Jesus in Islam
|Native name||ʿĪsā - عيسى|
|Predecessor||Yahya (John the Baptist)|
| Part of a series on Islam
Isa Ibn Maryam (Arabic: عيسى بن مريم, translit.: ʿĪsā ibn Maryām; English: Jesus, son of Mary), or Jesus in the New Testament, is considered to be a Messenger of God and al-Masih (the Messiah) in Islam:30 who was sent to guide the Children of Israel (banī isrā'īl) with a new scripture, al-Injīl (the Gospel). The belief that Jesus is a prophet is required in Islam. This is reflected in the fact that he is clearly a significant figure in the Quran, appearing in 93 ayaat (or verses) with various titles attached, with Moses appearing 136 times and Abraham 69 times. The Quran states that Jesus was born a 'pure boy' to Mary (Arabic: Maryam) as the result of virginal conception, a miraculous event which occurred by the decree of God the Creator (Arabic: Allah) which follows the belief of the prophetic message in the Old Testament passage Isaiah 7:14 and referenced in the New Testament passages Matthew 1:18-25 and Luke 1:26-38. To aid in his ministry to the Jewish people, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles (such as healing various ailments like blindness, raising the dead to life, casting out demons, etc.) which no other prophet in Islam has ever been credited with, all according to God's will. According to the Quran, Jesus, although appearing to have been crucified, was not killed by crucifixion or by any other means. This view disagrees with the foundation of the Gospel. Instead, the Quran says "God raised him unto Himself," which happens to agree with the Gospel message of Isa ascending into heaven. In the 19th Sura of the Quran (verse 33), Jesus is believed to have said "And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive", a similar statement that John the Baptist declared a few verses earlier in the same Sura. Muslim tradition believes this to mean Jesus will experience a natural death with all mankind after returning to earth, being raised to life again on the day of judgment.
Like all prophets in Islam, Jesus is considered a Muslim (i.e., one who submits to the will of God), as he preached that his followers should adopt the "straight path" as commanded by God. Traditionally, Islam teaches the rejection of the Trinitarian Christian view that Jesus was God incarnate or the son of God. The Quran says that Jesus himself never claimed to be the Son of God, and it furthermore indicates that Jesus will deny having ever claimed divinity at the Last Judgment, and God will vindicate him. Islamic texts forbid the association of partners with God (shirk), emphasizing a strict notion that God is singular, or "one" (tawhīd).
Numerous titles are given to Jesus in the Quran and in Islamic literature, the most common being al-Masīḥ ("the Messiah"). Jesus is also, at times, called "Seal of the Israelite Prophets", because, in general Muslim belief, Jesus was the last prophet sent by God to guide the Children of Israel. Jesus is traditionally understood in Islam to have been a precursor to Muhammad, and is believed by Muslims to have foretold the latter's coming; however, according to Muslim scholars this prophecy, in the Chapter Al-Saff verse six, is referring to Ahmad. Some Islamic scholars see this as the controversial mistranslation of Paraclete from Greek to Arabic.
Jesus is unique for being the only prophet in Islam who neither married nor had any children. Muslims believe that Jesus will return to earth near the Day of Judgment to restore justice and to defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal ("the false messiah", also known as the Antichrist). Jesus will not return as a new prophet; Muhammad was the final prophet, but will continue from where he left off at the time of his ascension. He will live for another forty years before dying a natural death.
- 1 Jesus narrative
- 2 In Islamic thought
- 3 Appearance
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
The Quranic account of Jesus begins with a prologue, which describes the birth of his mother, Mary, and her service in the Jerusalem temple, while under the care of the prophet and priest Zechariah, who was to be the father of John the Baptist. The Quran then goes on to describe the conception of Jesus. Mary, whom the Quran states was chosen by God over the women of all the worlds, conceives Jesus while still a virgin.
