Captain Isaac Hull
March 9, 1773|
Derby, Connecticut Colony, British America
|Died||February 13, 1843
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US
|Place of burial||Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1798–1843|
|Commands held||USS Constitution|
*Battle of Puerto Plata Harbor
War of 1812
*USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere
|Awards||Congressional Gold Medal|
Isaac Hull (March 9, 1773 – February 13, 1843) was a Commodore in the United States Navy. He commanded several famous US naval ships including USS Constitution and saw service in the Quasi War, the Barbary Wars and the War of 1812. In the latter part of his career he was commander of the Washington Navy Yard, and later the Mediterranean Squadron.
Isaac Hull was born in Derby, Connecticut (some sources say Huntington, now Shelton, Connecticut), on March 9, 1773. Early in life he joined his mariner father, Joseph, on local voyages and longer trips to the West Indies. After his father died while still young, Isaac was adopted by his uncle William Hull, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War.
He was commissioned a Lieutenant in the newly formed United States Navy in March 1798 and distinguished himself during the next two years while serving on board the frigate Constitution in the Quasi-War with France.
First Barbary War
When troubles with the Barbary states heated up in 1802, he went to the Mediterranean as First Lieutenant of the frigate USS Adams. Hull later commanded the schooner USS Enterprise and the brig USS Argus, receiving promotion to the rank of Master Commandant in 1804 and to Captain in 1806. During the next few years, he supervised the construction of gunboats and, in 1809 and 1810, was successively given command of the frigates, USS Chesapeake, USS President and Constitution.
Command of Chesapeake
In 1809 Hull briefly commanded the USS Chesapeake.
Command of President
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Command of Constitution
Isaac Hull assumed command of Constitution in June 1810; his time on the ship was eventful. He took the ship on a European cruise in 1811–1812, returning home before the War of 1812 broke out between the United States and Great Britain. An enemy squadron closely pursued his ship off the East Coast in July, but Hull skillfully evaded them. On August 19, 1812, Constitution encountered the British frigate HMS Guerriere at sea and pounded her to a wreck in an action that electrified the Nation and demonstrated that the small U.S. Navy was a worthy and dangerous opponent for Britain's otherwise overwhelming maritime might.
Hull commanded the Portsmouth Navy Yard at Kittery, Maine, for the rest of the War of 1812, then briefly served on the Board of Navy Commissioners in Washington, D.C. before taking over leadership of the Boston Navy Yard. During 1823–1827, he commanded the Pacific Squadron operating out of South America aboard USS United States. Commodore Hull's next assignment, as Commandant of the Washington Navy Yard, ran from 1829 until 1835. Between 1839 and 1841, he commanded the Mediterranean Squadron.
Rendered unfit for further service by age and ill health, he spent the next two years on leave. Commodore Isaac Hull died at the age of 69 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and is buried there in Laurel Hill Cemetery.
Namesakes and honors
Hull Street in Montgomery, Alabama is named in honor of Hull. It runs parallel to streets named after other Barbary War/War of 1812 naval heroes: Decatur Street, named for Stephen Decatur; McDonough Street, named for Thomas Macdonough; Lawrence Street, named for James Lawrence; Bainbridge Street, named for William Bainbridge and Perry Street, named for Oliver Hazard Perry.
- Allen, Gardner Weld (2010). P : Commodore Hull: Papers of Isaac Hull, Commodore United States Navy. Kessinger Publishing. p. 372. ISBN 1164507206. Url
- Dickon, Chris (2008). The enduring journey of the USS Chesapeake: ... The Hickory Press, Charleston, SC. p. 157. ISBN 9781596292987. Url
- Enz, David Fitz Enz (2009). Old Ironsides: Eagle of the Sea: The Story of the USS Constitution. Taylor Trade Publications. p. 304. ISBN 1589794273. Url
- Grant, Bruce (1947). Isaac Hull, Captain of Old Ironsides: the life and fighting times of Isaac Hull and the U.S. frigate Constitution. Pellegrini and Cudahy; Original from the University of Michigan. p. 416. Url
- Hollis, Ira Nelson (1901). The frigate Constitution: the central figure of the Navy under sail. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston, New York. p. 263. Url
- Martin, Tyrone G. (2003). A Most Fortunate Ship: A Narrative History of Old Ironsides. Naval Institute Press. p. 421. ISBN 1591145139. Url
- Maloney, Linda M. (1986). The captain from Connecticut: the life and naval times of Isaac Hull. Northeastern University Press. p. 549. ISBN 0930350790. Url
- Molloy, Leo Thomas (1964). Commodore Isaac Hull, U.S.N., his life and times. Hull Book Fund. p. 244. Url
- Marquardt, Karl Heinz (2005). The 44-Gun Frigate USS Constitution: "Old Ironsides". Naval Institute Press. p. 128. ISBN 1591142504. Url
- Paine, Ralph Delahaye (2010) . The fight for a free sea: a chronicle of the War of 1812. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1920. p. 235. ISBN 1-59114-362-4. Url
- Stevens, Benjamin F (2010). Isaac Hull and American Frigate Constitution. BiblioBazaar (reprint). p. 24. ISBN 1172140669. Url
- "Online Library of Selected Images: People — United States". Department of the Navy — Naval Historical Center. February 25, 2003. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- "Congressional Gold Medal Recipients Isaac Hull, Stephen Decatur and Jacob Jones". Congressional Gold Medal.com. Retrieved 2007-09-19.
- Grant, 1947 p.7
- Molloy, 1964 p.104
- prepared by Katherine Benson (1998). "Hull Family Papers, 1825-1998". The Jackson Homestead Manuscript and Photograph Collection.
- Grant, 1947 pp.231,272
- Hollis, 1901 pp.157-158
- Grant, 1947 p.339
- London, Joshua E. Victory in Tripoli: How America's War with the Barbary Pirates Established the U.S. Navy and Shaped a Nation. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. ISBN 0-471-44415-4
- Maloney, Linda M. (July 1986). The Captain from Connecticut: The Life and Naval Times of Isaac Hull. Northeastern University Press. ISBN 0-930350-79-0.