Isa-Beg Ishaković

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Isa-Beg Ishaković
Native name İshakoğlu İsa Bey
Birth name Hranić
Allegiance Ottoman Empire
Years of service 15th century
Rank sanjak-bey (provincial governor)
Relations Kosača or Pavlović

Isa-Beg Ishaković (Turkish: İshakoğlu İsa Bey, Serbian Cyrillic: Иса-Бег Исхаковић; fl. 1439–70) was an Ottoman general and the governor of the Sanjak of Bosnia for most of his career. Of Bosnian noble origin, he was recruited after being held hostage by the Ottomans. He was a provincial governor during the 1450s and 1460s, first in charge of the Sanjak of Skopje, and then the Sanjak of Bosnia. He was instrumental in the Ottoman conquests in the region, and was one of the Sultan's most trusted generals.

Origin[edit]

There are two main theories about his identity:

  • Isak Hranić Kosača, the brother of Bosnian nobleman Stjepan Vukčić Kosača, who was sent to the sultan Mehmed II as hostage and guarantee of Kosača's loyalty. After being adopted by Ishak-Beg (hence the surname Ishaković) he was converted into Islam and had by contemporary measures a significant military and political career within the Ottoman Empire.[1]
  • Isak Hranić/Hranušić, taken prisoner when the akinci intruded a holding of the Pavlović noble family (lords of eastern Bosnia, including the župa of Vrhbosna). He proved himself exceptionally able while a prisoner, so the akinci leader freed him (prompted him to leave the property, as well as his title).[1]

Life[edit]

Isa-Beg Ishaković was appointed as sanjak-bey (provincial governor) of the Sanjak of Skopje in the spring of 1439, in place of his adoptive father, Ishak-Beg, who was sent to lead military actions in Serbia.[2] He was then appointed the sanjak-bey of Bosnia, briefly in 1463, and then from 1464 to 1470.[citation needed]

As governor of the province of Bosnia, Isa-Beg assured its future prosperity. He founded Sarajevo in 1461[citation needed] in the former Bosnian province of Vrhbosna. Between then and 1463 he built the core of the city's Old Town district, including a mosque, a closed marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and the Governor's castle (Saray), which gave the city its present name. In much the same way and year he also founded Novi Pazar (in Serbia), rendered from Turkish: Yeni Pazar, literally meaning "new marketplace", some eleven kilometers from the medieval settlement of Trgovište. There he built a mosque, a marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and a compound. He is also responsible for establishing a number of other cities and towns in the region.

Ishaković built many important buildings part of the Old Bazaar in Skopje, like the Čifte Hammam, Kapan Han, Ishak Bey Mosque (dedicated to his father Ishak-Beg, also known as Isaklija or Aladža), the madrasa (Islamic school) and library (within Isak-Beg's Mosque, one of the first Islamic libraries in Europe),[3] and many other buildings that belonged to his endowment (waqf, Serbo-Croatian: vakuf).

Ishaković participated in ransom slavery in 1470 when he ransomed a highly positioned Ottoman official named Mustafa by releasing the wife of Croatian nobleman Ivan Marković and paying 500 ducats to Ragusan Frančesko Micalović, the agent in this transaction.[4]

Family tree[edit]

After Franz Babinger in the Encyclopedia of Islam:[5]

 
 
 
 
Pasha Yiğit Bey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ishak Bey
 
 
 
 
Turahan Bey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Isa Bey Isaković
 
Ahmed Bey
 
 
Ömer Bey
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hasan Bey
 
 
Idris Bey
 

Annotations[edit]

  • Name: He is referred to as Isa-Beg Ishaković in most Serbo-Croatian sources. Some sources spell his surname "Isaković". Based on his possible origins, he may be referred to as Isak Hranić or Isak Pavlović.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Suljović 2010:

    Ta dvojenja idu u smjeru – da je riječ o bratu Stjepana Vukčića Kosače, koji ga je predao Mehmedu II kao garanciju lojalnosti. Po ovoj teoriji Isa-beg je, nakon što ga je usvojio Ishak-beg (otud prezime), konvertirao na islam, te za ondašnje prilike izgradio zavidnu vojničku i političku karijeru. Po drugima, Isak Hranić/Hranušić zarobljen je tijekom jednog upada akindžija na posjed velikaške obitelji Pavlović, inače gospodara velikog dijela Istočne Bosne, uključujući i srednjovjekovnu župu Vrhbosnu. U zarobljeništvu se dokazao kao izuzetno sposoban, što je vođu spomenutih akindžija potaknulo da mu ostavi imetak, ali i poziciju koju je obnašao. Potpuno drukčiji pristup na porijeklo Ishakovića imaju istraživanja historičarke umjetnosti Lidije Bogojević Kumbaradži iz Skoplja. Ona smatra da je rodonačelnik Ishakovića Pašajigit-beg iz Saruhana (Kapadokije), a da je Ishak-beg bio njegov sin. Zanimljivosti idu do mjere u kojoj se skopski begovi Kumbaradžije smatraju izravnim potomcima Isa-bega Ishakovića, o čemu posjeduju i autentičnu dokumentaciju. Iznad ulaza u nekadašnji bazar u Skopju, građevine koju je podigao Ishaković, stoji ploča o obnovi bazara. Natpis kazuje da su bazar obnovili begovi Kumbaradžije, nasljednici Isa-begov

  2. ^ Godišnjak (in Serbo-Croatian). Sarajevo, SFR Yugoslavia: Društvo Istoričara Bosne i Hercegovine: 46. 1953. To se najbolje vidi iz sadržine vijesti na osnovu koje znamo za njihovu prisutnost u Bosni 1438 godine, a još bolje iz činjenice da se u proljeće sljedeće godine ovdje pojavio novi skopski sandžakbeg Isa-beg, sin dotadašnjeg skopskog sandžaka Ishak bega koji je bio upućen na akcije u Srbiji  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. ^ "AT-TAFSĪR AL-KABĪR". The European Library. Retrieved 23 December 2010. 
  4. ^ Hodžić, Muamer (2015-10-12). "Foča-Dubrovnik: Živan Pripčinović (?-1479): Život jednog dubrovačkog trgovca i „diplomate" u Bosni". focanskidani. Naime, dogovoreno je da Isa-beg Ivanu vrati ženu i plati dodatnih 500 dukata kako bi dobio natrag Mustafu. Živanov opunomoćenik Ratko Vukosalić je 16. septembra 1470. godine doveo u Dubrovnik Markovićevu ženu, koju je predao zajedno sa 300 dukata. Nakon toga je preuzeo Mustafu kojeg je vratio osmanskim vlastima. 
  5. ^ Babinger, Franz (1987) [1936]. "Turakhān Beg". In Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor. E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume VIII. Leiden: BRILL. pp. 876–878. ISBN 90-04-09794-5. 

Sources[edit]

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