Mary had withdrawn into the Temple, where she was visited by the angel Gabriel (Arabic: Jibrail) who brought the glad tidings of a holy son. The Quran states that God sent the message through the angel Gabriel to Mary, that God had honoured her among the women of all nations. The angel also told Mary that she would give birth to a pure son, named Isa (Jesus), who would be a great prophet, to whom God would give the Gospel. The angel further told Mary that Jesus would speak in infancy and maturity and be a companion to the most righteous. When this news was given to Mary, she asked the angel how she could conceive and have a child when no man had touched her. The angel replied: "Even so: Allah createth what He willeth: When He hath decreed a plan, He but saith to it, 'Be,' and it is!" The Quran, therefore, states that Jesus was created from the act of God's will. The Quran compares this miraculous creation of Jesus with the creation of Adam, where God created Adam by his act of will (kun-fa-yakun, meaning "Be and it is."). According to the Quran, the same answer was given to the question of Zechariah, when he asked how his wife, Elizabeth, could conceive a baby, as she was very old.
Birth of Jesus
The Quran narrates the virgin birth of Jesus numerous times.
In Quran, When the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary: 19:16 And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east. 19:17 And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man. 19:18 She said, "Indeed, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah ." 19:19 He said, "I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy." 19:20 She said, "How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?" 19:21 He said, "Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, 'It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already] decreed.' "
The Quran states that Mary was overcome by the pains of childbirth. During her agony and helplessness, God provided a stream of water under her feet from which she could drink. Furthermore, near a palm tree, Mary was told to shake the trunk of the palm tree so that ripe dates would fall down and she could eat and be nourished. Mary cried in pain and held onto the palm tree, at which point a voice came from "beneath her", understood by some to refer to Jesus, who was yet in her womb, which said, "Grieve not! Your Lord has provided a water stream under you; And shake the trunk of the palm tree, it will let fall fresh ripe dates upon you. And eat and drink and calm thy mind." That day, Mary gave birth to her son Jesus in the middle of the desert.
Mary carried baby Jesus back to her people. The Quran goes on to describe that Mary vowed not to speak to anyone that day, as God was to make Jesus, who Muslims believe spoke in the cradle, perform his first miracle. The Quran goes on to narrate that Mary then brought Jesus to the temple, where she was immediately ridiculed by all the temple elders. But Zachariah believed in the virgin birth and supported her. The elders accused Mary of being a loose woman and having touched another man while unmarried. In response, Mary pointed to her son, telling them to talk to him. They were angered at this and thought she was mocking them, by asking them to speak with an infant. It was then that God made the infant Jesus speak from the cradle and he spoke of his prophecy for the first time. He said, which are verses 19:30-33 in the chapter of Mary in the Quran:
He said: "I am indeed a servant of Allah: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet;
And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live;
(He) hath made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable;
So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)!"
According to Islamic texts, Jesus was divinely chosen to preach the message of monotheism and submission to the will of God to the Children of Israel (banī isrā'īl).
Muslims believe that God revealed to Jesus a new scripture, al-Injīl (the Gospel), while also declaring the truth of the previous revelations: al-Tawrat (the Torah) and al-Zabur (the Psalms). The Quran speaks favorably of al-Injīl, which it describes as a scripture that fills the hearts of its followers with meekness and piety. The Quran says that the original biblical message has been distorted or corrupted (tahrif) over time. In chapter 3, verse 3, and chapter 5, verses 46-47, of the Quran, the revelation of al-Injil is mentioned:
It is He Who sent down to thee (step by step), in truth, the Book, confirming what went before it; and He sent down the Law (of Moses) and the Gospel (of Jesus) before this, as a guide to mankind, and He sent down the criterion (of judgment between right and wrong).
And in their footsteps We sent Isa the son of Maryam, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.
Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.
The Quran states that Jesus was aided by a group of disciples who believed in His message. While not naming the disciples, the Quran does give a few instances of Jesus preaching the message to them. The Quran mentions in chapter 3, verses 52-53, that the disciples submitted in the faith of Islam:
When Jesus found Unbelief on their part He said: "Who will be My helpers to (the work of) Allah?" Said the disciples: "We are Allah's helpers: We believe in Allah, and do thou bear witness that we are Muslims.
Our Lord! we believe in what Thou hast revealed, and we follow the Messenger; then write us down among those who bear witness."— Quran Surah Al-Imran 52-53
The longest narrative involving Jesus' disciples is when they request a laden table to be sent from Heaven, for further proof that Jesus is preaching the true message:
Behold! the disciples, said: "O Jesus the son of Mary! can thy Lord send down to us a table set (with viands) from heaven?" Said Jesus: "Fear Allah, if ye have faith."
