Islamic hygienical jurisprudence
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Islamic hygienical jurisprudence includes a number of regulations involving cleanliness during salat (obligatory prayer) through wudu (partial ablution) and ghusl (full ablution), as well as dietary laws and toilet etiquette for Muslims. The fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) is based on admonitions in the Quran for Muslims to be ritually clean whenever possible, as well as in hadith literature (words, actions, or habits of the Islamic prophet Muhammad).
Cleanliness is an important part of Islam, including Quranic verses that teach how to achieve ritual cleanliness. Keeping oral hygiene through cleaning the teeth with the use of a form of toothbrush called miswak is considered sunnah, the way of Prophet Muhammad. Ritual ablution is also very important, as observed by the practices of wudu, ghusl, and tayammum (water-free alternative using any natural surface such as rock, sand, or dust).
In Muslim-majority countries, bathrooms are often equipped with a bidet. This ablution is required in order to maintain ritual cleanliness. The common Muslims practice of taking off shoes when entering mosques and homes is also based on ritual cleanliness.
Islamic cleanliness and hygiene
Sunni Islam has its own hygienical jurisprudence. It is preferable for a Sunni Muslim to remove the hair directly below the navel and under the arms also as trimming the nails once a week. Leaving hair and nails is permissible after 15 days and disliked after 40 days. The best day for removing needless hair and cutting nails is Friday. It is permissible to use shaving cream to remove needless hair. Needless hair and nails should be buried to prevent illnesses from spreading. Cutting eyebrows is permissible if they are too long. Sunni women should put their nails and hair removed from the head, below the navel, and under the arms in a place where no non-permissible men can see it.
Personal grooming is also a matter of focus in Islam, and comprises all the ritual purity practices known as fitra. Allowing a beard to grow while trimming the moustache is emphasized with it being seen as mandatory by all respected Sunni scholars from the four major Sunni schools of jurisprudence.
Islamic dietary laws
Islamic dietary laws provide a set of rules as to what Muslims eat in their diet. These rules specify the food that is halāl, meaning lawful. They are found in the Quran, usually detailing what is unlawful, or harām.
Islamic genital hygiene
Islamic toilet etiquette
Issues of laterality, such as whether one uses the left or right hand and the foot used to step into or out of toilet areas, are derived from hadith sources. The only issue which the Qur'an mentions is the one of washing one's hands especially after using the toilet which is mentioned in verse 5:6.
Examples of these rules include, but are not limited to:
- It is strongly discouraged to relieve oneself into flowing water.
- It is preferable to step into the bathroom with the left foot and step outside the bathroom with the right foot.
- One should remain silent whilst on the toilet. Talking, answering greetings or greeting others is disliked.
- One should not face nor turn one's back on Qibla (the direction Muslims face to pray) whilst relieving oneself.
- When leaving the toilet one should say , "O Allah! Bestow your forgiveness upon me."
- Use of toilet paper is acceptable, but washing with water is still needed for purity and to minimize germs present in feces from touching the skin.
Islamic sexual hygiene
When there is discharge of thick, cloudy white fluid (wady) (that exits before or after urinating) or unlustful discharge of thin, sticky, white fluid (madhy) caused by play or kissing, it requires washing the private parts and wudu.
Regarding things that necessitates ghusl:
- sperm or female ejaculate that leaves its place of origin with desire [f: whether actual or effective], even if it exits the body without desire, even if without sexual intercourse;
- the head of the penis entering either private part of a living human being who is fit for sexual intercourse, even without any release of sexual fluids…”
After partaking in sexual activity where penetration or ejaculation occurs, both men and women are required to complete a full-body ritual ablution known as ghusl in order to re-establish ritual purity before prayer. Ghusl requires clean, odorless water that has not been used for a previous ritual and begins with the declaration of the intention of purity and worship. A Muslim performing complete ablution then washes every part of his or her body.
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