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Ischnura heterosticta02.jpg
Ischnura heterosticta
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Odonata
Suborder: Zygoptera
Family: Coenagrionidae
Genus: Ischnura
Charpentier, 1840[1]

Ischnura is a genus of damselflies known as forktails (or sometimes bluetails) in the family Coenagrionidae.[2] Forktails are distributed worldwide, including various oceanic islands. The males have a forked projection at the tip of the abdomen which gives the group their common name.[3]


Forktails are small or very small damselflies. The compound eyes of mature individuals have a dark upper region and contrasting lower part. The thorax is often green and may have lateral stripes and the abdomen in males is black with a blue tip. Females of some species are polymorphic, some being orangish and darkening with age, while others resemble the male.[3]


The genus Ischnura includes the following species:[4][5]


  1. ^ Charpentier, T. (1840). Libellulinae Europaeae Descriptae et Depictae (in Latin). Leipzig: Leopold Voss. pp. 180 [20]. hdl:2027/nyp.33433011575317.
  2. ^ "Genus Ischnura Charpentier, 1840". Australian Faunal Directory. Australian Biological Resources Study. 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b Paulson, Dennis (2009). Dragonflies and Damselflies of the West. Princeton University Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4008-3294-1.
  4. ^ Dennis Paulson; Martin Schorr; Cyrille Deliry. "World Odonata List". University of Puget Sound. Retrieved 15 Feb 2022.
  5. ^ "Odonata species list". Swedish Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d Günther Theischinger; John Hawking (2006). The complete field guide to dragonflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-09073-8.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "California Damselflies". Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Southwest. Archived from the original on 2009-09-23.
  8. ^ a b "Species List: Damselflies". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2010-08-13.
  9. ^ a b c Abbott, John (2008). Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) of Texas, Vol 3. Odonata Survey of Texas. ISBN 978-0-615-19494-3.
  10. ^ a b "Checklist of UK Species". British Dragonfly Society. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  11. ^ a b c "Checklist, English common names". Archived from the original on 4 December 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  12. ^ a b c d e "North American Odonata". University of Puget Sound. 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2010.
  13. ^ Samraoui, B. & Dijkstra, K.-D.B. (2010). "Ischnura saharensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T165477A6031236. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T165477A6031236.en. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  14. ^ Sharma, G.; Clausnitzer, V. (2016). "Ischnura senegalensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T59897A75436136. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T59897A75436136.en. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  15. ^ Toussaint, E. F. A.; Bybee, S. M.; Erickson, R. J.; Condamine, F. L. (8 February 2019). "Forest giants on different evolutionary branches: Ecomorphological convergence in helicopter damselflies". Evolution. 73 (5): 1045–1054. doi:10.1111/evo.13695. PMID 30734925. S2CID 73426853.