They said: "We only wish to eat thereof and satisfy our hearts, and to know that thou hast indeed told us the truth; and that we ourselves may be witnesses to the miracle."
Said Jesus the son of Mary: "O Allah our Lord! Send us from heaven a table set (with viands), that there may be for us—for the first and the last of us—a solemn festival and a sign from thee; and provide for our sustenance, for thou art the best Sustainer (of our needs)."
Allah said: "I will send it down unto you: But if any of you after that resisteth faith, I will punish him with a penalty such as I have not inflicted on any one among all the peoples."— Quran Surah Al-Ma'ida 112-115
Islamic texts categorically deny the idea of crucifixion or death attributed to Jesus by the New Testament. The Quran states that people (i.e., the Jews and Romans) sought to kill Jesus, but they did not crucify nor kill him, although "this was made to appear to them". Muslims believe that Jesus was not crucified but instead, he was raised up by God unto the heavens. This "raising" is often understood to mean through bodily ascension.
And they said we have killed the Messiah Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God. They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, though it was made to appear like that to them; those that disagreed about him are full of doubt, with no knowledge to follow, only supposition: they certainly did not kill him. On the contrary, God raised him unto himself. God is almighty and wise.
Discussing the interpretation of those scholars who deny the crucifixion, the Encyclopaedia of Islam writes:
The denial, furthermore, is in perfect agreement with the logic of the Quran. The Biblical stories reproduced in it (e.g., Job, Moses, Joseph, etc.) and the episodes relating to the history of the beginning of Islam demonstrate that it is "God's practice" (sunnat Allah) to make faith triumph finally over the forces of evil and adversity. "So truly with hardship comes ease", (XCIV, 5, 6). For Jesus to die on the cross would have meant the triumph of his executioners; but the Quran asserts that they undoubtedly failed: "Assuredly God will defend those who believe"; (XXII, 49). He confounds the plots of the enemies of Christ (III, 54).
While most western scholars, Jews, and Christians believe Jesus died, Muslims believe he ascended to Heaven without being put on the cross and God transformed another person, Simon of Cyrene, to appear exactly like Jesus who was crucified instead of Jesus (cf. Irenaeuus' description of the heresy of Basilides, Book I, ch. XXIV, 4) Matthew 27:32 Mark 15:21 Luke 23:26. Jesus ascended bodily to Heaven, there to remain until his Second Coming in the End Days.
According to Islamic tradition which describes this graphically, Jesus' descent will be in the midst of wars fought by al-Mahdi (lit. "the rightly guided one"), known in Islamic eschatology as the redeemer of Islam, against al-Masīh ad-Dajjāl (the Antichrist "False messiah") and his followers. Jesus will descend at the point of a white arcade, east of Damascus, dressed in yellow robes—his head anointed. He will say prayer behind al-Mahdi then join him in his war against the Dajjal. Jesus, considered as a Muslim, will abide by the Islamic teachings. Eventually, Jesus will slay the Antichrist, and then everyone who is one of the People of the Book (ahl al-kitāb, referring to Jews and Christians) will believe in him. Thus, there will be one community, that of Islam.
Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 43: Kitab-ul-`Ilm (Book of Knowledge), Hâdith Number 656:
Allah's Apostle said, "The Hour will not be established until the son of Mary (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you as a just ruler, he will break the cross, kill the pigs, and abolish the Jizya tax. Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it (as charitable gifts)."— Narrated by Abu Huraira
After the death of al-Mahdi, Jesus will assume leadership. This is a time associated in Islamic narrative with universal peace and justice. Islamic texts also allude to the appearance of Ya'juj and Ma'juj (known also as Gog and Magog), ancient tribes which will disperse and cause disturbance on earth. God, in response to Jesus' prayers, will kill them by sending a type of worm in the napes of their necks. Jesus' rule is said to be around forty years, after which he will die. Muslims will then perform the funeral prayer for him and then bury him in the city of Medina in a grave left vacant beside Muhammad, Abu Bakr, and Umar (companions of Muhammad and the first and second Sunni caliphs (Rashidun)) respectively.
