Animals in Islam

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In Islam, God is in a relationship with animals: according to the Qur'an, they praise him, even if this praise is not expressed in human language.[1][2] Baiting animals for entertainment or gambling is prohibited.[3][4]

The Quran explicitly allows the eating of the meat of certain halal (Arabic: حَـلَال‎, lawful) animals.[2][5] Although some Sufis have practised vegetarianism, there has been no serious discourse on the possibility of vegetarian interpretations.[2] Certain animals can be eaten under the condition that they are slaughtered in a specified way.[6] "Stunning cannot be used to kill an animal, according to the Halal Food Authority (HFA), a non-profit organisation that monitors adherence to halal principles. But it can be used if the animal survives and is then killed by halal methods, the HFA adds," reports the BBC.[7] Prohibitions include swine, carrion,[8] and animals involved in dhabihah (Arabic: ذَبِـيـحَـة‎, ritual slaughter) in the name of someone other than God.[6] The Quran also states "eat of that over which the name of Allah, hath been mentioned."[9]

Animals in pre-Islamic Arabia[edit]

In pre-Islamic Arabia, Arab Bedouin, like other people, attributed the qualities and the faults of humans to animals. Generosity, for example, was attributed to the cock; perfidy to the lizard; stupidity to the bustard; and boldness to the lion.[10]

Based on the facts that the names of certain tribes bear the names of animals, survivals of animal cults, prohibitions of certain foods and other indications, W.  R. Smith argued for the practice of totemism by certain tribes of Arabia. Others have argued that this evidence may only imply practice of a form of animalism. In support of this, for example, it was believed that upon one's death, the soul departs from the body in the form of a bird (usually a sort of owl); the soul-as-bird then flies about the tomb for some time, occasionally crying out (for vengeance).[11]

Human duties in utilizing animals[edit]

According to Islam, human beings are allowed to use animals, but only if their rights are respected. The owner of an animal must do everything they can to benefit the animal. If the owner fails to perform their duties for the animal, nobody else has the right to use them. The duties humans have for animals in Islam are based on the Quran, Sunnah and traditions.[12]

Protection of animal lives[edit]

From the Islamic perspective, animal protection is more important than the fulfilment of certain religious obligations in special circumstances.[12] (... that whoever kills a soul unless for a soul or for corruption [done] in the land - it is as if he had slain mankind entirely. And whoever saves one - it is as if he had saved mankind entirely...)[13][14][15]

Protection of animals' physical health[edit]

Harming, disabling, injuring, or cutting out the organs from any animal is prohibited. Islam strongly warns people against committing such an act.[12] Muslims may not cut the forelock, mane, or tail of a horse, because it is believed there is goodness in its forelock; its mane provides it warmth; and it swats insects away with its tail.[16]

Protection of animals' sexual health[edit]

Muslims are not allowed to commit some acts like castration and interbreeding animals.[12] Muhammad forbade people from castrating animals.[17]

Preventing cruelty and maltreatment to animals[edit]

From the Muslim perspective, Muslims are not allowed to harass and misuse animals, which even includes actions like snatching a leaf from an ant's mouth.[18] Muslims have no right to brand animals,[19] even in the war they will not be hamstringing or crucifying animals before killing [20] and burning them even though they cause harm to human.[21][22] They should not be harassed to obtain animal meat by doing things like swift and powerful slaughter,[23] avoid cutting lengthwise for fast die[24] or must be refused anything that causes interval between slaughtering and final death. In Islamic slaughter, one is not authorized to break the spinal cord by cutting its head or breaking its backbone, and even removing wool from animals is not allowed because it causes them vulnerability.[25][12]

Avoiding punishment of animals[edit]

In Islam, Muslims are not allowed to use any equipment that damages the animal, (for example, beating them in a circus show, forcing them to carry heavy loads, or making them run at extreme speeds in races) even to train them.[26] Instead, it should use methods such as sensitization to specific sounds.[27][12]

