Islamic Republican Party

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Islamic Republican Party
Historical leader Ruhollah Khomeini
Founders
Founded February 17, 1979 (1979-02-17)[1]
Dissolved June 1, 1987 (1987-06-01)[1]
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Newspaper Islamic Republican[2]
Paramilitary wing Revolutionary Guards[3]
Worker wing Workers' House
Membership  (1979) 2,500,000 claimed[4]
Ideology Internal factions:
Political position Right-wing to Left-wing[7]
Religion Shia Islam
National affiliation Grand Coalition[8]
Slogan One nation, one religion, one order, one leader[2]

The Islamic Republican Party (IRP; Persian: حزب جمهوری اسلامی‎, translit. Ḥezb-e Jomhūrī-e Eslāmī‎, also translated Islamic Republic Party) formed in mid-1979 to assist the Iranian Revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini establish theocracy in Iran. It was disbanded in May 1987 due to internal conflicts.

Founders and characteristics[edit]

The party was formed just two weeks following the revolution upon the request of Ayatollah Khomeini.[9] Five cofounders of the party were Mohammad Javad Bahonar, Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Ali Khamenei, and Abdolkarim Mousavi-Ardabili.[9][10] Early members of the central committee of the party, in addition to founding members, were Hassan Ayat, Asadollah Badamchiyan, Abdullah Jasbi, Mir Hossein Mousavi, Habibollah Askar Oladi, Sayyed Mahmoud Kashani, Mahdi Araghi and Ali Derakhshan.[10] The party had three general secretaries: Beheshti, Bahonar and Khamenei.[10]

The party has been said to be distinguished by "its strong clerical component, its loyalty to Khomeini, its strong animosity to the liberal political movements, and its tendency to support the revolutionary organizations," such as the komiteh. Policies it supported included the state takeover of large capital enterprises, the establishment of an Islamic cultural and university system, and programs to assist the poor.[11]

These revolutionary ayatollahs originally used the party to form a monopoly over the post-revolutionary theocratic Iranian state. In its struggle with civilian opponents the party made use of its ties to the Revolutionary Guards and Hezbollah.

Secretary-generals[edit]

Name Tenure Ref
Mohammad Beheshti 1979–1981 [10]
Mohammad Javad Bahonar 1981 [10]
Ali Khamenei 1981–1987 [10]

Causes of its dissolution[edit]

In the late 1980s, factionalism in the IRP intensified, the major issues being the Iran-Iraq War, whether to open up to foreign countries or remain isolated, and economic policies. Because all rival parties had been banned, the party "did almost nothing and had little incentive to."[12]

According to Ahmad Mneisi,

"While unanimous on the idea of a theological state and united under the umbrella of one party, the Islamic Republican Party (IRP), [the religious right] differed on a number of issues, such as the extent to which religion is to take hold of political life (the Velayat-e Faqih debate).[13]

Daniel Brumberg argued that it was in response to the dispute between president Ali Khamenei and popular prime Minister Mir-Hossein Mousavi, that the IRP was dissolved - the Islamic Republican Party served "as a stronghold of radical activism," supporting Mousavi.[14] However, another report states that it was dissolved in May 1987 due to internal conflicts.[10][15] And the party was disbanded upon joint proposal of Rafsanjani and then party leader Khameini on 2 May 1987 when their proposal was endorsed by Ayatollah Khomeini.[9]

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and republican party[edit]

Hashemi refers to the point that the Islamic Republican Party established in the early years of revolution in Iran. Rouhollah Khomeini, at first step, was disagree with establishment of Party because he known the establishment of party as something gradually. But After consultation of Hashemi with Khomeini, the opinion of Rouhollah has changed. There were many negotiations and consultations on the instructions of Party .somebodies like Yadollah sahabi and Habib Allah Peyman were to communicate but after a while there were no communication with them. Although Murtaza Mutahhari had not any disagreement to establishing party but at the same time he hadn’t any communication with party. In fact, the idea of establishment of republic party was necessary in order to give the Mullahs an organization and political collection. The party has established formally in sixth of Isfand month in 1357 solar namely two weeks after the victory of Islamic revolution. The members of republic party even determined their members in Kanoon Touhid in early days. The financial expenses of party originated from the voluntary aids of people. At first, religious scholars or Mullahs took part in the republic party.In early days there were no financial problem but after a while the problem appeared. Rouhollah tried to give financial aid to republic party with giving money. The members primarily chose from revolutionary individuals and believed persons.[16]

Allied organizations[edit]

The following organizations formed an alliance with the party:[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d John H. Lorentz (2010). "Islamic Republican Party (IRP)". The A to Z of Iran. The A to Z Guide Series. 209. Scarecrow Press. pp. 143–144. ISBN 1461731917. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Ervand Abrahamian (1989). Radical Islam: the Iranian Mojahedin. I.B.Tauris. pp. 42–45. ISBN 9781850430773. 
  3. ^ Said Amir Arjomand (1988). The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. Studies in Middle Eastern history. Oxford University Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780195042580. 
  4. ^ New Iran bursting with mass politics, Detroit Free Press, 20 June 1979, p. 28 
  5. ^ Ghorashi, Halleh (2002), Ways to survive, battles to win: Iranian women exiles in the Netherlands and United States, Nova Publishers, p. 63, ISBN 978-1-59033-552-9 
  6. ^ M Nasif Sharani (2013). Esposito, John L.; Shahin, Emad El-Din, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 196. ISBN 9780195395891. 
  7. ^ a b c Antoine, Olivier; Sfeir, Roy (2007), The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, Columbia University Press, p. 150 
  8. ^ Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (2014). A Critical Introduction to Khomeini. Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-107-72906-3. 
  9. ^ a b c Behrooz, Maziar (October 1994). "Factionalism in Iran under Khomeini". Middle Eastern Studies. 27 (4): 597–614. JSTOR 4283464. doi:10.1080/00263209108700879. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Asayesh, Hossein; Adlina Ab. Halim; Jayum A. Jawan; Seyedeh Nosrat Shojaei (March 2011). "Political Party in Islamic Republic of Iran: A Review". Journal of Politics and Law. 4 (1). Retrieved 29 July 2013. 
  11. ^ Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs, (1984), p. 67
  12. ^ Keddie, Nikkie, Modern Iran, 2003, pp. 259-60
  13. ^ Mneisi, Ahmad. 2004. The Power shift within Iran's right wing Ahram, 5 July 2004
  14. ^ Brumberg, Daniel, Reinventing Khomeini : The Struggle for Reform in Iran, University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 134
  15. ^ Nikou, Semira N. "Timeline of Iran's Political Events". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  16. ^ polotical party from Ayatollah Rafsanjani. methodology of oral history. 2000. pp. 275–286. 
  17. ^ Mohammadighalehtaki, Ariabarzan (2012). Organisational Change in Political Parties in Iran after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. With Special Reference to the Islamic Republic Party (IRP) and the Islamic Iran Participation Front Party (Mosharekat) (Ph.D. thesis). Durham University. p. 165. 

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