In Islamic thought
and other religions
Jesus is described by various means in the Quran. The most common reference to Jesus occurs in the form of "Ibn Maryam" (son of Mary), sometimes preceded with another title. Jesus is also recognized as a prophet (nabī) and messenger (rasūl) of God. The terms wadjih ("worthy of esteem in this world and the next"), mubārak ("blessed", or "a source of benefit for others"), `abd-Allāh (servant of God) are all used in the Quran in reference to Jesus.
Another title frequently mentioned is al-Masīḥ, which translates to "the Messiah". This does not correspond to the Christian concepts of Messiah, being closer to those of Judaism. Islam traditionally regards all prophets, including Jesus, to be mortal and without any share in divinity. Muslim exegetes explain the use of the word masīh in the Quran as referring to Jesus' status as the one anointed by means of blessings and honors; or as the one who helped cure the sick, by anointing the eyes of the blind, for example. Quranic verses also employ the term "kalimat Allah" (meaning the "word of God") as a descriptive term for Jesus, which is interpreted as a reference to the creating Word of God, uttered at the moment of Jesus' conception; or as recognition of Jesus' status as a messenger of God, speaking on God's behalf.
Isa is also called the Spirit of Allah (Ruh-Allah). Some Muslim scholars hold the view that (Spirit) refers to Sayyidna Jibra’il, but some say that it refers to Sayyidna; ‘Isa himself. Allah Ta‘ala had placed before Sayyidah Maryam the likeness of the son to be born to her. But the former version is more appropriate and is confirmed by the statement that follows. Ruh-Ullah - Spirit of God: a special title given by Prophet Muhammad (S. A.) to Jesus (A. A.).
Islamic texts regard Jesus as a human being and a righteous messenger of God. Islam rejects the idea of him being God or the begotten Son of God. According to Islamic scriptures, the belief that Jesus is God or Son of God is shirk, or the association of partners with God, and thereby a rejection of God's divine oneness (tawhid) and the sole unpardonable sin. All other sins may be forgiven through true repentance: shirk speaks of associating partners with God after having received the Divine Guidance, as it is said in the Quran and Hadith that when one submits to God (i.e. embraces Islam), their "accounts" (of sins and righteous deeds used to determine the standing of a person on the Last Day) are numbered from that moment. A verse from the Quran reads:
They have certainly disbelieved who say that Allah is Christ, the son of Mary. Say, "Then who could prevent Allah at all if He had intended to destroy Christ, the son of Mary, or his mother or everyone on the earth?" And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them. He creates what He wills, and Allah is over all things competent."
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity is traditionally rejected by most adherents to Islam. Such notions of the divinity of Jesus, Muslims state, is believed to be the result of human interpolations of God's revelation. Islam traditionally views Jesus as a human like all other prophets before him, who preached that salvation came through submission to God's will and worshiping God alone. Thus, Jesus is considered in Islam to have been a Muslim by the definition of the term (i.e., one who submits to God's will), as were all other prophets in Islam.
An alternative, more esoteric interpretation is expounded by Messianic Muslims in the Sufi and Isma'ili traditions so as to unite Islam, Christianity and Judaism into a single religious continuum. Other Messianic Muslims hold a similar theological view regarding Jesus, without attempting to unite the religions. Making use of the New Testament's distinguishing between Jesus, Son of Man - being the physical human Jesus – and Christ, Son of God - being The Holy Spirit of God residing in the body of Jesus – The Holy Spirit, being immortal and immaterial, is not subject to crucifixion, for it can never die, nor can it be touched by the earthly nails of the crucifixion, for it is a being of pure spirit. Thus while the spirit of Christ avoided crucifixion by ascending unto God, the body that was Jesus was sacrificed on the cross, thereby bringing the Old Testament to final fulfillment. Thus Quranic passages on the death of Jesus affirm that while the Pharisees intended to destroy The Son of God completely, they, in fact, succeeded only in killing The Son of Man, being his nasut (material being). Meanwhile, The Son of God, being his lahut (spiritual being) remained alive and undying – because it is The Holy Spirit.