Providing foodstuffs[edit]

Muslims are obliged to provide food and water for any thirsty or hungry animal they see, even if the animal does not belong to them.[28] In providing food and water it should be noted a few points: 1)The quality of the Provisions.[29][30] 2) The Provision rate: in this case, it should be noted the animal's condition (pregnancy, illness, working, etc.) and the place of the animal.[31][12]

Providing sanitation[edit]

Animals' health must be respected in itself,[32] its food and water,[33] its place of living.[12]

Providing medication[edit]

In the event an animal falls ill, Muslims are expected to pay for the care and medication.[34][12]

Providing dwelling[edit]

From an Islamic view, the appropriate place for animal life should have three characteristics: 1) Fits the animal situation:[35] they should not be placed in a dirty and bad condition on the pretext that they do not understand. 2) Fits the physical needs of the animal: the place should be in such a way so as to keep the animal healthy and protect it from cold and heat.[36] 3) The dwelling of animals should not cause pollution of the environment or disease of other organisms.[12][37]

Respecting animal of status[edit]

In Islam, the privacy of animals is respected as of humans. Respect to animals is not limited to their living time,[38] but after death, it is also not right to disrespect their bodies for malicious purposes.[12]

Quran[edit]

Although over two hundred verses in the Qur'an deal with animals and six sura (chapteral divisions) of the Qur'an are named after animals, animal life is not a predominant theme in the Qur'an;[39] hayawān/haywān (Arabic: حَيوَان‎; plural haywānāt), the Arabic word meaning "animal" appears only once in the Qur'an but in the sense of everlasting life (personal).[10][39] On the other hand, the term dābba (Arabic: دَابَّة‎; plural dawābb), usually translated as "beast" or "creature" to sometimes differentiate from flying birds while surprisingly including humans, occurs a number of times in the Qur'an, while remaining rare in medieval Arabic works on zoology. Animals in the Qur'an and early Muslim thought may usually (though not necessarily) be seen in terms of their relation to human beings, producing a tendency toward anthropocentrism.[39]

The Qur'an teaches that God created animals from water.[39] God cares for all his creatures and provides for them.[39] All creation praises God, even if this praise is not expressed in human language.[1][2] God has prescribed laws for each species (laws of nature). Since animals follow the laws God has ordained for them, they are to be regarded as "Muslim", just as a human who obeys the laws prescribed for humans (Islamic law) is a Muslim.[40] Just like humans, animals form "communities". In verse 6:38, the Qur'an applies the term ummah, generally used to mean "a human religious community", for genera of animals. The Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an states that this verse has been "far reaching in its moral and ecological implications."[41]

( There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.[42] )

The Qur'an says that animals benefit humans in many ways and that they are aesthetically pleasing to look at. This is used a proof of God's benevolence towards humans.[39] Animals that are slaughtered in accordance with sharia may be consumed.[39] According to many verses of the Qur'an,[43] the consumption of pork is sinful,[8] unless there is no alternative other than starving to death (in times, for example, of war or famine).[44] Surat Yusuf of the Quran mentions that a reason why Ya‘qub was reluctant to let his son Yusuf to play in the open, even in the presence of his brothers, was that a wolf could eat him.[45][46]

The Quran contains three mentions of dogs:

  • Verse 5:4 says "Lawful for you are all good things, and [the prey] that trained [hunting] dogs and falcons catch for you."
  • Verse 18:18 describes the Companions of the Cave, a group of saintly young men presented in the Qurʼan as exemplars of religion, sleeping with "their dog stretching out its forelegs at the threshold." Further on, in verse 22, the dog is always counted as one of their numbers, no matter how they are numbered. In Muslim folklore, affectionate legends have grown around the loyal and protective qualities of this dog, whose name in legend is Qiṭmīr.[47][48][49]

