Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa
|Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa|
|1st Emir of Bahrain
13th Hakim of Bahrain
Isa bin Salman in 1998
|Reign||2 November 1961 – 6 March 1999|
|Coronation||16 December 1961|
|Predecessor||Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa|
|Successor||Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa|
3 June 1933|
|Died||6 March 1999
|Burial||Al Rifa'a Cemetery|
|Spouse||Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa|
|Father||Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa|
|Mother||Mouza bint Hamad Al Khalifa|
Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa (Arabic: عيسى بن سلمان آل خليفة; 3 June 1933 – 6 March 1999) was the 1st emir of Bahrain from 1961 until his death. Born in Jasra, he became emir upon the death of his father, Salman ibn Hamad.
Early life and Reign
Isa was born in Jasra to Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa and Mouza bint Hamad Al Khalifa, and succeeded his father as emir upon his death.
His reign began in December 1961 when his father Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa died in November. His mother was Mouza bint Hamad Al Khalifa. Isa visited Ayetollah Mohsin Al Hakim in Najaf in 1968 to indicate his keenness to reinforce relationships with the Shia.
His term saw Bahrain gain its independence from the United Kingdom in 1971. While the government initially considered joining the United Arab Emirates, Isa had his country withdraw (along with Qatar) over his dissatisfaction with the proposed constitution. He then attempted to introduce a moderate form of parliamentary democracy, and men (though not women) were given the vote in parliamentary elections in 1973. In August 1975, however, he dissolved Parliament because it refused to pass the government-sponsored State Security Law of 1974. The parliamentary system was never restored and forced the emir to contend with occasional protests from the leftist and Islamist camps, which reached their peak in 1994 (see: History of Bahrain).
During his reign there was an arrangement between him and his brother Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman. Emir was assigned a diplomatic and ceremonial role, whereas Sheikh Khalifa involved in controlling the government and economy as prime minister.
Marriage and children
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Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa had one wife, his cousin Sheikha Hessa bint Salman Al Khalifa (1933–2009). They married on 8 May 1949. They had six sons and six daughters:
- King Hamad
- Sheikh Rashed (Died on 17 December 2010)
- Sheikh Mohamed (Commander of the National Guard)
- Sheikh Abdullah (Vice President of the Higher Committee for the Horseback riding club)
- Sheikh Ali (Minister of the Royal Court Affairs)
- Sheikha Munira
- Sheikha Maryam
- Sheikha Shaikha
- Sheikha Noura
Legacy and death
During his 38 years as Emir, the economic transformation of Bahrain into a modern nation and a key financial center in the Persian Gulf area took place. Nevertheless, critics note that he also dissolved Parliament, giving absolute power to the royal family.
US President Bill Clinton expressed "deep sadness" at the news of the emir's death calling him "a good friend of peace." UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan also expressed "great sadness," and described the emir as "a force for stability" in the region. Emir was buried at the Al-Rifa'a cemetery.
Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa was awarded :
- Spain : Grand Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (4 December 1981)
- Egypt : Grand Collar of the Order of the Nile
- France : Grand Cross of the National Order of the Legion of Honor
- Germany : Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Iran : Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi
- Kingdom of Iraq :
- Order of the Two Rivers 1st Class (x/5/1968, 2nd Class 3/4/1952)
- King Faisal II Installation Medal (2/5/1953)
- Jordan :
- Kuwait : Collar of the Order of Mubarak the Great of Kuwait
- Lebanon : Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cedar (2nd Class, 1958)
- Morocco : Collar of the Order of Muhammad
- Oman : Civil Order of Oman, 1st Class
- Qatar : Collar of the Order of the Independence of the State
- South Africa : Grand Cross of the Order of Good Hope (1995)
- Syria Grand Cross of the Order of Umayyad
- Tunisia : Grand Cross of the Order of the Independence
- UAE : Order of Al-Nahayyan 1st Class
- Empire of Iran : Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire (14 October 1971).
- United Kingdom :
- 1933–1942: Sheikh Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa
- 1942–1961: His Excellency Sheikh Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa
- 1961–1964: His Highness Sheikh Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Hakim of Bahrain
- 1964–1971: His Highness Sheikh Sir Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Hakim of Bahrain, KCMG
- 1971–1999: His Highness Sheikh Isa II bin Salman II Al Khalifa, Emir of Bahrain
- Bernard Reich (1990). Political leaders of the contemporary Middle East and North Africa: a biographical dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 528. ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Chronology for Shi'is in Bahrain". UNHCR. 2004. Retrieved 13 September 2014.
- Al Jimri, Mansoor (November 2010). "Shia and the State in Bahrain" (PDF). Alternative Politics (1). Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Jehl, Douglas (7 March 1999). "Sheik Isa, 65, Emir of Bahrain Who Built Non-Oil Economy". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Wright, Stephen (June 2006). "Generational change" (PDF). Durham Middle East Papers. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Democratic test ended". Spokane Daily Chronicle. Manama. AP. 28 August 1975. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Wright, Steven (2008). "Fixing the Kingdom: Political Evolution and Socio-Economic Challenges in Bahrain" (PDF). CIRS. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Bahrain's ninth al Khalifa". BBC. 6 March 1999. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "The Al Khalifa Dynasty". Royal Ark. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Boletín Oficial del Estado" (PDF). Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "1995 National Orders awards". INFO. 18 September 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Badraie". Badraie. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- "Badraie". Retrieved 20 June 2014.
- Lawson, Fred (1990). "Isa bin Sulman Al Khalifah". In Bernard Reich. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 267–271. ISBN 978-0-313-26213-5.
Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa
|Emir of Bahrain
Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa