Islam and Sikhism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Islamic – Sikh relations)
Jump to: navigation, search

Islam is an Abrahamic religion founded in Arabian peninsula, while Sikhism is a Dharmic religion founded in South Asia. Islam means "submission to the will of god".[1][2] The word Sikh is derived from a Sanskrit word meaning 'disciple', or one who learns.[3]

Unlike Abrahmic monotheism of Islam Sikhism is a panentheistic faith.[4][5] Islam believes that Muhammad was the last prophet, to whom Quran was revealed by God in 7th century CE, and it restricts its primary source of teachings to the Quran and the Hadiths.[6] Sikhism was founded in 15th century CE by Guru Nanak and Guru Granth Sahib is the scripture followed by Sikhs as "The Living Guru" [4][7]

In Islam, the legal system based on the Quran and the Sunnah is known as Sharia; there is no such legal system mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. Islam does not allow apostasy.[8] Sikhism allows freedom of conscience and apostasy.[9] Daily prayers are one of the pillars of Islam and mandatory for Muslims.[10] Prayers are left to the choice of a Sikh. Islam requires annual zakah (alms giving) by Muslims, while Sikhism encourages alms giving but does not compel it.[11]

Comparison[edit]

Belief[edit]

God[edit]

Sikhism believes that God does not take any human forms, and rejects the idea of gods.[4] Sikhism has been called a form of pantheism,[5] as well as monotheism.[4]

Islam believes in monotheism, called tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد).[12]

Guru and Messengers[edit]

Sikhism believes that there were countless rightful messengers, include Krishna, Moses, Jesus, Mohammed and the ten human Gurus of Sikhs.[4]

Islam believes that before Muhammad there were many messengers of God, Muhammad was the last messenger, and Quran was the last revelation to the last prophet.[6][13]

Duties/Articles of Faith[edit]

The Five Pillars of Islam are duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are Shahada (testimony that "Muhammad is the messenger of God"), Salat (prayers), Zakat (Giving of Alms), Sawm (Fasting during Ramadan) and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). These five practices are essential to Sunni Islam; Shi'a Muslims subscribe to eight ritual practices which substantially overlap with the five Pillars.[14][15]

The three duties of Sikhs are Naam Japna (mindful of God's name at all times), Kirat Karni (earn honest living) and Vand Chakna (sharing one's earning with others).[16]

Social beliefs[edit]

Sikhism has an ambivalent attitude towards miracles and rejects any form of discrimination within and against other religions.[17][18] Sikhism does not believe in rituals, but is permissive of traditions.[7]

Sikhism rejects asceticism and celibacy.[19] Sikh Guru Nanak accepted reincarnation.[19] Adi Granth of Sikhism recognizes and includes spiritual wisdom from other religions.[7]

Islam considers itself to be a perfect and final religion.[20] It warns against innovation (bid‘ah) to what is revealed in the Quran and the Hadiths.[7] It considers other religions and non-believers in Islam as wrongly guided and infidels.[20][21] Wahhabi Islam does not inherently recognize and accept spiritual wisdom from other religions.[7][21][22]

Islam itself allows for contemplation of other religions as paths toward God. This concept of inclusiveness is overlooked by the Wahhabi school of Islamic thought. Forced conversion and Missionary work was not a tenet nor used as a framework to propagate the theology during its early establishing years. This is demonstrated by the following verse and injunction of the Quran.

Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.

—Holy Qu'ran 2:256. (Yusuf Ali translation)

Islam also rejects asceticism and celibacy.[23] Islam believes in miracles and a final judgment day (Qiyama).[24] Islam believes that there is severe punishments in the afterlife (akhirah) for those who do not submit to Islam, who refuse or reject Islamic teachings (kafir) including Christians and Jews, polytheists, idolatry, apostates, atheists and infidels).[24][25][26]

Apostasy[edit]

Apostasy, that is abandonment of Islam by a Muslim and conversion to another religion or atheism, is a religious crime in Islam punishable with death.[8][27] Sikhism allows freedom of conscience.[9]

View on other religions[edit]

Sikhism teaches that all religious traditions are valid, leading to the same God, and it rejects that any particular religion has a monopoly regarding absolute truth for all of humanity.[28]

Islam teaches that non-Islamic religious traditions are wrong, misguided, and only the Quran and the Hadiths are the proper source of guidance for all of humanity.[29][30]

Predestination[edit]

Islam believes in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa l-qadar), God has full knowledge and control over all that occurs.[31][32] According to Islamic tradition, all that has been decreed by God is written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the "Preserved Tablet".[33][full citation needed]