Hunting dogs and the dog of the Companions of al-Kahf (Arabic: الـكـهـف‎, the Cave) are described in a positive light, and the companionship of these dogs is mentioned with approval. The Qurʼan, thus, contains not even a hint of the condemnation of dogs found in certain Hadith.[50] There is a whole chapter in the Quran naming "The Ants". In Sunni Islam killing of Ants is prohibited.[51][52] The Quran[53][54][55][56][57][58][59] talks about a miraculous She-Camel of God (Arabic: نَـاقَـة‎, 'she-camel') that came from stone, in the context of the Prophet Salih, Thamudi people and Al-Hijr.[60]

Pork is haram (Arabic: حَـرَام‎, forbidden) to eat, because its essence is considered impure, this is based on the verse of the Qur'an where it is described as being rijs (Arabic: رِجـس‎, impure) (Quran 6:145).

Verses 50 and 51 of Surat al-Muddaththir in the Quran talk about ḥumur (حُـمُـر, 'asses' or 'donkeys') fleeing from a qaswarah (قَـسـوَرَة, 'lion', 'beast of prey' or 'hunter'), in its criticism of people who were averse to Muhammad's teachings, such as donating wealth to the less wealthy.[61][62]

Sunnah[edit]

Sunnah refers to the traditional biographies of Muhammad wherein examples of sayings attributed to him and his conduct have been recorded. Sunni and Shi'a hadith (anecdotes about Muhammad) differ vastly, with Shi'a hadith generally containing more anthropomorphism and praise of animals.

Animals must not be mutilated while they are alive.[63]

Muhammad is also reported (by Ibn Omar and Abdallah bin Al-As) to have said: "there is no man who kills [even] a sparrow or anything smaller, without its deserving it, but God will question him about it [on the judgment day]" and "Whoever is kind to the creatures of God is kind to himself."[2][10]

Muhammad issued advice to kill animals that were Fasiq (Arabic: فَـوَاسِـق‎ "Harmful ones"), such as the rat and the scorpion, within the holy area haram (Arabic: حَـرَم‎, holy area) of Mecca. Killing other non-domesticated animals in this area, such as zebras and birds, is forbidden.[64]

There is an account in the Qur'an's sura an-Naml of Sulaymaan (Solomon) talking to ants.[65] and birds.[66]

Muslims are required to sharpen the blade when slaughtering animals to ensure that no pain is felt .[67] Muhammad is said: "For [charity showed to] each creature which has a wet liver [i.e. is alive], there is a reward."[2][12]

There is a hadith in Muwatta’ Imam Malik about Muslim Pilgrims having to beware of the wolf, besides other animals.[68]

Ibn Mughaffal reported: "The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) ordered the killing of rabid dogs, and then said: What about them, i. e. about other dogs? and then granted concession (to keep) the dog for hunting and the dog for (the security) of the herd, and said: When the dog licks the utensil, wash it seven times, and rub it with earth the eighth time." (From Muslim Book #002, Hadith #0551)

Ibn 'Umar reported "Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) giving the command for killing dogs..." (From Muslim Book #010, Hadith #3809)

Some Muslim commentators (e.g. Bassam Zawadi) suggest however that these killings were to be limited to "rabid dogs".[69] primary source The majority of Muslim jurists consider dogs to be ritually unclean, though jurists from the Sunni Maliki school disagree.[70] However, outside their ritual uncleanness, Islamic Fatwā, or rulings, enjoin that dogs be treated kindly or else be freed.[71] Muslims generally cast dogs in a negative light because of their ritual impurity. the story of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus in the Qur'an (and also the role of the dog in early Christianity) is one of the striking exceptions.[72] though dogs are not recommended as pets, they are allowed to be kept, especially if used for work and protection, such as guarding the house or farm, or when used for hunting purposes.[citation needed] Muhammad, the messenger of Allah (God) in Islam, is also reported as having reprimanded some men who were sitting idly on their camels in a marketplace, saying "either ride them or leave them alone".[2][10] Apart from that, the camel has significance in Islam.[73][53] Al-Qaswa' (Arabic: الـقَـصـوَاء‎) was a female Arabian camel that belonged to Muhammad, and was dear to him.[74] Muhammad rode on Qaswa during the Hegira (Arabic: هِـجـرَة‎, 'Migration') from Mecca to Medina, his Hajj in 629 CE, and the Conquest of Mecca in 630. The camel was also present during the Battle of Badr in 624. After the passing away of the Prophet, the Camel is reported to have starved itself to death, refusing to take food from anyone.[73][75]

