List of Muslim states and dynasties

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This article lists some of the states, empires, or dynasties that were ruled by a Muslim elite, or which were in some way central to or a part of a Muslim empire. Many Muslim empires had strong influences on the visual arts, architecture, music and food.

Scholars debate what exactly constitutes an empire. Generally, they may define an empire as a state that extends dominion over areas and populations distinct culturally and ethnically from the culture/ethnicity at the center of power.[citation needed]


In the centuries after the life of Muhammad, Muslim armies poured out into all surrounding areas, bringing the lands from India to Spain under their control. With this huge amount of land under their control, the Umayia (and later, the Abbasid) Caliphates allowed merchants and scholars to travel easily through western Eurasia, bringing goods and knowledge which the Muslims greatly expanded upon through the Caliphate and outward to less advanced regions, such as Western Europe. In 751, papermaking from China made its way to the West through Muslims. Trade introduced Islam to the Africans. In the Middle East, the success of Islam meant that culture would be changed forever. Even after the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate, Islam would remain as one of the base institutions of the region. Future states of the region, such as the Safavid, Seljuk, and Ottoman and Mughal Empires, were all "Islamic Empires".


Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent

Regional empires[edit]

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha

Grouped by capital or core region

Middle East[edit]

Anatolia (Turkey)
Arabian peninsula

Africa & Spain[edit]

Excluding Egypt, which is considered part of Middle East

Other Europe and Russia[edit]



Central Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Taj Mahal

Southeast Asia[edit]

Malay Archipelago (East Indies)

See also[edit]


External links[edit]