Sikhism also believes in predestination, and what one does, speaks and hears is already pre ordained, and one has to simply follow the laid down path per God's fiat or Hukum.[34]

Practice[edit]

Grooming and dress[edit]

The Khalsa panth among Sikhs are guided by the five Ks. They keep their head hair long (kesh) and men wear turbans (head hair cover). They carry a wooden comb, wear a iron bracelet, wear a cotton underwear, and carry a kirpan (steel sword).[35] Sikh women are free to dress as they wish in Sikhism. Sex segregation is not required in public places or Sikh temples by Sikhism.[36]

Muslim males are required to grow their beards and encouraged to trim the moustache.[37] Men in some Muslim communities wear turban (head cap).[38] Muslim men must dress modestly and have their ankles and forearms covered. Muslim women are required by Islam to cover their hair and body in public,[39] with some Islamic scholars stating that the Islamic Hadiths require covering the face too.[40][41] These restrictions are called 'Hijab'. Islam encourages gender segregation in public, and Muslim men and women do not usually mix in public places such as mosques. These restrictions are part of 'Adab'.[37]

Circumcision[edit]

Sikhism does not require circumcision of either males or females, and criticizes the practice.[42]

Circumcision is mandatory for Muslim males, and clitoral circumcision has been historically believed to be mandatory or preferred for Muslim females, depending on the fiqh of Islam.[43][44][45] Modern Islamic scholars, however, have questioned whether female circumcision is indeed mandatory or preferred under Islam.[46][47]

Food[edit]

Islam has Quranic restrictions on food, such as how the meat is prepared.[48] Halal meat is required in Islam, prepared by ritual slaughter that involves cutting the jugular veins of the animal with a sharp knife. This leads to slow death, through bleeding, of the animal.[49] Meat from animals that die of natural causes or accident is not allowed, unless necessary.[48] Beef is a sought after meat among Muslims, but they strictly avoid pork and alcohol.[50] Muslims fast for the month of Ramadan.

Sikhs are prohibited from eating Islamic style halal meat because this manner of obtaining meat involves slow death of the animal.[51][52] Charity meals distributed at Gurudwara langar are largely lacto-vegetarian.[51] Some sects[53] of Sikhism disagree with the consumption of meat. The official Sikh Code of Conduct Sikh Rehat Maryada only forbids the consumption of Kutha meat.[52][54] In practice most Sikhs avoid beef, and some Sikhs are strict lacto-vegetarians.[52]

Jizya[edit]

Islam, in its history and unlike Sikhism, compelled the payment of a special tax called Jizya from dhimmi, those who refuse to convert to Islam but live in a Muslim state.[55][56] Jizya was a tool of social stratification and treasury's revenue from non-Muslims.[56] Jizya was a reminder of subordination of a non-Muslim under Muslims, and created a financial and political incentive to convert to Islam.[56][57]

Holy sites[edit]

The Harmandir Sahib (also known as the Golden Temple).

The Golden Temple Amritsar India (Sri Harimandir Sahib Amritsar) is not only a central religious place of the Sikhs, but also a symbol of human brotherhood and equality. The four entrances of this holy shrine from all four directions, signify that people belonging to every walk of life are equally welcome. The Golden Temple is a holy site for Sikhs.[58]

Mecca in Saudi Arabia is the central religious place in Islam.[59][60] Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in Islam,[61] and a pilgrimage to it, known as the Hajj, is one of the pillars of Islam.

Pilgrimage

Sikhs do not believe in pilgrimages; Muslims, in contrast, consider Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) a crucial part of the faith.

History[edit]

Guru Arjan was executed by a Mughal emperor in 1606 CE, amid rising persecution of Sikhs.[62] The execution is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism.[62]

During the Mughal Empire, Sikh gurus were persecuted along with other non-Muslims. The fifth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Arjan was executed by Jahangir.[63] There were occasional exceptions to the historical persecution. During Mughal Emperor Akbar's rule, for example, Sikhism and diverse religions were temporarily accepted. Akbar visited the third Sikh Guru, Guru Amardas at Goindwal, ate at the Langar kitchen, and offered donations for Langar.[64][65]

In other periods, Sikhs were persecuted during the Islamic rule of South Asia. Guru Arjan was tortured and executed by Mughal emperor Jahangir. Guru Hargobind, (sixth Guru of the Sikhs), after the martyrdom of Guru Arjan saw that it would no longer be possible to protect the Sikh community without the aid of arms.[66] He built Akal Takhat the Throne of the Immortal and it is the highest political institution of the Sikhs and he also wore two swords of Miri and Piri.[67]

