Isaac Barré (6 November 1726 – 20 July 1802) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and politician. He earned distinction serving with the British Army during the Seven Years' War and later became a prominent Member of Parliament, where he was a vocal supporter of William Pitt. He is known for coining the term "Sons of Liberty" in reference to American colonists who opposed the British government's policies.
Barré was born in Dublin on 6 November 1726, the son of Marie Madelaine (Raboteau) Barré and Peter Barré, Huguenot refugees who escaped to Ireland. Peter Barré became a linen dealer and served as High Sheriff of Dublin City. Isaac Barré was educated at Trinity College, and graduated in 1745. His parents hoped he would study law, and David Garrick thought he had potential as an actor and offered to hire and train him, but Barré decided on a military career and entered the British Army in 1746.
Barré joined the 32nd Regiment of Foot as an ensign in 1746. The regiment was based in Flanders during the War of the Austrian Succession, and Barré gained his initial army experience prior to the end of the conflict in 1748. He continued to serve, and was promoted to lieutenant in 1755, and captain in 1756. During the French and Indian War, he served under his patron General James Wolfe on the Rochefort expedition of 1757, when he first met Lord Shelburne, and afterwards in Canada where he was appointed adjutant-general, fighting at both Louisbourg (1758) and Quebec (1759). In 1759, he was promoted to major, but the rank applied only during his service in America. In the Quebec expedition, in which Wolfe was killed, Barré was severely wounded by a bullet in the cheek and lost the use of his right eye. He was among the group gathered around the dying Wolfe, which was immortalized in Benjamin West's celebrated picture.
Returning to England in September 1760, despite many years of commendable service, Barré was denied promotion by William Pitt the Elder and turned to Shelburne for help. After undertaking a tour of Shelburne's Irish estates, he was advanced to lieutenant colonel of the 106th Foot, and in 1763 he was appointed to the lucrative posts of adjutant general of the British army and Governor of Stirling Castle.
Shelburne introduced Barré to Lord Bute and brought him into parliament for his borough of Chipping Wycombe (1761–1774), having selected him as a "bravo" to take on Pitt. In 1774, Barré's constituency switched to Calne, and he served until 1790. One of the few self-made soldiers in parliament, Barré became one of Shelburne's principal supporters in the House of Commons. In his first political speech, he vehemently attacked the absent war minister William Pitt, renewing this assault the next day to Pitt's face. This caused a sensation, and set the tone of a long and colourful parliamentary career in which he acquired a fearsome reputation as an orator. However, he ultimately became a devoted Pitt adherent.
A vigorous opponent of the taxation of America, Barré displayed his mastery of invective in his championship of the American cause, and the name "Sons of Liberty", which he had applied to the colonists in one of his speeches, became a common designation of American organisations directed against the Stamp Act, as well as later patriotic clubs. From 1766 to 1768, Barré was a Vice-Treasurer of Ireland. His 1782 appointment as Treasurer of the Navy, which carried a pension of £3,200 a year at a time when the government was ostensibly advocating stringency, caused great discontent. William Pitt the Younger replied that the pension was compensation for Barré's dismissal from his military offices in 1763; he then appointed Barré to the even more lucrative position of Paymaster General of the forces, with responsibility for England's entire army payroll, which he held from August 1782 to April 1783. In 1784, Barré relinquished his pension in exchange for appointment to the sinecure of Clerk of the Pells. Nominally responsible for maintaining records of all Exchequer income and payments, the Clerk of the Pells was paid on a percentage system, which enabled Barré to accumulate a sizable fortune.
Barré's knowledge of North America (he was one of the few politicians with friendships among the American mercantile classes) made him a champion of the colonists, whom he famously dubbed "Sons of Liberty" while opposing the intended Stamp Act, which nevertheless passed on 6 February 1765. An example of his fiery oratory was his response to Charles Townshend's observation when introducing the Stamp Act resolutions that the colonies should "contribute to the mother country which had planted, nurtured and indulged them", to which he replied:
They planted by your care? No! Your oppression planted ‘em in America. They fled from your tyranny to a then uncultivated and unhospitable country where they exposed themselves to almost all the hardships to which human nature is liable, and among others to the cruelties of a savage foe, the most subtle, and I take upon me to say, the most formidable of any people upon the face of God’s earth....
They nourished by your indulgence? They grew by your neglect of ‘em. As soon as you began to care about ‘em, that care was exercised in sending persons to rule over 'em, in one department and another, who were perhaps the deputies of deputies to some member of this house, sent to spy out their liberty, to misrepresent their actions and to prey upon 'em; men whose behaviour on many occasions has caused the blood of those sons of liberty to recoil within them....
