Ischemic cardiomyopathy

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Ischemic Cardiomyopathy
Atherosclerosis diagram.png
Atherosclerosis one of the causes of this condition
Classification and external resources
Specialty Cardiology
ICD-10 I25.5

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiomyopathy caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries which supply blood to the heart.[1] Typically, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy have a history of acute myocardial infarction,[2] however, it may occur in patients with coronary artery disease, but without a past history of acute myocardial infarction. This cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of sudden cardiac death.[3]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Signs and symptoms of ischemic cardiomyopathy include sudden fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness and palpitations.[citation needed]

Cause[edit]

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is the cause of more than 60% of all cases of systolic congestive heart failure in most countries of the world.[3][4] A chest radiography that demonstrates coronary artery calcification is a probable indication of ischemic cardiomyopathy.[5]

The following are causes of ischemic cardiomyopathy:[6]

Pathophysiology[edit]

Ischemic cardiomyopathy is caused by too little oxygen reaching the muscular layer of the heart due to a narrowing of coronary arteries, resulting in decreased blood flow to the heart's muscular layer, in turn causing cell death. This can cause different levels of tissue injury and affect large and intermediate arteries alike.[7][8][9]

Diagnosis[edit]

Ischemic cardiomyopathy can be diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol, imaging both global and regional function. Also the Look-Locker technique is used to identify diffuse fibrosis; it is therefore important to be able to determine the extent of the ischemic scar.[10] Some argue that only left main- or proximal-left anterior descending artery disease is relevant to the diagnostic criteria for ischemic cardiomyopathy.[2] Myocardial imaging usually demonstrates left ventricular dilation, severe ventricular dysfunction, and multiple infarctions.[11] Signs include congestive heart failure, angina edema, weight gain and fainting, among others.[3][12]

Management[edit]

Cardiac-Stem-Cells

Restoring adequate blood flow to the heart muscle in people with heart failure and significant coronary artery disease is strongly associated with improved survival, some research showing up to 75% survival rates over 5 years.[13][14] A stem cell study indicated that using autologous cardiac stem cells as a regenerative approach for the human heart (after a heart attack) has great potential.[15]

American Heart Association practice guidelines indicate (ICD) implantable cardioverter-defibrillator use in those with ischemic cardiomyopathy (40 days post-MI) that are (NYHA) New York Heart Association functional class I. LVEF of >30% is often used to differentiate primary from ischemic cardiomyopathy, and a prognostic indicator.[16][17]

Coronary artery bypass surgery

At the same time, people who undergo ventricular restoration on top of coronary artery bypass show improved postoperative ejection fraction as compared to those treated with only coronary artery bypass surgery.[18] Severe cases are treated with heart transplantation.[19]

Prognosis[edit]

