Isar-Damu

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Isar-Damu
King of Ebla
Tenurec. 2320 BC. Middle chronology
PredecessorIrkab-Damu
SuccessorIr'ak-Damu
King of Ebla
WifeTabur-Damu.[1]
IssueIr'ak-Damu
Princess Tagris-Damu.[2]
FatherIrkab-Damu
MotherDusigu

Isar-Damu (reigned c. 2320 BC),[3] was the king (Malikum) of the first Eblaite kingdom. Isar-Damu fought a long war with Mari which ended in Eblaite victory; he was probably the last king of the first kingdom.

Reign[edit]

Isar-Damu succeeded his father Irkab-Damu as a young child; his mother, Dusigu, seems to have taken advantage of her position as her husband favorite consort and her probable familial relation to the powerful vizier Ibrium in order to elevate her son to the throne, despite him being one of Irkab-Damu youngest sons.[4]

The first years of Isar-Damus's reign were dominated by his mother and the vizier; texts from Ebla show that Isar-Damu's name appeared on official documents after that of his mother.[5] Ibrium was the commander of the army and he conducted multiple campaigns against rebellious vassal-rulers or neighboring kingdoms.[6]

Isar-Damu concluded an alliance with Nagar and the relations progressed toward a dynastic marriage between princess Tagrish-Damu, Isar-Damu's daughter, and prince Ultum-Huhu, Nagar's monarch's son.[7][8] In year seven of Ibrium's term, Nagar was defeated by Mari, causing the blockage of trade routes between Ebla and southern Mesopotamia via upper Mesopotamia.[9]

Ibrium became vizier two years prior to Isar-Damu reign and kept his office for 20 years dying in Isar-Damu's 18th regnal year;[6][10] three years later, queen mother Dusigu died.[11] Following Ibrium's death, an Eblaite campaign was sent against Alalakh.[12] Isar-Damu concluded an alliance with Nagar and Kish against Mari,[13] and the campaign was headed by the Eblaite vizier Ibbi-Sipish, Ibrium's son, who led the combined armies to victory in a battle near Terqa.[14] Afterwards, the alliance attacked the rebellious Eblaite vassal city of Armi.[15]

Succession[edit]

Isar-Damu ruled 35 years,[16] and his main wife was Tabur-Damu but his crown prince Ir'ak-Damu was his son by an earlier consort whose name is unknown.[11] Although Isar-Damu is generally considered Ebla's first kingdom last monarch, his son Ir'ak-Damu, who was married to Za'ase, Ibbi-Sipish's daughter,[4] might have succeeded him for a short period.[17]

King Isar-Damu of Ebla
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Irkab-Damu
King of Ebla
2320 BC
Succeeded by
Ir'ak-Damu

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Maria Giovanna Biga (2003). Orientalia: Vol. 72. p. 350.
  2. ^ W. de Gruyter (2002). Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und vorderasiatische Archäologie, Volume 92. p. 172.
  3. ^ William J. Hamblin (2006-09-27). Warfare in the Ancient Near East to 1600 BC. p. 239. ISBN 9781134520626.
  4. ^ a b Maria Giovanna Biga (2003). Orientalia: Vol. 72. pp. 355–356.
  5. ^ Maria Giovanna Biga (2003). Orientalia: Vol. 72. p. 356.
  6. ^ a b Mario Liverani (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 123. ISBN 9781134750917.
  7. ^ Erich Ebeling (2001). Nab - Nuzi. p. 75. ISBN 9783110172966.
  8. ^ David Oates; Joan Oates; Helen McDonald (2001). Excavations at Tell Brak: vol 2. Nagar in the third millennium BC. p. 100. ISBN 9780951942093.
  9. ^ Vyve, Anne-Sophie Van; Jans, Greta; Bretschneider, Joachim (2009). "War of the lords. The battle of chronology - page.5". Joachim Bretschneider, Anne-Sophie Van Vyve, Greta Jans Leuven. Retrieved 6 April 2015. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Maria Giovanna Biga (2003). Orientalia: Vol. 72. p. 354.
  11. ^ a b Maria Giovanna Biga (2003). Orientalia: Vol. 72. p. 359.
  12. ^ Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum; Nicole Brisch; Jesper Eidem (2014). Constituent, Confederate, and Conquered Space: The Emergence of the Mittani State. p. 97. ISBN 9783110266412.
  13. ^ Amanda H. Podany (2010). Brotherhood of Kings: How International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East. p. 57. ISBN 9780199798759.
  14. ^ Mario Liverani (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. p. 208. ISBN 9781134750917.
  15. ^ Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum; Nicole Brisch; Jesper Eidem (2014). Constituent, Confederate, and Conquered Space: The Emergence of the Mittani State. p. 103. ISBN 9783110266412.
  16. ^ Archi, Alfonso (2011). "Alfonso Archi and Maria Giovanna Biga, In Search of Armi". Journal of Cuneiform Studies. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 63: 5–34. doi:10.5615/jcunestud.63.0005. JSTOR 10.5615/jcunestud.63.0005. S2CID 163552750.
  17. ^ Cyrus Herzl Gordon; Gary Rendsburg; Nathan H. Winter (2002). Eblaitica: Essays on the Ebla Archives and Eblaite Language, Volume 4. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-57506-060-6.