Isaiah 42

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Isaiah 42
Great Isaiah Scroll.jpg
The Great Isaiah Scroll, the best preserved of the biblical scrolls found at Qumran from the second century BC, contains all the verses in this chapter.
BookBook of Isaiah
Hebrew Bible partNevi'im
Order in the Hebrew part5
CategoryLatter Prophets
Christian Bible partOld Testament
Order in the Christian part23

Isaiah 42 is the forty-second chapter of the Book of Isaiah in both the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Isaiah, and is a part of the Books of the Prophets.[1] Chapters 40-55 are known as "Deutero-Isaiah" and date from the time of the Israelites' exile in Babylon. This chapter contains a poem known as the first of the "Servant songs" about the servant, whom Jewish tradition holds that Isaiah identifies as either the Israelites themselves (Hebrew: אור לגויים, or l'goyim) or Cyrus (in contrast to Jewish Christian and, thus, later gentile Christian tradition, as well as Islamic tradition).

Scholars such as John Goldingay, John Barton, and John Muddiman also hold the view that the Old Testament identifies the servant of the Servant songs as the Israelites in Is. 41:8-9; Is. 44:1; Is. 44:21; Is. 45:4; Is. 48:20 and Is. 49:3.[2][3] The latter two write that "The idea of a 'servant' played a small part in the earlier chapters, being used as a designation of the unworthy Eliakim in 22:20 and of the figure of David in 37:35, but it now comes to the fore as a description of major significance, the noun being used more than 20 times in chs. 40-55. Its first usage is obviously important in establishing the sense in which we are to understand it, and here it is clear that the community of Israel/Jacob is so described."[2]

Text[edit]

The original text was written in Hebrew language. This chapter is divided into 25 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (895), the Petersburg Codex of the Prophets (916), Aleppo Codex (10th century), Codex Leningradensis (1008).[4]

Fragments containing parts of this chapter were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls (3rd century BC or later):

  • 1QIsaa: complete
  • 4QIsag (4Q61): extant verses 14‑25
  • 4QIsah (4Q62): extant verses 2, 4‑11
  • 4QIsai (4Q62a): extant verses 4‑11

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; B; 4th century), Codex Sinaiticus (S; BHK: S; 4th century), Codex Alexandrinus (A; A; 5th century) and Codex Marchalianus (Q; Q; 6th century).[5]

Parashot[edit]

The parashah sections listed here are based on the Aleppo Codex.[6] Isaiah 42 is a part of the Consolations (Isaiah 40–66). {P}: open parashah; {S}: closed parashah.

{P} 42:1-4 {P} 42:5-9 {P} 42:10-13 {S} 42:14-17 {P} 42:18-25 [43:1-10 {S}]

Verse 1[edit]

"Behold! My Servant whom I uphold,
My Elect One in whom My soul delights!
I have put My Spirit upon Him;
He will bring forth justice to the Gentiles."[7]

The Synoptic Gospels each allude to verse 1 in their accounts of the Baptism of Jesus, when the Holy Spirit descends like a dove upon Jesus and a "voice from heaven" acclaims Him as "My Beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased." (Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22).

Verse 3[edit]

A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not quench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth.[8]

In Isaiah 36:6, Sennacherib, king of Assyria, had referred to Egypt as a "broken reed", criticising Israel's dependence on Egypt during the reign of king Hezekiah.

  • "Smoking" or "dimly burning"[9]
  • "Quench" or "extinguish"[10] from the Hebrew root: k-b-h (כבה, kabah, "to be quenched or extinguished, to go out"[11]), is also used in Isaiah 1:31 and Isaiah 66:24 for: "the fire that shall not be quenched"; Isaiah 34:10: 'the fire devouring Edom "will not be quenched"'; as well as in 43:17: 'those who oppose the LORD'S path are "quenched like a wick"'.[12]

Verse 4[edit]

He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for his law.[13]
  • "Be discouraged": from Hebrew: יָר֔וּץ, yā-rūts,[14] "bruised",[15] from the root word "crushed" (רָצַץ, ratsats), used to describe "crushed reed" (or "bruised reed") and "dim (כָּהָה, kahah) wick" (or "smoking flax") in verse 3, repeated here for rhetorical effect.[16]
  • "Isles" (KJV):from Hebrew: אִיִּ֥ים, ’î-yîm,[14] "coastlands" (ESV; MEV; NET; NKJV); "islands" (NIV); NLT: "distant lands beyond the sea."[17]
  • "His law" (KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV): from Hebrew: תוֹרָת֖וֹ, ṯō-w-rā-ṯōw,[14] "his decrees" (NET), "his instruction" (NLT).[18]