One of the most important features differentiating ischemic cardiomyopathy from the other forms of cardiomyopathy is the shortened, or worsened all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. According to several studies, coronary artery bypass graft surgery has a survival advantage over medical therapy (for ischemic cardiomyopathy) across varied follow-ups.[8][20][21][22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cardiomyopathy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-09-09. 
  2. ^ a b Felker, G.Michael; Shaw, Linda K; O’Connor, Christopher M (January 2002). "A standardized definition of ischemic cardiomyopathy for use in clinical research". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 39 (2): 210–218. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01738-7. 
  3. ^ a b c Reynolds Delgado (21 April 2009). Interventional Treatment of Advanced Ischemic Heart Disease. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-1-84800-395-8. 
  4. ^ Griffin, Brian P. (2012-10-01). Manual of Cardiovascular Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 130. ISBN 9781451131604. 
  5. ^ Brant, William E.; Helms, Clyde A. (2007-01-01). Fundamentals of Diagnostic Radiology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 635. ISBN 9780781761352. 
  6. ^ Bisognano, John D.; Baker, Marc L.; Earley, Mary Beth (2009-04-09). Manual of Heart Failure Management. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 50. ISBN 9781848821859. 
  7. ^ Anversa, Piero; Sonnenblick, Edmund H. (1990). "Ischemic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic mechanisms". Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases. 33 (1): 49–70. ISSN 0033-0620. doi:10.1016/0033-0620(90)90039-5. 
  8. ^ a b Yatteau, Ronald F.; Peter, Robert H.; Behar, Victor S.; Bartel, Alan G.; Rosati, Robert A.; Kong, Yihong (1974). "Ischemic cardiomyopathy: The myopathy of coronary artery disease". The American Journal of Cardiology. 34 (5): 520–525. ISSN 0002-9149. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(74)90121-0. 
  9. ^ Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO (30 July 2014). Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 1225–. ISBN 978-0-323-29064-7. 
  10. ^ Hodler, Jurg (2015). Diseases of the Chest and Heart: Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional. Springer. p. 146. ISBN 978-88-470-5751-7. Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
  11. ^ E. van der Wall; K.J. Lie (6 December 2012). Recent Views on Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-94-009-4994-2. 
  12. ^ Allen P. Burke; Fabio Tavora (8 November 2010). Practical Cardiovascular Pathology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-1-60547-841-8. 
  13. ^ Luciani, Giovanni Battista; Montalbano, Giuseppe; Casali, Gianluca; Mazzucco, Alessandro (2000). "Predicting long-term functional results after myocardial revascularization in ischemic cardiomyopathy". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 120 (3): 478–489. ISSN 0022-5223. doi:10.1067/mtc.2000.108692. 
  14. ^ Falk, Erling; Shah, Prediman; Feyter, Pim de (2007-03-28). Ischemic Heart Disease. CRC Press. p. 226. ISBN 9781840765151. 
  15. ^ Cai, Lu; Keller, Bradley B (2014-01-03). "Cardiac regeneration and diabetes". Regenerative Medicine Research. 2 (1). ISSN 2050-490X. PMC 4422323Freely accessible. PMID 25984329. doi:10.1186/2050-490X-2-1. 
  16. ^ Iskandrian, Abdulmassih S.; Helfeld, Hope; Lemlek, Joseph; Lee, Jaetae; Iskandrian, Basil; Heo, Jaekyeong (1992). "Differentiation between primary dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy based on right ventricular performance". American Heart Journal. 123 (3): 768–773. ISSN 0002-8703. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(92)90518-Z. 
  17. ^ Hunt, S. A. (20 September 2005). "ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult--Summary Article: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): Developed in Collaboration With the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society". Circulation. 112 (12): 1825–1852. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.167587. Retrieved 10 September 2015. 
  18. ^ Maxey, Thomas S; Reece, T.Brett; Ellman, Peter I; Butler, Paris D; Kern, John A; Tribble, Curtis G; Kron, Irving L (2004). "Coronary artery bypass with ventricular restoration is superior to coronary artery bypass alone in people with ischemic cardiomyopathy". The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 127 (2): 428–434. ISSN 0022-5223. PMID 14762351. doi:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2003.09.024. 
  19. ^ Louie HW, Laks H, Milgalter E, Drinkwater DC, Hamilton MA, Brunken RC, Stevenson LW (November 1991). "Ischemic cardiomyopathy. Criteria for coronary revascularization and cardiac transplantation". Circulation. 84 (5 Suppl): III290–III295. PMID 1934422. 
  20. ^ O’Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Gardner, Laura H; Smith, Peter K; Newman, Mark F; Landolfo, Kevin P; Lee, Kerry L; Califf, Robert M; Jones, Robert H (2002). "Comparison of coronary artery bypass grafting versus medical therapy on long-term outcome in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (a 25-year experience from the Duke Cardiovascular Disease Databank)". The American Journal of Cardiology. 90 (2): 101–107. ISSN 0002-9149. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(02)02429-3. 
  21. ^ Velazquez, Eric J.; Williams, Judson B.; Yow, Eric; Shaw, Linda K.; Lee, Kerry L.; Phillips, Harry R.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; K.Smith, Peter; Jones, Robert H. (2012-02-01). "Long-term Survival of Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treated by CABG versus Medical Therapy". The Annals of thoracic surgery. 93 (2): 523–530. ISSN 0003-4975. PMC 3638256Freely accessible. PMID 22269720. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.10.064. 
  22. ^ Elefteriades, John A; Morales, David L.S; Gradel, Christophe; Tollis, George; Levi, Evelyn; Zaret, Barry L (1997). "Results of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting by a Single Surgeon Patients With Left Ventricular Ejection Fractions ≤30%". The American Journal of Cardiology. 79 (12): 1573–1578. ISSN 0002-9149. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(97)00201-4. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Likoff , Jessup Mariell, Chandler Sheryl L., Kay Harold R. (1987). "Clinical determinants of mortality in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated or to ischemic cardiomyopathy". The American journal of cardiology. 59 (6): 634–638. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(87)91183-0. 
  • Carmeliet Peter; et al. (1999). "Impaired myocardial angiogenesis and ischemic cardiomyopathy in mice lacking the vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF164 and VEGF188". Nature Medicine. 5 (5): 495. 
  • Menasché Philippe; et al. (2008). "The myoblast autologous grafting in ischemic cardiomyopathy (MAGIC) trial first randomized Placebo-controlled study of myoblast transplantation". circulation. 117 (9): 1189–1200. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.107.734103. 
  • Beltrami Carlo Alberto; et al. (1994). "Structural basis of end-stage failure in ischemic cardiomyopathy in humans". Circulation. 89 (1): 151–163. PMID 8281642. doi:10.1161/01.cir.89.1.151.