past and present. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0-934223-78-5, ISBN 978-0-934223-78-2, 404 p.
- Green Living Association Pakistan, Environmental Issues.
- A.K. Bhatti, 1987. A review of planning strategies of salinity control and reclamation projects in Pakistan. In: J. Vos (Ed.) Proceedings, Symposium 25th International Course on Land Drainage. ILRI publ. 42. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands
- Asian Development Bank (ADB), Water in the 21st Century : Imperatives for Wise Water Management, From Public Good to Priced Commodity.
- M.S. Abdel-Dayem, 1987. Development of land drainage in Egypt. In: J. Vos (Ed.) Proceedings, Symposium 25th International Course on Land Drainage. ILRI publ. 42. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
- L. Pulido Madrigal, 1994. (in Spanish) Anexo Tecnico: Estudio general de salinidad analizada. CNA-IMTA, Cuernavaca, Mexico. The data can be seen on line in the article: "Land drainage and soil salinity: some Mexican experiences". In: Annual Report 1995, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 44 - 52, : 
- Claudio O. Stockle. Environmental impact of irrigation: a review. State of Washington Water Research Center, Washington State University. On line: http://www.swwrc.wsu.edu/newsletter/fall2001/irrimpact2.pdf
- United Nations, 1977. Water for Agriculture. In: Water Development and Management, Proceedings of the United Nations Water Conference, Part 3. Mar del Plata, Argentina.
- "Irrigation potential in Africa: A basin approach". Natural Resources Management and Environment Department. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- Dougherty, T.C. "FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 53" (PDF). Environmental Impact Assessment of Irrigation and Drainage Projects. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 13 March 2014.
- "SMALLHOLDER IRRIGATION AND VALUE ADDITION PROJECT (SIVAP)" (PDF). Retrieved 13 March 2014.