Irvington, New Jersey
|Irvington, New Jersey|
|Township of Irvington|
Morrell High School
Map of Irvington in Essex County. Inset: Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Irvington, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||March 27, 1874|
|Named for||Washington Irving|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Body||Township Council|
|• Mayor||Tony Vauss (term ends June 30, 2018)|
|• Business Administrator||Musa A. Malik|
|• Municipal Clerk||Harold E. Wiener|
|• Total||2.930 sq mi (7.589 km2)|
|• Land||2.928 sq mi (7.584 km2)|
|• Water||0.002 sq mi (0.005 km2) 0.07%|
|Area rank||338th of 566 in state
16th of 22 in county
|Elevation||128 ft (39 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2014)||54,512|
|• Rank||30th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county
|• Density||18,417.0/sq mi (7,110.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||8th of 566 in state
1st of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC−5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC−4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0877363|
Irvington is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a total population of 53,926, having declined by 6,769 (−11.2%) from the 60,695 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 323 (−0.5%) from the 61,018 counted in the 1990 Census.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Transportation
- 8 Notable people
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Clinton Township, which included what is now Irvington, Maplewood and parts of Newark and South Orange, was created on April 14, 1834. The area was known as Camptown until the mid-1800s. In 1850, after Stephen Foster published his ballad, Camptown Races, residents were concerned that the activities described in the song would be associated with their community. The town was renamed, Irvingtown, in honor of Washington Irving.
Irvington was incorporated as an independent village on March 27, 1874, from portions of Clinton Township. What remained of Clinton Township was absorbed into Newark on March 5, 1902. On March 2, 1898, Irvington was incorporated as a Town, replacing Irvington Village. In 1982, the town was one of four Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining 11 municipalities that had already made the change, of what would ultimately be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis.
The 1967 Newark riots hastened an exodus of families from that city, many of them moving a few short blocks into neighboring Irvington. Until 1965, Irvington was almost exclusively white. By 1980, the town was nearly 40% black; by 1990 it was 70%. On July 1, 1980, Fred Bost, the first black to serve on the Town Council, was sworn in as East Ward Councilman. Michael G. Steele, the town's first black mayor, was elected in 1990, followed by Sarah Brockington Bost in 1994. The current Mayor is Tony Vauss.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Irvington had a total area of 2.930 square miles (7.589 km2), including 2.928 square miles (7.584 km2) of land and 0.002 square miles (0.005 km2) of water (0.07%).
The township is bordered by Maplewood to the west, Newark to the east, Hillside to the south, South Orange to the northwest, all in Essex County; and by Union to the southwest in Union County, New Jersey.
1930–1990 2000 2010
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 53,926 people, 20,093 households, and 12,839 families residing in the township. The population density was 18,417.0 per square mile (7,110.8/km2). There were 23,196 housing units at an average density of 7,922.0 per square mile (3,058.7/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 5.64% (3,042) White, 85.41% (46,058) Black or African American, 0.38% (204) Native American, 0.87% (471) Asian, 0.07% (38) Pacific Islander, 5.42% (2,922) from other races, and 2.21% (1,191) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.60% (5,716) of the population.
There were 20,093 households, of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.6% were married couples living together, 27.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.1% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.33.
In the township, 25.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.0 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $42,580, and the median family income was $50,798. Males had a median income of $38,033 versus $36,720 for females. The per capita income for the township was $20,520. About 14.4% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 60,695 people, 22,032 households, and 14,408 families residing in the township. The population density was 20,528.3 people per square mile (7,917.1/km2). There were 24,116 housing units at an average density of 8,156.5 per square mile (3,145.7/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 81.66% Black or African American, 8.97% White, 0.24% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.68% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.38% of the population.
As part of the 2000 Census, 81.66% of Irvington's residents identified themselves as being Black or African American. This was one of the highest percentages of African American people in the United States, and the third-highest in New Jersey (behind Lawnside at 93.6%, and East Orange at 89.46%) of all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry.