New Testament[edit]

In Matthew 12:17–21, Isaiah 42:14 is cited as a fulfillment of Isaiah's prophecies in the life and work of Jesus Christ:

And great multitudes followed Him, and He healed them all. Yet He warned them not to make Him known, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah the prophet, saying:
"Behold! My Servant whom I have chosen,
My Beloved in whom My soul is well pleased!
I will put My Spirit upon Him,
And He will declare justice to the Gentiles.
He will not quarrel nor cry out,
Nor will anyone hear His voice in the streets.
A bruised reed He will not break,
And smoking flax He will not quench,
Till He sends forth justice to victory;
And in His name Gentiles will trust."[19]

Islamic Interpretation[edit]

Muslim tradition holds that Isaiah 42 predicted the coming of a servant associated with Qedar, the second son of Ishmael and who went on to live his life in Arabia, and so interpret this passage as a prophecy of Muhammad.[20][21] According to the Hadiths, Muslims like 'Abd Allah ibn 'Amr ibn al-'As have believed that Muhammad was the servant of Isaiah 42 during his very lifetime.[22]

In 1892, Isaiah 42:1–4 was first identified by Bernhard Duhm as one of the Servant songs in the Book of Isaiah,[23] along with Isaiah 49:1–6; Isaiah 50:4–7; and Isaiah 52:13–53:12. The Old Testament identifies the servant of the Servant songs as the Israelite's in Isaiah 41:8-9; Isaiah 44:1; Isaiah 44:21; Isaiah 45:4; Isaiah 48:20 and Isaiah 49:3.[2][3] John Barton and John Muddiman write that "The idea of a 'servant' played a small part in the earlier chapters, being used as a designation of the unworthy Eliakim in 22:20 and of the figure of David in 37:35, but it now comes to the fore as a description of major significance, the noun being used more than 20 times in chapters 4055. Its first usage is obviously important in establishing the sense in which we are to understand it, and here it is clear that the community of Israel/Jacob is so described."[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Theodore Hiebert, et al. 1996. The New Interpreter's Bible: Volume VI. Nashville: Abingdon.
  2. ^ a b c d Barton, John, and John Muddiman, eds. The Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press, 2007, 467-477
  3. ^ a b Goldingay, John. The theology of the Book of Isaiah. InterVarsity Press, 2014, 61-74.
  4. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 35-37.
  5. ^ Würthwein 1995, pp. 73-74.
  6. ^ As implemented in the Jewish Publication Society's 1917 edition of the Hebrew Bible in English.
  7. ^ Isaiah 42:1 NKJV
  8. ^ Isaiah 42:3 KJV
  9. ^ Note [a] on Isaiah 42:3 in NKJV
  10. ^ Note [b] on Isaiah 42:3 in NKJV
  11. ^ Strong's Concordance 3518. כָּבָה kabah
  12. ^ Coggins 2007, p. 436.
  13. ^ Isaiah 42:4 KJV
  14. ^ a b c Hebrew Text Analysis: Isaiah 42:4. Biblehub
  15. ^ Note [a] on Isaiah 42:4 in ESV
  16. ^ Note [a] on Isaiah 42:4 in NET Bible
  17. ^ Note [b] on Isaiah 42:4 in NET Bible
  18. ^ Note [c] on Isaiah 42:4 in NET Bible
  19. ^ Matthew 12:17–21 NKJV
  20. ^ Zepp, Ira G. A Muslim Primer: Beginner's Guide to Islam. Vol. 1. University of Arkansas Press, 2000, 50-51
  21. ^ Rubin, Uri. The eye of the beholder: the life of Muḥammad as viewed by the early Muslims: a textual analysis. Vol. 5. Darwin Pr, 1995.
  22. ^ "Hadith - Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 246".
  23. ^ Bernhard Duhm, Das Buch Jesaia (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1892),

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Jewish[edit]

Christian[edit]