Islam and masturbation

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There are varying opinions, on the permissibility of masturbation (Arabic: استمناء‎, translit. istimnā’). It is considered haram (forbidden) according to Sunni schools Maliki and Shafi,[1][2] as well as in Shi'ite jurisprudence.[3]

Istimna[edit]

Scholars of Sunni Islam generally do not approve of masturbation, except in extenuating circumstances. They encourage Muslims to fast to reduce sexual desire if they cannot marry.[4][original research?]

Yet if one's desire is so overwhelming one might perform masturbation but in that case it will be like eating the flesh of a pig to survive from major hunger or starvation when no other food is available.[5]

Masturbation, like any form of sex in which seminal or vaginal fluids have been released, breaks one's fast if performed during the daylight hours and requires a major ablution if any seminal or vaginal fluids were released.

According to Sheikh Hamed Al-Ali: "Masturbation during the daytime of Ramadan breaks the fast, based on the Hadith that a fasting Muslim gives up eating, drinking, and sexual desire for the sake of Allah. Since masturbation is a kind of sexual desire, a fasting Muslim must avoid it. Therefore, masturbation invalidates the fast as does food and as it is one of the sins that if someone does it he or she would be violating the sanctity of this month."

It is considered permissible for spouses to masturbate each other, with the only sexual acts forbidden in Islam being anal intercourse and vaginal sex during menstruation.[6]

Sahabah view[edit]

The opinions of some of the companions of Muhammad reproduced below from Ibn Hazm's Al-Muhalla (vol.11 pg.393-394) indicate that they did not forbid it:

Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Ibn-e-Abbas) said :

  • "marrying a slave girl (concubine) is better than it, and it is better than fornication/adultery/rape (zina)"[7][8]
  • "it is nothing but rubbing one's private parts until a fluid comes out"[7][8]

Abdullah ibn Umar said :

  • "a person who does makes a fool of himself"[7][8]
  • "it is merely rubbing an organ"[7][8]

Jābir ibn Zayd said :

  • "it is your water; you can discharge it (if you want)"[7][8]

Hasan of Basra (Hasan Basri) said :

  • "there is no harm in it"[7][8]

Sunni view[edit]

Masturbation (for both men and women) is haraam (forbidden) in some mazhabs of Islam based on the following evidence: First from the Qur'an: Imam Shafi’i stated that masturbation is forbidden based on the following verses from the Qur'an (interpretation of the meaning): "And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or that their right hands possess, - for them, they are free from blame. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors." 23.5-7 Here the verses are clear in forbidding all illegal sexual acts (including masturbation) except for the wives or that their right hand possess. And whoever seeks beyond that is the transgressor. The four Sunni schools of jurisprudence (known as Madhaahib - the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools of Fiqh) have differing stances on the issue. Some see it forbidden in certain cases (i.e. if it leads a man/woman to ignore their spouse sexually) but recommended it when they see it as a lesser evil to illicit sex. It is generally prohibited according to the Hanafi and Hanbali Mazhabs, unless one fears adultery or fornication, or is under the desire pressure, in which case, it is permissible to seek a relief through masturbation. It is prohibited all the time according to the Maliki and Shafi`i Mazhabs.[9] However, Imam Ibn Hazm regard masturbation as permissible.[10]

Scholars have also stated that masturbation would not be necessary if one realizes the flexible approach Islam takes to marriage. For example, according to Sheikh Shomeh Yerkity, 'against the clear teachings of Islam, marriage has been rendered another difficult process today due to warped customs and conventions and undue expectations. When we approach marriage from the point of view of pristine Islam, we shall find less and fewer people being forced to exercise the above type of exceptional rulings'.[5]

Hanafi view[edit]

It is generally prohibited according to the Hanafi Madhab, unless one fears adultery or fornication, or is under the desire pressure, in which case, it is permissible to seek a relief through masturbation.[2]

Maliki view[edit]

It is considered as haram according to the Sunni Imam Malik ibn Anas. [1][2] It is prohibited all the time according to the Maliki Madhab.[9]

At the same, there is a minority opinion within the Maliki school that allows masturbation if done in private and without the use of illicit materials such as pornography and drugs. [11] [12]

Shafi'i view[edit]

It is prohibited all the time according to the Shafi`i Madhab.[9] It is considered haram (forbidden) according to Sunni school Shafi'i.[1][2]

Imam Al-Shafi’i stated that masturbation is forbidden based on the following verses from the Qur'an (interpretation of the meaning):

"And those who guard their chastity (i.e. private parts, from illegal sexual acts). Except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, - for them, they are free from blame. But whoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors." (Qur'an 23:5-7).[13][14][15]

Here the verses are clear in forbidding all illegal sexual acts (including masturbation) except for the wives or that their right hand possess and whoever seeks beyond that is the transgressor.

Hanbali view[edit]

It is generally prohibited according to the Hanbali madhab, unless one fears adultery or fornication, or is under the desire pressure, in which case, it is permissible to seek a relief through masturbation.

According to Ahmad ibn Hanbal, it is permissible for prisoners, travellers and for men and women who have difficulty in finding a lawful spouse. [2]

Zahiri view[edit]

Zahiri Imam, Imam Ibn Hazm regard masturbation as permissible.[10][7][8]

Shi'a view[edit]

Any sexual engagement outside of marriage including masturbation is a major sin altogether in the Shi'a Islam. Extra-marital sexual engagement causes the doer to be punished in this life and in the afterlife (Qiyama). The Qur'an says, "The believers are those who protect their sexual organs except from their spouses... Therefore, whosoever seeks more beyond that (in sexual gratification), then they are the transgressors." (23:5-6) [16][unreliable source?] and it is not allowed in any situation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The Lawful And The Prohibited In Islam, Yusuf Al-Qardawi - 1997
  2. ^ a b c d e The New Arab Man: Emergent Masculinities, Technologies, and Islam in the Middle East, p 168, Marcia C. Inhorn - 2012
  3. ^ Rizvi, Muhammad (1994). "3. The Islamic Sexual Morality (2) Its Structure". Marriage and Morals in Islam. Scarborough, ON, Canada: Islamic Education and Information Center.
  4. ^ "Hadith - Book of Wedlock, Marriage (Nikaah) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". Sunnah.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Ask The Scholar". Askthescholar.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  6. ^ "Ask The Scholar". Askthescholar.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "{title}". Archived from the original on 2017-06-08. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "Monthly Renaissance - Query". Monthly-renaissance.com.
  9. ^ a b c Marriage in Islam - Part 1 by Hussein Khalid Al-Hussein, Ph.D. Refer to: Section Al-`Alaqat Al-Mubahah (Allowed Relationships)
  10. ^ a b "Hifz al-Furūj (Guarding the Private Parts)". Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  11. ^ Abdul-wahid, Ibn Ashir. The Guiding HelperThe Guiding Helper The Guiding Helper Main Text & Explanatory Notes (PDF). The Guiding Helper Foundation. p. 190. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  12. ^ Abu Qanit, Al-Hassani. "Kitab al Fatawa wa'l durus". Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Translation of Surah Al-Mu'minun - NobleQuran.com". Noblequran.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  14. ^ "Quran - Surah Al-Muminun - Arabic, English Translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali". Theonlyquran.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  15. ^ "Surah Al-Mu'minun [23:5-7]". Surah Al-Mu'minun [23:5-7]. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
  16. ^ "Marriage and Morals in Islam". Al-Islam.org.