There were 22,032 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.2% were married couples living together, 27.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the township the age distribution of the population shows 28.0% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.5 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $36,575, and the median income for a family was $41,098. Males had a median income of $32,043 versus $27,244 for females. The per capita income for the township was $16,874. About 15.8% of families and 17.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over.
Irvington experienced the crack epidemic of the 1980s and has struggled with its aftermath. The township's violent crime rate was six times higher than New Jersey overall and the murder rate eight times higher than statewide statistics. In 2007, the New Jersey State Police reported that Irvington had a violent crime rate of 22.4 incidents per 1,000 population, the highest of all 15 major urban areas in the state.
According to the New Jersey State Police Uniform Crime Report for 2013, year-to-year between 2012 and 2013, Irvington experienced an overall reduction in crime of 9% (from 49.6 to 45.2 incidents per 1,000), with reductions coming from overall non-violent crime (18%) and aggravated assault (22%), but an increase in the violent crime rate of 16% from 13.1 incidents per 1,000 to 15.3.
Portions of Irvington are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone that was one of seven established by legislation in 1996. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
Irvington is governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council form of municipal government. The mayor and the seven-member council are elected in non-partisan elections held every other year on the second Tuesday in May to four-year terms of office. The mayor and the three at-large seats are elected together and two years later the four ward seats are elected. The council selects a president, first vice president and second vice president from among its members at a reorganization meeting held after each election. The council is the legislative body of the township and needs a ⅔ majority to make changes to the budget submitted by the mayor. The mayor is the township's chief executive and is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations and submitting a budget, but is not eligible to vote on the council and is not required to attend its meetings.
As of 2015[update], the mayor of Irvington is Tony Vauss, whose term of office ends June 30, 2018. Members of the Township Council are Council President Charnette Orelien-Frederic (At-large; 2018), First Vice President Renee C. Burgess (At-large; 2018), Second Vice President Sandra R. Jones (South Ward; 2016), Vernal C. Cox, Sr. (West Ward; serving unexpired term ending 2016), October Hudley (At-large; 2018), Paul J. Inman (East Ward; 2016) and David Lyons (North Ward; 2016).
Federal, state and county representation
New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark, term ends 2021) and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus, 2019).
For the 2016–2017 session (Senate, General Assembly), the 28th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Ronald Rice (D, Newark) and in the General Assembly by Ralph R. Caputo (D, Nutley) and Cleopatra Tucker (D, Newark). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2014[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2014. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark), Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Gerald W. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.) Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington), Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015) and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens, II (2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were 28,545 registered voters in Irvington, of which 14,694 (51.5%) were registered as Democrats, 404 (1.4%) were registered as Republicans and 13,442 (47.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 5 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 97.9% of the vote (18,538 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 1.9% (363 votes), and other candidates with 0.2% (38 votes), among the 19,036 ballots cast by the township's 30,744 registered voters (97 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 61.9%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 96.9% of the vote (18,923 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 2.5% (493 votes) and other candidates with 0.1% (29 votes), among the 19,533 ballots cast by the township's 28,879 registered voters, for a turnout of 67.6%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 91.8% of the vote (14,885 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 7.3% (1,189 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (80 votes), among the 16,211 ballots cast by the township's 26,594 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 61.0.
In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Democrat Barbara Buono received 86.4% of the vote (6,800 cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 13.1% (1,028 votes), and other candidates with 0.5% (42 votes), among the 8,030 ballots cast by the township's 31,292 registered voters (160 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 25.7%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 93.2% of the vote (9,218 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 4.6% (459 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 0.9% (93 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (66 votes), among the 9,894 ballots cast by the township's 28,189 registered voters, yielding a 35.1% turnout.
The Irvington Public Schools serve students in pre-Kindergarten through twelfth grade. The district is one of 31 former Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.