Guru Tegh Bahadur (ninth Guru) was tortured and beheaded by Aurangzeb at Chandni Chowk in Delhi,[68] for refusing to convert to Islam and for protecting Kashmiri Hindus who were being forced to convert to Islam.[69][70][71] His fellow devotees Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala were also tortured and executed, while Guru Tegh Bahadur was forced to watch.[72][73] Tenth Guru Guru Gobind Singh formed Khalsa known as Army of Akal Purakh (Immortal) and Gave 5 Ks to Khalsa. Two of the younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh aged 9 and 7 were bricked up alive by the Muslim governor Wazir Khan in Sarhand (Punjab). When Guru Gobind Singh was in South India, he sent Banda Singh Bahadur to chastise the tyrannical Mughal faiy`dar of Sirhind. Banda Singh captured Sirhind and laid the foundation of Sikh empire.[74][75]

Recent relations[edit]

During the partition of India in 1947, there was much bloodshed between Sikhs and Muslims, there was mass migration of people from all walks of life to leave their homes and belongings and travel by foot across the new border, on trains and on land people were killed in what was felt to be revenge attacks.[76] Millions of Sikhs left Pakistan and moved into India, while millions of Muslims left India and moved into Pakistan.[76]

Since 9/11 Sikhs in America have been mistaken for Muslims and endured hate crimes, denial of employment, bullying in schools and profiling in airports.[77]

In the UK, there have some instances of tension between Sikhs and Muslims on allegations that some Sikhs have been forced to convert to Islam.[78][79]

In 2009, the Taliban in Pakistan demanded that Sikhs in the region pay them the jizya (poll tax levied by Muslims on non-Muslim minorities).[80]

In 2010 the Taliban attacked many minorities including Sikhs resulting in two beheadings.[81]

Sufi Muslims and Sikhs[edit]

Sufi Muslims, a minority group of mystical ascetics in Islam, considered to be one of its many sects,[82][83] have been long considered to be heretics and blasphemous in mainstream Islam.[84][85][86] The Sikh Gurus had cordial relations with many Muslim Sufi Saints.[87]

In December 1588, a Sufi saint of Lahore, Mian Mir, visited Guru Arjan Dev at the initiation ceremony before the construction of the Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple).[88]

Ahmadiyya Muslims and Sikhs[edit]