Precursor to Muhammad
|Lineage of six prominent prophets according to Islamic tradition|
|Dotted lines indicate multiple generations|
The tree shown right depicts lineage. Muslims believe that Jesus was a precursor to Muhammad, and that he announced the latter's coming. They base this on a verse of the Quran wherein Jesus speaks of a messenger to appear after him named Ahmad. Islam associates Ahmad with Muhammad, both words deriving from the h-m-d triconsonantal root which refers to praiseworthiness. Muslims also assert that evidence of Jesus' pronouncement is present in the New Testament, citing the mention of the Paraclete whose coming is foretold in the Gospel of John.
Muslim commentators claim that the original Greek word used was periklutos, meaning famed, illustrious, or praiseworthy—rendered in Arabic as Ahmad; and that this was replaced by Christians with parakletos. Islamic scholars debate whether this traditional understanding is supported by the text of the Quran. Responding to Ibn Ishaq's biography of Muhammad, the Sirat Rasul Allah, Islamic scholar Alfred Guillaume wrote:
Coming back to the term "Ahmad", Muslims have suggested that Ahmad is the translation of periklutos, celebrated or the Praised One, which is a corruption of parakletos, the Paraclete of John XIV, XV and XVI.
Jesus is widely venerated in Muslim ascetic and mystic literature, such as in Muslim mystic Al-Ghazzali's Ihya `ulum ad-Din ("The revival of the religious sciences"). These works lay stress upon Jesus' poverty, his preoccupation with worship, his detachment from worldly life and his miracles. Such depictions also include advice and sermons which are attributed to him. Later Sufic commentaries adapted material from Christian gospels which were consistent with their ascetic portrayal. Sufi philosopher Ibn Arabi described Jesus as "the seal of universal holiness" due to the quality of his faith and "because he holds in his hands the keys of living breath and because he is at present in a state of deprivation and journeying".
Common ground with Christianity
Isa is the son of a virgin named Maryam (“Mary” in English), who is a role model for faithful women. Isa is a prophet filled with the Holy Spirit (surat 2 Al-Baqarah, 87) and the messiah in both religions (but the Christians add that besides having a human nature, he would be God too, which the Quran clearly denies). Isa is the “word of truth” (surat 19 Maryam, 34). Isa, through God’s power and will, cures the blind and the leper, raises the dead to life and knows what you eat and what you store in your houses (surat 3 'Ali `Imran, 49). And Isa will come back at the end of times to help destroy the Masih ad-Dajjal or false messiah (Hadith 46.31).
Based upon several Hadith narrations of Muhammad, Jesus can be physically described thus (with any differences in Jesus’ physical description being due to Muhammad describing him when seeing him at different occasions, such as in a dream, during his ascension to Heaven, or when describing Jesus during Jesus' second coming):
- A well-built man of medium/moderate/average height and stature with a broad chest.
- Straight, lank, slightly curly, long hair that fell between his shoulders.
- A moderate, fair complexion of red or finest brown.
"I was shown the Prophets in front of me, and Moosaa resembles the men of the tribe of Shanu’ah, and I saw ‘Eesaa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), may Allaah exalt his mention, and the person who resembles him most is 'Urwa ibn Mas'ud al-Thaqafi, and I saw Ibraaheem and the person who resembles him most is your companion (referring to himself) and I saw Jibreel (the angel Gabriel), and the person who resembles him most is Dihyah."
Similar to mainstream Islamic views, the Ahmadiyya Movement consider Jesus was a prophet and a mortal man, but go a step further to describe Jesus, who was indeed raised on cross and remained on the cross for the sixth hour until darkness and thunderstorm accompanied. Jesus was dismounted from the cross in an unconscious/alive condition. He was treated for 3 days and nights by saint physician Necdemus in a cave like tomb (especially built for Joseph of Armetia). Thereafter, prophet Jesus recuperated from his wounds, met his trusted disciples/apostles on the mount of olives and soon left Judea towards the sea of Galilee on his way to Damascus. After his dramatic escape from crucifixion, prophet Jesus traveled to the eastern lands in search of the 10 lost tribes of Israel. He never overstayed for an extended/longer period as he traversed through Syria, Babylonia and Persia. Finally, he died a natural death in Kashmir, India as opposed to having been raised up alive to Heaven. Hence, there is no question of his physical return to earth in the End Days. Prophecies about his second coming are taken metaphorically to express the coming of a person in the likeness of Jesus which Ahmadis believe have been fulfilled with the advent of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the movement.