As of the 2011–12 school year, the district's 12 schools had an enrollment of 7,046 students and 564.0 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.49:1. Schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Augusta Preschool Academy (prekindergarten; 335 students), eight elementary schools — Berkeley Terrace School (K–5; 406), Chancellor Avenue School (PreK–5; 450), Florence Avenue School (K–5; 464), Grove Street School (PreK–5; 363), Madison Avenue School (K–5; 299), Thurgood G. Marshall School (PreK–5; 455), Mount Vernon Avenue School (PreK–5; 732) and University Elementary School (K–5; 565) — along with Union Avenue Middle School (6–8; 767), University Middle School (6–8; 752) and Irvington High School (9–12; 1,461). The district's high school was the 309th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 328 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2012 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked 287th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed.
Roads and highways
As of May 2010[update], the township had a total of 69.44 miles (111.75 km) of roadways, of which 55.98 miles (90.09 km) were maintained by the municipality, 10.69 miles (17.20 km) by Essex County and 0.17 miles (0.27 km) by the New Jersey Department of Transportation.
Local roads include County Road 509 and Route 124. Major highways include Interstate 78 which passes through very briefly along the southeastern border at Exit 54. The Garden State Parkway also runs through the center and is accessible from Exit 143 and Exit 144.
The Irvington Bus Terminal, which underwent renovation in the early 2000s, is one of New Jersey Transit's (NJT) busiest facilities and regional transit hubs. Irvington is served by NJT bus routes 107 to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan; the 1, 13, 25, 27, 37, 39, 42, 70, 90 and 94 to Newark; and local service on the 26, 96 and routes.
Taxi service is provided primarily by Red Top Taxi and Irvington Cab, the two largest cab companies in the community. Numerous smaller companies (often "gypsy cabs") are also available.
People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Irvington include:
- Richie Adubato (born 1937), former NBA coach for the Detroit Pistons, Orlando Magic and Dallas Mavericks.
- Paul Boris (born 1955), former pitcher for the Minnesota Twins.
- Glen Burtnik (born 1955), singer, songwriter, entertainer and multi-instrumentalist, best known as a former member of the band Styx.;
- Josh Evans, (born 1991), free safety who has played in the NFL for the Jacksonville Jaguars.
- Vera Farmiga (born 1973), Academy Award-nominated actress, film director and producer.
- Mike Goodson (born 1987), running back who has played in the NFL for the New York Jets.
- Austin Gunsel (1909–1974), National Football League's interim commissioner following the death of Bert Bell on October 11, 1959.
- Frank Hiller (1920–1987), MLB pitcher from 1946 to 1953 who played for the New York Giants, Chicago Cubs, New York Yankees and Cincinnati Reds.
- James J. Howard (1927–1988), represented New Jersey's 3rd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1965–1988.
- Kareem Huggins (born 1986) running back for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
- Sanford Hunt (1881–1943), member of the Cornell Big Red football team who was a consensus All-American at the guard position in 1901 and later an editor and director of The Newark Sunday Call.
- Cullen Jones (born 1984), Gold Medalist swimmer at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing in the Men's 4 × 100 m Freestyle Relay.
- Ron Karnaugh (born 1966), former competition swimmer who represented the United States at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
- Queen Latifah (born 1970), rapper, singer, actress, producer.
- Jerry Lewis (born 1926), comedian, actor, director.
- Joe Morello (1928–2011), drummer best known for his work with The Dave Brubeck Quartet.
- Raheem Morris (born 1976), former head coach of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
- Sybil Moses (c. 1939–2009), prosecutor of the "Dr. X" Mario Jascalevich murder case and New Jersey Superior Court judge.
- Napoleon (rapper)(Born. 1977) , Rapper known for being a former member of Tupac Shakur's group, the Outlawz
- Rocco Neri (1919–2011), politician who served as a member of the New Jersey General Assembly from 1974 to 1976.
- Blanche Noyes (1900–1981), pioneering female aviator who was among the first ten women to receive a pilot's license.
- Bob Perina (1921–1991), running back, quarterback and defensive back who played in the NFL for five seasons.
- Robert Randolph, singer and guitarist for Robert Randolph & the Family band.
- Nate Robinson (born 1985), former football defensive tackle.
- Mark Rudd (born 1947), educator and anti-war activist.
- Al Santorini (born 1948), former MLB pitcher who played for the Atlanta Braves, San Diego Padres and St. Louis Cardinals.