Ahmadiyya, a minority reform sect that arose within Islam, believe in prophets after Muhammad and consider themselves to be Muslims.[89] They are, however, not recognized as Muslims by mainstream Sunni and Shia Islam, and are treated as blasphemous and persecuted.[89][90] Since the 18th century, Ahmadi Muslims have had cordial relations with Sikhs, and they fought with Sikhs to resist the persecution by Sunni-based Mughal rule in South Asia.[91]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  2. ^ Lewis, Barnard; Churchill, Buntzie Ellis (2009). Islam: The Religion and The People. Wharton. p. 8. ISBN 9780132230858. 
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. Retrieved 2015-05-25. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Johal, Jagbir (2011). Sikhism today. Continuum. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-4411-8140-4. 
  5. ^ a b Sikhism in Its Relation to Muhammadanism, p. 12, at Google Books
  6. ^ a b Gülen, Fethullah (2005). The Messenger of God Muhammad : an analysis of the Prophet's life. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-932099-83-6. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Gurapreet Singh (2003). The soul of Sikhism. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-288-0085-6. 
  8. ^ a b Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-512559-7. 
  9. ^ a b Pal Kaur, Apostasy: A sociological perspective, Sikh Review, 45(1), 1997, pp. 37-40
  10. ^ Fisher, Mary (1997). Living religions : an encyclopedia of the world's faiths. p. 353. ISBN 978-1-86064-148-0. 
  11. ^ Rai, Priya (1989). Sikhism and the Sikhs. Greenwood Press. pp. 230–233. ISBN 978-0-313-26130-5. 
  12. ^ "From the article on Tawhid in Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Oxfordislamicstudies.com. 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  13. ^ Scott Noegel, Brannon M. Wheeler (2002). Historical dictionary of prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow. pp. 227–229. ISBN 978-0-8108-4305-9. 
  14. ^ See: * Mumen (1987), p.178, "Pillars of Islam". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 
  15. ^ Knight, Ian; Scollins (23 March 1990). Richard, ed. Queen Victoria's Enemies: India No.3. Men-at-arms (Paperback ed.). Osprey Publishing; illustrated edition. p. 15. ISBN 0-85045-943-5. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  16. ^ "Religion: Sikhism". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  17. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=CFKYFcosJUsC&pg=PA172&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Rs3YVIXUCsfN8gWIqoHgAg&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&f=false
  18. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=CFKYFcosJUsC&pg=PA52&hl=en&sa=X&ei=Rs3YVIXUCsfN8gWIqoHgAg&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&f=false
  19. ^ a b Carmody, Denise (2013). Ways to the center : an introduction to world religions. p. 339. ISBN 978-1-133-94225-2. 
  20. ^ a b Juergensmeyer, Mark (2006). The Oxford handbook of global religions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-976764-9. 
  21. ^ a b Aziz Esmail, Abdou Filali-Ansary (2012). The construction of belief. London: The Aga Khan University, Institute for the Study of Muslim Civilisations. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-0-86356-424-6. 
  22. ^ Sirriyeh, Elizabeth (1989). "Wahhabis, unbelievers and the problems of exclusivism". British Society for Middle Eastern Studies 16 (2): 123–132. 
  23. ^ "Islamic Marriage". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 2015-05-24. 
  24. ^ a b Esposito, John (2004). The Islamic world : past and present. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 0-19-516520-9. 
  25. ^ Campo, Juan (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. New York: Facts On File. pp. 421–422. ISBN 978-0-8160-5454-1. 
  26. ^ Marilyn Robinson Waldman, The Development of the Concept of Kufr in the Quran, Vol. 88, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1968), pp. 442-455
  27. ^ Ali, Kecia (2008). Islam : the key concepts. Routledge. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-415-39638-7. 
  28. ^ Kristen Haar (2005). Sikhism. San Val. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1417638536. 
  29. ^ Rippin, Andrew (2010). The Islamic world. London: Routledge. pp. 252–258. ISBN 978-0-415-60191-7. 
  30. ^ Munim Sirry (2014). Scriptural polemics : the Qur'an and other religions. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 43–64. ISBN 978-0-19-935936-3. 
  31. ^ See:
    • Quran 9:51
    • D. Cohen-Mor (2001), p.4: "The idea of predestination is reinforced by the frequent mention of events 'being written' or 'being in a book' before they happen: 'Say: "Nothing will happen to us except what Allah has decreed for us…" ' "
    • Ahmet T. Karamustafa. "Fate". Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online.  : The verb qadara literally means "to measure, to determine". Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation".
  32. ^ A Dictionary of Islam: By Thomas Patrick Hughes ISBN 81-206-0672-8 Page 591
  33. ^ Farah (2003), pp.119–122; Patton (1900), p.130; Momen (1987), pp.177,178
  34. ^ Gurapreet Singh (2003). The soul of Sikhism. pp. 127–128. ISBN 978-81-288-0085-6. 
  35. ^ "Religion: Sikhism". BBC. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  36. ^ Basran, G. S. (2003). The Sikhs in Canada : migration, race, class, and gender. Oxford University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-19-564886-7. 
  37. ^ a b Martin, Richard (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world. New York: Macmillan Reference USA Thomson/Gale. ISBN 978-0-02-865603-8. 
  38. ^ Rubin, Alissa (2011-10-15). "Afghans Are Rattled by Rule on Searching Turbans". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  39. ^ Fulkerson, Mary (2012). The Oxford handbook of feminist theology. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 405–414. ISBN 978-0-19-927388-1. 
  40. ^ Hussain, Jamila (2011). Islam : its law and society. Australia: Federation Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1-86287-819-8. 
  41. ^ Islam and the veil : theoretical and regional contexts. London: Bloomsbury Academic. 2012. pp. 81–85. ISBN 978-1-4411-3519-3. 
  42. ^ D.S Chahal (Editors: John Peppin etc.) (2004). Religious perspectives in bioethics. London u.a: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-54413-9. 