In the Nahj al-Balagha, the Shi'a book of the sayings of Ali, an entire sermon is dedicated to praising peacocks.[76] Bees are highly revered in Islam. The structural genius of a bee is thought as due to divine inspiration. Their product honey is also revered as medicine. Killing a bee is considered a great sin.[77][78]

In Shi'ite ahadith, bats are praised as a miracle of nature.[64]

The dhi’b (Arabic: ذِئـب‎, wolf) may symbolize ferocity.[45][68] As for the kalb (Arabic: كَـلـب‎, dog), there are different views regarding it.[79][80] Some schools of Islamic law consider dogs as unclean (najis),[81] while others, such as the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence distinguishes between wild dogs and pet dogs, only considering the saliva of the former to be impure.[82]

According to the Qur'an, the use of hunting dogs is permitted, which is a reason the Maliki school draws a distinction between feral and domesticated dogs―since Muslims can eat game that has been caught in a domesticated dog's mouth, the saliva of a domesticated dog cannot be impure.[82] Abou El Fadl "found it hard to believe that the same God who created such companionable creatures would have his prophet declare them 'unclean'", stating that animosity towards dogs "reflected views far more consistent with pre-Islamic Arab customs and attitudes".[83] Furthermore, "he found that a hadith from one of the most trustworthy sources tells how the Prophet himself had prayed in the presence of his playfully cavorting dogs."[83] Islamic scholar Ingrid Mattson teaches that for followers of other schools, "there are many other impurities present in our homes, mostly in the form of human waste, blood, and other bodily fluids" and that since it is common for these impurities to come in contact with a Muslim's clothes, they are simply washed or changed before prayer.[82] The Qur'an (18:18) praises a group of dogs that guarded Muslims who were fleeing religious persecution.[82] Mattson thus notes that "This tender description of the dog guarding the cave makes it clear that the animal is good company for believers."[82]

The historian William Montgomery Watt states that Muhammad's kindness to animals was remarkable; he cites an instance of Muhammad while traveling with his army to Mecca in 630  CE, posting sentries to ensure that a female dog and her newborn puppies were not disturbed.[79] On the other hand, in a tradition found in the Sunni hadith book al-Muwatta’, Muhammad is reported as saying that the company of dogs voids a portion of a Muslim's good deeds.[80] However, in "two separate narrations by Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet told his companions of the virtue of saving the life of a dog by giving it water and quenching its thirst. One story referred to a man who was blessed by Allah for giving water to a thirsty dog, the other was a prostitute who filled her shoe with water and gave it to a dog, who had its tongue rolling out from thirst. For this deed she was granted the ultimate reward, the eternal Paradise under which rivers flow, to live therein forever."[84]

All of the Kutub al-Sittah record Hadiths prohibiting one from keeping dogs except for farming, herding and hunting, with those not keeping them for such purposes punished with deduction of qirat from their rewards each day.[85] In a chapter on al-Musaqat (sharecropping), Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj records fifteen traditions on the spiritual loss incurred from domestication of dogs, with seven being on the authority of 'Abd Allah ibn 'Umar and the other eight on Abu Hurairah's authority. While five reports of Ibn Umar state two Carats (Qiratan) as a daily deduction for keeping dogs without a genuine purpose, the other two refer to deduction of only one Carat (Qirat). Only one report of Abu Hurairah mentions the deduction as two carats, while the other seven mentions it as one.[86] Three hadiths in "Dhaba'iḥ and Sayd" of Sahih al-Bukhari are among some of the hadiths which include Ibn Umar's tradition regarding deduction of two qirats for the same.[87] According to a narration classified as authentic by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, jet-black dogs with two spots on the eyes are a manifestation of evil in animal form;[88] however, according to Khaled Abou El Fadl, the majority of scholars regard this to be "pre-Islamic Arab mythology" and "a tradition to be falsely attributed to the Prophet".[89][90][91] In spite of El Fadl's views, the hadith today continue to publish that dogs are unclean and they annul prayers.[92]

