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- an extremely conservative view of Islam, which doesn't necessarily entail violence even though it may have an emphasis on Jihad; see Islamic fundamentalism, and
- the use of extreme tactics such as bombing and assassinations for achieving perceived Islamic goals; see Jihadism.
Extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites. From their essentially political position, they developed extreme doctrines that further set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shiʿa Muslims. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to Takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death.
Zeyno Baran, Senior Fellow and Director of the Center for Eurasian Policy at the Hudson Institute, argues Islamist extremism and Islamism are better terms, to distinguish the political ideology from the religion.
- Islamic extremist groups
- Islamic extremism in Northern Nigeria
- Islamic extremism in the United States
- Islamic extremism in Mali
- 20th-century radical Islam in Egypt#Islamic extremism in the media
- Brian R. Farmer (2007). Understanding radical Islam: medieval ideology in the twenty-first century. Peter Lang. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8204-8843-1.
- Jason F. Isaacson; Colin Lewis Rubenstein (2002). Islam in Asia: changing political realities. Transaction Publishers. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-7658-0769-4.
- Ira Marvin Lapidus (2002). A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 823. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3.
- Baran, Zeyno (2008-07-10). "The Roots of Violent Islamist Extremism and Efforts to Counter It" (PDF). Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
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