Although the view of Jesus having journeyed to India before crucifixion had also been researched in the literature of authors independent of and predating the foundation of the movement, Ghulam Ahmad was the first to propose a post-crucifixion journey and the Ahmadiyya Movement are the only religious organization to adopt this view as a characteristic of their faith, independently of earlier authors.
- Smith, Cyril Glassé ; introduction by Huston (2001). The new encyclopedia of Islam (Édition révisée. ed.). Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. p. 239. ISBN 9780759101906.
- Parrinder, Geoffrey (1996). Jesus in the Quran. Oxford Oneworld. ISBN 1851680942.
- The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, p.158
- Gregory A. Barker and Stephen E. Gregg, "Jesus Beyond Christianity: The Classic Texts (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 84.
- Quran, 5th Surah, vs. 116.
- "Isa", Encyclopedia of Islam
- Encyclopedia of the Quran, Jesus
- Quran 3:33–37
- Quran 3:45
- Quran 3:43
- Quran 3:47
- Quran 3:59
- Quran 19:8–9
- Quran 19:30–33
- "Yahya b. Zakariyya", Encyclopedia of Islam.
- Quran 3:3
- Quran 5:46–47
- Quran 3:52–53
- Quran 5:112–115
- For instance; Matthew chapter 27, Mark chapter 15, Luke chapter 23, and John chapter 19
- Quran 4:157–158
- Crossan, John Dominic (1995). Jesus: A Revolutionary Biography. HarperOne. p. 145. ISBN 0-06-061662-8. "That he was crucified is as sure as anything historical can ever be, since both Josephus and Tacitus...agree with the Christian accounts on at least that basic fact."
- Josephus Antiquities 18.3.3
- Sanhedrin 43a.
- "Wherefore he did not himself suffer death, but Simon, a certain man of Cyrene, being compelled, bore the cross in his stead; so that this latter being transfigured by him, that he might be thought to be Jesus, was crucified, through ignorance and error, while Jesus himself received the form of Simon, and, standing by, laughed at them. For since he was an incorporeal power, and the Nous (mind) of the unborn father, he transfigured himself as he pleased, and thus ascended to him who had sent him, deriding them, inasmuch as he could not be laid hold of, and was invisible to all." Church Fathers – Against Heresies, I_24 (St. Irenaeus) – New Advent
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- Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:43:656
- "She said: "O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man hath touched me?" He said: "Even so: Allah createth what He willeth: When He hath decreed a plan, He but saith to it, 'Be,' and it is!", Quran 3:47, cf. Encyclopedia of Islam
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- Quran 5:17
- cf. Esposito (2002) p. 32
- Khalidi (2001) p. 75;
- Fasching, deChant (2001) p. 241
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- Encyclopedia of Islam, Jesus article. cf. L. Massignon, Le Christ dans les Évangiles selon Ghazali, in REI , 1932, 523-36, who cites texts of the Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa, a passage of Abu Hatim al-Razi (about 934), and another of the Isma'ili da'i Mu'ayyad fid-din al-Shirazi (1077).
- "And remember, Jesus, the son of Mary, said: "O Children of Israel! I am the messenger of Allah (sent) to you, confirming the Law (which came) before me, and giving Glad Tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad." But when he came to them with Clear Signs, they said, "this is evident sorcery!" ", Quran 61:6
- "And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever—
the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you.", John 14:16–17
- Watt (1991) pp. 33–34
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- Anas reports that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), said: “The best women of mankind are four: Mariam daughter of 'Imran, Assiya wife of Pharaoh, Khadijah daughter of Khuwailid, and Fatima the daughter of the Messenger of Allah.” [Bukhari and Muslim]
- Sahih al-Bukhari, 4:54:462, 4:55:607–608, 4:55:647–650, 4:55:649–650, Sahih Muslim, 1:316, 1:321, 1:325, 1:328, 41:7023
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