Domestic cats have a special place in Islamic culture. Muhammad is said to have loved his cat Muezza (Arabic: مُـعِـزَّة‎)[93] to the extent that "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it."[74]

Big cats like the asad (أَسَـد, lion), namir (نَـمِـر, leopard), and namur (نمر, Tiger), can symbolize ferocity, similar to the wolf.[68] Apart from ferocity, the lion has an important position in Islam and Arab culture. Men noted for their bravery, like Ali,[94] Hamzah ibn Abdul-Muttalib[95] and Omar Mukhtar,[96] were given titles like "Asad Allāh" (أَسَـد الله, "Lion of God") and "Asad aṣ-Ṣaḥrā’" (أَسَـد الـصَّـحْـرَاء, "Lion of the Desert").

A spider is supposed to have saved Muhammad and Abu Bakr by spinning a web over the entrance of the cave in which they hid. Because of the web, the persecutor of them through the cave must be empty, otherwise, there would not have been a web. Therefore, Muslims consider killing spiders as a sin.[97][98]

However, "jurists from the Sunni Maliki School disagree with the idea that dogs are unclean."[99] Individual faṫāwā (Arabic: فَـتَـاوَى‎, "rulings") have indicated that dogs be treated kindly or otherwise released[100] and earlier Islamic literature often portrayed dogs as symbols of highly esteemed virtues such as self-sacrifice and loyalty, which, in the hands of despotic and unjust rulers, become oppressive instruments.[70]

Muslim cultures[edit]

Usually, in Muslim majority cultures, animals have names (one animal may be given several names), which are often interchangeable with names of people. Muslim names or titles like asad and ghadanfar (Arabic for lion), shir and arslan (Persian and Turkish for lion, respectively) are common in the Muslim world. Prominent Muslims with animal names include: Hamzah, Abd al-Rahman ibn Sakhr Al-Azdi (called "Abu Hurairah", the Father of the kitten), Abdul-Qadir Gilani (called al-baz al-ashhab, the wise falcon) and Lal Shahbaz Qalander of Sehwan (called "red falcon").[101]

Islamic literature contains many stories of animals. Arabic and Persian literature boast a large number of animal fables. The most famous, Kalilah wa-Dimnah or Panchatantra, translated into Arabic by Abd-Allāh Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ in the 8th century, was also known in Europe. In the 12th century, Shihab al-Din al-Suhrawadi wrote many short stories of animals. At about the same time, in north-eastern Iran, Attar Neyshapuri (Farid al-Din Attar) composed the epic poem Mantiq al-Tayr (meaning The Conference of the Birds).[101]

In Malaysia in 2016, the Malaysian Islamic Development Department, a religious governing body, prohibited the use of the term hot dog to refer to the food of that name. It asked food outlets selling them to rename their products or risk refusal of halal certification. Per local media, Malaysian halal food guidelines prohibit naming halal products after non-halal products.[102] Islamist organization Hamas which controls the Gaza Strip, banned public dog walking in May 2017, stating it was to "protect our women and children". Hamas officials stated that the ban was in response to rise in dog walking on the streets which they stated was "against culture and traditions in Gaza".[103]

Controversy[edit]

Ritual slaughter[edit]