- Artie Schroeck (born 1938), composer and arranger.
- Craig A. Stanley (born 1955), politician who served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 1996–2008, where he represented the 28th Legislative District.
- Kay Sutton (1915–1988), film actress.
- Robert Zoellner (1932–2014), investor and stamp collector who was the second person to have assembled a complete collection of United States postage stamps.
- 2010 Census Gazetteer Files: New Jersey County Subdivisions, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Sykes, Chris. "Vauss is sworn in as Irvington’s new mayor", Essex News Daily, July 11, 2014. Accessed July 18, 2014. "Former Board of Education President and Team Irvington Strong leader Tony Vauss was sworn in as the new mayor of Irvington on Tuesday, July 1, at Christian Pentecostal Church on Clinton Avenue.... In Irvington, Durkin was referring to Vauss and his three running mates, Renee Burgess, Charnette Orelien-Frederic and October Hudley, as well as West Ward District leader Vernon Cox. Cox was appointed to serve as the interim West Ward councilman to replace Orelien-Frederic, who vacated that position to assume her new role as councilwoman at large."
- 2015 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, as of October 20, 2015. Accessed November 12, 2015.
- Mayor Tony Vauss, Township of Irvington, New Jersey. Accessed February 22, 2015.
- Business Administration, Township of Irvington, New Jersey. Accessed February 22, 2015.
- Municipal Clerk, Township of Irvington, New Jersey. Accessed February 22, 2015.
- 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 129.
- U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of Irvington, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 6, 2013.
- DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Irvington township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 8, 2012.
- Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 13. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Irvington township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed March 8, 2012.
- 2010 Census Populations: Essex County, Asbury Park Press. Accessed July 16, 2011.
- PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014 - 2014 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Look Up a ZIP Code, United States Postal Service. Accessed November 25, 2011.
- Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Irvington, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed December 23, 2014.
- American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- US Board on Geographic Names, United States Geological Survey. Accessed September 4, 2014.
- Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 126 re Clinton Township, p. 128 re Irvington. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- History of Irvington, Irvington Township. Accessed May 9, 2007.
- Gannett, Henry. The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States, p. 166. United States Government Printing Office, 1905. Accessed December 23, 2014.
- Hutchinson, Viola L. The Origin of New Jersey Place Names, New Jersey Public Library Commission, May 1945. Accessed September 2, 2015.
- "Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification", p. 73. New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, 1992. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- "Removing Tiering From The Revenue Sharing Formula Would Eliminate Payment Inequities To Local Governments", Government Accountability Office, April 15, 1982. Accessed September 24, 2015. "In 1978, South Orange Village was the first municipality to change its name to the 'township' of South Orange Village effective beginning in entitlement period 10 (October 1978 to September 1979). The Borough of Fairfield in 1978 changed its designation by a majority vote of the electorate and became the 'Township of Fairfield' effective beginning entitlement period 11 (October 1979 to September 1980).... However, the Revenue Sharing Act was not changed and the actions taken by South Orange and Fairfield prompted the Town of Montclair and West Orange to change their designation by referendum in the November 4, 1980, election. The municipalities of Belleville, Verona, Bloomfield, Nutley, Essex Fells, Caldwell, and West Caldwell have since changed their classification from municipality to a township."
- Narvaez, Alfonso A. "New Jersey Journal", The New York Times, December 27, 1981. Accessed September 24, 2015. "Under the Federal system, New Jersey's portion of the revenue sharing funds is disbursed among the 21 counties to create three 'money pools.' One is for county governments, one for 'places' and a third for townships. By making the change, a community can use the 'township advantage' to get away from the category containing areas with low per capita incomes."
- Karcher, Alan J. New Jersey's Multiple Municipal Madness, pp. 119-120. Rutgers University Press, 1998. ISBN 9780813525662. Accessed September 24, 2015.
- Crime statistics for Irvington, Homesurfer. Accessed August 14, 2007.
- Locality Search, State of New Jersey. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- Areas touching Irvington, MapIt. Accessed December 23, 2014.
- Census Estimates for New Jersey April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014, United States Census Bureau. Accessed May 21, 2015.
- Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed August 1, 2013. No data is listed for 1880 in this source.
- Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 335. Accessed July 24, 2012.
- Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 711. Accessed August 1, 2013. Source lists 1880 population and indicates that Irvington population was not listed separately for 1890.
- Table 6. New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Irvington township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 12, 2013.
- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Irvington township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 12, 2013.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Irvington township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 1, 2012.
- African-American Communities, EPodunk. Accessed July 16, 2011.
- Jones, Richard G. "A Cruel Turn for Irvington, a Town Already Battling Crime and Blight", The New York Times, October 20, 2007. Accessed August 19, 2008. "On Tuesday, the State Police reported that Irvington had the highest violent crime rate of the state's 15 major urban areas, with 22.4 incidents for every 1,000 residents."
- "Section Seven: New Jersey Municipal-County Offense & Demographic Data, New Jersey State Police. Accessed December 30, 2015.
- Urban Enterprise Zone Tax Questions and Answers, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, May 2009. Accessed August 23, 2015. "The legislation was amended in 1996 to include seven additional zones. They were all predetermined and include East Orange, Guttenberg, Hillside, Irvington, North Bergen, Pemberton and West New York."
- Mazzola, Jessica. "N.J. names 30th transit village, town calls designation 'tremendous'", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, July 8, 2015. Accessed July 15, 2015. "Park Ridge and Irvington have secured the state's 'transit village' designation, an NJDOT-administered program that connects transit hubs across the state with experts and funding to redevelop the land surrounding them."
- Our Municipal Council, Township of Irvington. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Mayor Tony Vauss, Township of Irvington. Accessed February 4, 2015.
- 2014 Municipal Data Sheet, Township of Irvington. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Directory, Essex County Clerk. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Essex County 2014 Municipal Election - Unofficial Results May 13, 2014, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated May 21, 2014. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Essex County2012 Municipal Elections - Unofficial ResultsMay 8, 2012, Essex County, New Jersey Clerk, updated May 18, 2012. Accessed June 28, 2015.
- Khavkine, Richard. "Vauss bests Smith in Irvington mayoral contest", The Star-Ledger, May 13, 2014. Accessed July 18, 2014. "Mayor Wayne Smith was roundly beaten in his bid for a fourth consecutive term, losing to Anthony Vauss, the township board of education's president, by about a 2-to-1 ratio, according to early results tonight.... In the race for three at-large council seats, Renee C. Burgess, Charnette Frederic and October Hudley were ahead by several hundred votes in a race among 12 candidates."
- Plan Components Report, New Jersey Redistricting Commission, December 23, 2011. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- 2015 New Jersey Citizen's Guide to Government, p. 59, New Jersey League of Women Voters. Accessed May 22, 2015.
- Districts by Number for 2011-2020, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 6, 2013.
- Directory of Representatives: New Jersey, United States House of Representatives. Accessed January 5, 2012.
- About Cory Booker, United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "He now owns a home and lives in Newark's Central Ward community."
- Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "He currently lives in Paramus and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
- Senators of the 114th Congress from New Jersey. United States Senate. Accessed January 26, 2015. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
- Legislative Roster 2016-2017 Session, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed January 17, 2016.
- "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21.
- General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014. "The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
- Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Essex County Elected Officials, Essex County Clerk, as of February 2012. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Blonnie R. Watson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Rufus I. Johnson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Lee, Eunice. "Labor leader from South Orange tapped as new Essex County freeholder", The Star-Ledger, December 19, 2012. Accessed July 9, 2014. "A longtime labor union leader from South Orange was sworn in this afternoon as the newest Essex County freeholder.Gerald Owens, 74, is a general organizer for the International Longshoremen's Association.... Owens is filling the seat vacated by former at-large freeholder Donald Payne Jr., who stepped down from the post last month after securing the 10th Congressional District seat left open by his late father."
- Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
- Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irvington, New Jersey.|
- Township of Irvington homepage
- Irvington Public Schools
- Irvington Public Schools's 2012–13 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- School Data for the Irvington Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irvington". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.