  43. ^ E.J. Donzel (1994). Islamic desk reference. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. pp. 69–71. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. 
  44. ^ Bouhdiba, Abdelwahab (1998). The individual and society in Islam. Paris: Unesco Pub. ISBN 92-3-102742-5. 
  45. ^ Chaim, Vardit (1993). Islamic medical ethics in the twentieth century. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. p. Chapter 9. ISBN 978-90-04-09608-0. 
  46. ^ CM Obermeyer, "Female Genital Surgeries: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable", Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 13(1), March 1999, pp. 79–106
  47. ^ To Mutilate in the Name of Jehovah or Allah: Legitimization of Male and Female Circumcision Sami A. ALDEEB ABU-SAHLIEH, Medicine and Law, Volume 13, Number 7-8: July 1994, pp. 575-622
  48. ^ a b Quran 2:173
  49. ^ Riaz, Mian (2004). Halal food production. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-58716-029-5. 
  50. ^ Esposito, John (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-19-979413-3. 
  51. ^ a b In pictures: Sikhs in Britain
  52. ^ a b c Nesbitt, Eleanor (2005). Sikhism, a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. p. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7. 
  53. ^ Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2005). "2 Guru Nanak Nishkam Sewak Jatha". Sikh identity: an exploration of groups among Sikhs. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7546-5202-1. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  54. ^ "Only Meat Killed by Ritual Is Banned for a Sikh". Sgpc.net. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 
  55. ^ John Louis Esposito, Islam the Straight Path, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 33-34
  56. ^ a b c Anver M. Emon, Religious Pluralism and Islamic Law: Dhimmis and Others in the Empire of Law, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199661633, pp. 99-109
  57. ^ Majid Khadduri (2010), War and Peace in the Law of Islam, Johns Hopkins University Press; pp. 162–224; ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6
  58. ^ The Sikhism Home Page: Sri Guru Granth Sahib
  59. ^ Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan
  60. ^ What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy
  61. ^ Nasr, Seyyed. Mecca, The Blessed, Medina, The Radiant: The Holiest Cities of Islam. Aperture. 2005
  62. ^ a b Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, JPS 12:1, pp. 29-62
  63. ^ Singh, Prof. Kartar (2003-01-01). Life Story Of Guru Nanak. Hemkunt Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-81-7010-162-8. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  64. ^ Singh, Inderpal; Kaur, Madanjit; University, Guru Nanak Dev (1997). Guru Nanak, a global vision. Guru Nanak Dev University. ASIN B0000CP9NT. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  65. ^ Shah, Giriraj (1999). Saints, gurus and mystics of India. Cosmo Publications. p. 378. ISBN 81-7020-856-4. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  66. ^ V. D. Mahajan (1970). Muslim Rule In India. S. Chand, New Delhi, p.223.
  67. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=sTZuAAAAMAAJ&dq=aurangzeb&q=tegh#search_anchor
  68. ^ Siṅgha, Kirapāla (2006). Select documents on Partition of Punjab-1947. National Book. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-7116-445-5. 
  69. ^ William Irvine (2012). Later Mughals. Harvard Press. ISBN 9781290917766. 
  70. ^ Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. 
  71. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 653–691. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5. 
  72. ^ Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2. 
  73. ^ Kohli, Mohindar (1992). Guru Tegh Bahadur : testimony of conscience. pp. 33–61. ISBN 978-81-7201-234-2. 
  74. ^ Singh, Prithi Pal. The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 81-8382-075-1. 
  75. ^ Abel, Ernest. "Life of Banda Singh". 
  76. ^ a b Pandey, Gyanendra (2001). Remembering partition violence, nationalism, and history in India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–19, 83–88, 153–158. ISBN 978-0-521-00250-9. 
  77. ^ http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/268650/pinoyabroad/worldfeatures/sikhs-often-mistaken-for-muslims-call-for-better-understanding-of-their-religion
  78. ^ "Forced" Conversions: An Investigation
  79. ^ Protest march over 'conversions'
  80. ^ "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – World". Tribuneindia.com. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  81. ^ "Pak Sikhs seeks security, Indian citizenship". PunjabNewsline.com. 2010-02-23. Retrieved 2010-03-09. 
  82. ^ G.G. Nahas (1982). "Hashish in Islam 9th to 18th century". Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 58 (9): 814–831. 
  83. ^ Schaefer, Robert (2010). The insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus from gazavat to jihad. Praeger. p. 145. ISBN 978-0-313-38634-3. 
  84. ^ Lawton, David (1993). Blasphemy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-8122-1503-8. 
  85. ^ Baldock, John (2004). The essence of Sufism. Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, Inc. p. Chapter 4. ISBN 978-0-7858-1860-1. 
  86. ^ Abbas, Shemeem (2013). Pakistan's Blasphemy Laws : From Islamic Empires To The Taliban. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. pp. 129–134. ISBN 978-0-292-74530-8. 
  87. ^ Deol, Harnik (2000). Religion and Nationalism in India. London and New York: Routledge. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-415-20108-7. 
  88. ^ Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. Sanbun Publishers. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-93-80213-25-5. 
  89. ^ a b Valentine, Simon (2008). Islam and the Ahmadiyya jamaʻat : history, belief, practice. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 130–134. ISBN 978-0-231-70094-8. 
  90. ^ Gualtieri, Antonio (2004). The Ahmadis community, gender, and politics in a Muslim society. Montreal, Que: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-7735-2738-6. 
  91. ^ Khan, Adil (2015). From Sufism to Ahmadiyya a Muslim minority movement in South Asia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 22–27. ISBN 978-0-253-01523-5. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]