They protected by your arms? They have nobly taken up arms in your defence, have exerted a valour amidst their constant and laborious industry for the defence of a country whose frontier while drenched in blood, its interior parts have yielded all its little savings to your emolument .... The people I believe are as truly loyal as any subjects the king has, but a people jealous of their liberties and who will vindicate them if ever they should be violated; but the subject is too delicate and I will say no more."
Horace Walpole described Barré as "a black [meaning his hair was black], robust man, of a military figure, rather hard-favoured than not, young, with a peculiar distortion on one side of his face, which it seems was a bullet lodged loosely in his cheek, and which gave a savage glare to one eye".
Death and burial
Barré's residuary legatee was Anne Townshend, Marchioness Townshend, whom he had known before her marriage to George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend. She received approximately £24,000 (equivalent to about £2.3 million in 2018, or $3.2 million).
The town of Barre, Massachusetts is named for him, as is the city of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. There are also a town and a city named for Barré in Vermont (Barre City and Barre Town), as well as the towns of Barre, New York and Barre, Wisconsin. In addition, there is a memorial to Barré in New York City, and numerous eastern US cities have named streets for him.
- "Barré, Isaac". The Columbia University (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. December 2007. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- The Publications of the Huguenot Society of London. London, UK: The Huguenot Society of London. 1901. p. 77.
- Elliott, Hugh F. (Macmillan's Magazine) (6 January 1877). "Colonel Barre and His Times". Littell's Living Age. Boston, MA: Littell & Gay. p. 22.
- Distinguished Huguenot Refugees and Their Descendants
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", p. 22.
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", pp. 22-23.
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", pp. 23-24.
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", p. 24.
- Stacey, C. P. (1986). "Benjamin West and 'The Death of Wolfe'". Gallery.ca. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: National Gallery of Canada.
- Petrillo, F. Charles (1988). "Wilkes Naming Wilkes-Barre". John Wilkes and Isaac Barre: Politics and Controversy in Eighteenth Century Graphics. Sordoni Art Gallery, Wilkes University. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2008.
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", p. 28.
- Hume, David (2011). Klibansky, Raymond; Mossner, Ernest C. (eds.). New Letters of David Hume. London, England, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-1996-9323-8.
- Miner, Sidney Roby (1901). Colonel Isaac Barré, 1726-1802: Orator, Soldier, Statesman and Friend of the American Colonies. Wilkes-Barre, PA: Wyoming Historical & Genealogical Society. pp. 20–21.
- Middlekauff 2007, pp. 79.
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", p. 27.
- "Colonel Barre and His Times", p. 35.
- Colonel Isaac Barré, 1726-1802, p. 21. sfn error: no target: CITEREFColonel_Isaac_Barré,_1726-1802 (help)
- "Norfolk, England Church of England Baptism, Marriages, and Burials, 1535-1812, entry for Issac Barre". Ancestry.com. Provo, UT: Ancestry.com, LLC. 30 July 1802. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- Colonel Isaac Barré, 1726-1802, pp. 21–22. sfn error: no target: CITEREFColonel_Isaac_Barré,_1726-1802 (help)
- Colonel Isaac Barré, 1726-1802, p. 22. sfn error: no target: CITEREFColonel_Isaac_Barré,_1726-1802 (help)
- Early American Paintings: Catalogue of an Exhibition Held in the Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Brooklyn, NY: Museum of the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 1917. p. 82.
- Early American Paintings, p. 82.
- Director of Art and Antiquities. "Lieutenant Colonel Isaac Barre Monument". City Hall Park Monuments. New York, NY: New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- "Charleston Streets". Scottish Rite California. Sacramento, CA: Orient of California. 2019.
- "What's in a name: Barre Street". Baltimore Sun. Baltimore, MD. 2 June 2019.
- Middlekauff, Robert (2007). The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195315882.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Barré, Isaac .|
- Webb, Alfred (1878). . A Compendium of Irish Biography. Dublin: M. H. Gill & son.
- National Portrait Gallery (UK): Isaac Barré
| Treasurer of the Navy
| Paymaster of the Forces
Sir Edward Walpole
| Clerk of the Pells
|Parliament of Great Britain|
| Member of Parliament for Wycombe
With: Robert Waller
Hon. Thomas FitzMaurice
Hon. Thomas FitzMaurice
| Member of Parliament for Calne
With: John Dunning 1774–1782
James Townsend 1782–1787
Joseph Jekyll 1787–1790