The ritual methods of slaughter practiced in Islam (dhabihah) and Judaism (shechita) have been decried by some UK animal welfare organisations as inhumane and causing "severe suffering".[104][105] According to Judy MacArthur Clark, Chairperson of the Farm Animal Welfare Council, cattle require up to two minutes to bleed to death when halal or kosher means of slaughter are used: "This is a major incision into the animal and to say that it doesn't suffer is quite ridiculous." In response, Majid Katme of the Muslim Council of Britain stated that "[i]t's a sudden and quick haemorrhage. A quick loss of blood pressure and the brain is instantaneously starved of blood and there is no time to start feeling any pain."[105]

In permitting dhabiha, the German Constitutional Court cited[106] the 1978 study led by Professor Wilhelm Schulze at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover which concluded that "[t]he slaughter in the form of ritual cut is, if carried out properly, painless in sheep and calves according to the EEG recordings and the missing defensive actions."[107] Muslims and Jews have also argued that traditional British methods of slaughter have meant that "animals are sometimes rendered physically immobile, although with full consciousness and sensation. The application of a sharp knife in shechita and dhabh, by contrast, ensures that no pain is felt: the wound inflicted is clean, and the loss of blood causes the animal to lose consciousness within seconds."[108]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b See Quran 17:44
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Islam, Animals, and Vegetarianism" in the Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature (Bron Taylor (chief ed.), Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd., 2008).
  3. ^ Al-Adab al-Mufrad, Book 1, Hadith 1232
  4. ^ Susan J. Armstrong; Richard G. Botzler. The Animal Ethics Reader. Routledge (UK) Press. pp. 235–237. ISBN 0415275881.
  5. ^ See Quran 5:1
  6. ^ a b Javed Ahmad Ghamidi (2001): The Dietary Laws Archived May 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-27324224
  8. ^ a b John Esposito (2002b), p.111
  9. ^ See Quran 6:118
  10. ^ a b c d "Hayawān" ("Haywān") in the Encyclopaedia of Islam (vol. 3, p. 308).
  11. ^ Subhani, Ayatullah Jafar. "THE MESSAGE". Islamic Seminary Publications.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tavakkoli, Saeid Nazari. "ANIMALS WELFARE ACTS AND UTILIZATION LIMITS IN ISLAM". Islamic Research Foundation Astan-e Quds Razavi.
  13. ^ See Quran 5:32
  14. ^ Bukhari, Imam. Al-Adab Al-Mufrad. UK Islamic Academy (January 1, 2006). pp. 263–264. ISBN 978-1872531182.
  15. ^ Thiqatu al-Islam, Abu ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub, al-Kulayni. Al-Kafi. Islamic Seminary Incorporated, The; 2 edition. p. 16. ISBN 978-0991430888.
  16. ^ Al-Tabarsi, Hasan Ibn Al-Fadl. Makarim Al-Akhlaq (Nobilities of Character). p. 174. ISBN 978-9642194193.
  17. ^ Muh Shawkani, Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad Ibn 'Ali Ibn. Nayl al-awtar min ahadith Sayyid al-akhyar. Turath For Solutions, 2013. ISBN 9789957640934.
  18. ^ Thiqatu al-Islam, Abu ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub, al-Kulayni. Al-Kafi. Islamic Seminary Incorporated, The; 2 edition. p. 11. ISBN 978-0991430888.
  19. ^ 'A. Muttaq, 'Ala' Al-Din 'Ali Ibn Husam Al-Din Ibn. Kanz al-'ummal fi sunan al-aqwal wa-al-af'al. Turath For Solutions, 2013. p. 634. ISBN 9789957672461.
  20. ^ al-Majlisi, al-'Allama. Al-Mahasin. pp. 243–244.
  21. ^ al-Barqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid. Bihar al-anwar. p. 634.
  22. ^ al-Nawawi. Riyad al-salihin min kalam Sayyid al-mursalin. Pt Alma`arif, 1977. p. 635.
  23. ^ al-Barqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid. Bihar al-anwar. p. 62/316.
