Isaiah 23

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Isaiah 23
Great Isaiah Scroll.jpg
The Great Isaiah Scroll, the best preserved of the biblical scrolls found at Qumran from the second century BC, contains all the verses in this chapter.
BookBook of Isaiah
Hebrew Bible partNevi'im
Order in the Hebrew part5
CategoryLatter Prophets
Christian Bible partOld Testament
Order in the Christian part23

Isaiah 23 is the twenty-third chapter of the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Book of the Prophets. This chapter foretells the destruction of Tyre due to its pride, Isaiah 23:1-14; its rising again, Isaiah 23:15-17, and conversion to God, Isaiah 23:18.


The ruins of Tyre
Map of ancient Tartessos (identified as Tarshish)

The original text is written in Hebrew language. This chapter is divided into 18 verses.

Textual versions[edit]

Some early witnesses for the text of this chapter in Hebrew language:

  • Dead Sea Scrolls:[1]
    • 1QIsaa: complete
    • 1QIsab: extant: verses 1‑5
    • 4QIsaa (4Q55): extant: verses 1‑12
    • 4QIsac (4Q57): extant: verses 8‑18

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BC. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (S; BHK: S; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century).[2]


The parashah sections listed here are based on the Aleppo Codex.[3] Isaiah 23 is a part of the Prophecies about the Nations (Isaiah 13–23). {P}: open parashah; {S}: closed parashah.

{P} 23:1-14 {S} 23:15-18 {P}

Verse 1[edit]

The burden of Tyre.
Howl, ye ships of Tarshish; for it is laid waste, so that there is no house, no entering in:
from the land of Chittim it is revealed to them.[4]
  • "Tyre" (Hebrew: צֹ֑ר Tsor written צוֺר in 1 King 5:15; Greek: Τυρος, Tyros; Phoenician צר; Assyrian ‚urru, (also in Tel Amarna); Egyptian Da-(ï)ra, Da-ru.): famous Phoenician city, which in ancient time was built on a "rock" (the original meaning of its name) offshore in the Mediterranean Sea. The city was already prosperous in 14th century BC as a major trading port. It was strongly fortified but at the end was laid waste after conquered by Alexander the Great. The modern city is the continuation of ancient extension of the city in the mainland.[5][6]
  • "Tarshish" (Hebrew: תרשיש Tar-shîsh): a faraway port, generally identified as "Tartessos" (Greek: Ταρτησσός) in Spain, located in the mouth of Guadalquivir river, where the Phoenicians are said to establish the first anchorage grounds and deal in precious metals. Other possibilities include: Tarsus in Cilicia, Tyrseni in Etruscan/Tuscany, or Carthage in North Africa.[7][8]
  • "Chittim" (or "Kittim"; Hebrew: כתים Kit-tîm): "Citienses", "Cypriotes" or "Cyprians", a Phoenecian colony in Citium (=Kition), Cyprus. The term is also used in general for places beyond Cyprus, as far as Greece.[9][10]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]


  • Brown, Francis; Briggs, Charles A.; Driver, S. R. (1994). The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (reprint ed.). Hendrickson Publishers. ISBN 978-1565632066.
  • Gesenius, H. W. F. (1979). Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures: Numerically Coded to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance, with an English Index. Translated by Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux (7th ed.). Baker Book House.
  • Ulrich, Eugene, ed. (2010). The Biblical Qumran Scrolls: Transcriptions and Textual Variants. Brill.
  • Würthwein, Ernst (1995). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-0788-7. Retrieved January 26, 2019.

External links[edit]