  24. ^ Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din ibn Ali ibn Ahmad. Masalik al-afham ila tanqih shara'i ' al-Islam. p. 11/490.
  25. ^ Tabatabai, Allamah Sayyed Muhammad Husayn. Tafsir al Mizan تفسير الميزان. first published 1956. p. 5/186. ISBN 9789646640238.
  26. ^ al-Hur Al-Amuli, Sheikh Muhammad ibn Hassan. Wasail Al-Shia Ila Tahsil Masaeel ash-sharia. Alalbayt le Ihya at-Turath Publication, Beirut. p. 8/356–357.
  27. ^ al-Majlisi, al-'Allama. Al-Mahasin. p. 2//361.
  28. ^ al-Barqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid. Bihar al-anwar. p. 61/217.
  29. ^ Mirza Husayn Nuri. Mustadrak al-Wasa’il wa Mustanbit al-Masa’il. p. 17/51.
  30. ^ al-'Allama al-Hilli. Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a. p. 8/346.
  31. ^ al-Saffar, Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. al-Hasan. "Basaair Al Darajaat 31/395".
  32. ^ Thiqatu al-Islam, Abu ja'far Muhammad ibn Ya'qub, al-Kulayni. Al-Kafi. Islamic Seminary Incorporated, The; 2 edition. ISBN 978-0991430888.
  33. ^ al-Barqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid. Bihar al-anwar. p. 61/177.
  34. ^ Shahid al-Thani, Zayn al-Din ibn Ali ibn Ahmad. Masalik al-afham Ila tanqih shara'i ' al-Islam. p. 5/88.
  35. ^ al-Barqi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid. Biaar Al-Anwar. p. 61/318.
  36. ^ al-Saduq, al-Shaykh. "Illal-Al-Sharaie".
  37. ^ al-Bahuti, Mansur ibn Yunis ibn Idris. Kashshaf al-qina an matn al-iqna. maktabat al-nasr al-Haditha, 1999.
  38. ^ Imam Ibn Hazm. Al Muhalla. American Trust Publications. ISBN 9780892590377.
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  40. ^ "Islam" in the Encyclopedia of Science and Religion (op. cit.)
  41. ^ "Community and Society and Qur'an" in the Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an (vol. 1, p. 371)
  42. ^ See Quran 6:38
  43. ^ See Quran 2:173 and Quran 6:145)
  44. ^ "He hath only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that on which any other name hath been invoked besides that of God. But if one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, then is he guiltless. For God is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful."[Quran 2:173]
  45. ^ a b al-Tabari, Muhammad ibn Jarir (Translated by William Brinner) (1987). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 2: Prophets and Patriarchs. SUNY. p. 150.
  46. ^ Quran 12:4–17
  47. ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1994). Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam. Albany: SUNY Press. p. 48. ISBN 0791419819. Retrieved February 16, 2014. The seven pious youths 'and the eighth with them was their dog' (Sūra 18:22) have turned into protective spirits, whose names, and especially that of their dog Qiṭmīr, written on amulets, carry Baraka with them.
  48. ^ Bahjat, Ahmad (2002). "The Dog of the People of the Cave". Animals in the Glorious Qurʼan: Relating Their Own Stories. Cairo: Islamic Inc.; Dar al-Tawzīʻ wa-al-Nashr al-Islāmīyah. pp. 247–267. ISBN 9772654075. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  49. ^ Tlili, Sarra (2012). Animals in the Qurʼan. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 250. ISBN 9781107023703. Retrieved February 16, 2014. Al-Thaʻlabī cites an opinion according to which the dog of the Dwellers of the Cave[...] will dwell in heaven. Al-Thaʻlabī, al-Kashf wa-al-Bayān (Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʼ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī, 2002), 2:251.
  50. ^ "Are dogs prohibited in the Quran?". Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  51. ^ ""Chapter 27, An-Naml (The Ants)"". Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  52. ^ Sahih Muslim, Volume 26 {http://www.theonlyquran.com/hadith/Sahih-Muslim/?volume=26&chapter=36}
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  54. ^ Quran 7:73–79
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