Insurgency in Cabo Delgado
|Insurgency in Cabo Delgado|
|Part of the War on Terror|
Cabo Delgado Province
South Africa (from 2020)
|Commanders and leaders|
Abdul Rahmin Faizal (POW)|
Mozambican security forces
MercenariesSANDF special forces
Various Ansar al-Sunna cells
11,200 (total) |
200 Wagner personnel
|Casualties and losses|
Dozens killed and wounded |
Seven Wagner personnel killed
Total: 1,100+ killed (2019)|
The Insurgency in Cabo Delgado is an ongoing conflict in Cabo Delgado Province, Mozambique, mainly fought between Islamist militants attempting to establish an Islamic state in the region, and Mozambican security forces. Civilians have been the main targets of attacks by Islamist militants. The main insurgent faction is Ansar al-Sunna, a native extremist faction with tenuous international connections. From mid-2018, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has allegedly become active in northern Mozambique as well, and claimed its first attack against Mozambican security forces in June 2019. In addition, bandits have exploited the rebellion to carry out raids.
Ansar al-Sunna (English: Supporters of the tradition) is similar to the name of an Iraqi Sunni insurgent group that fought against US troops between 2003 and 2007. Locals call them "al-Shabaab" but they are a separate organization from Somali al-Shabaab. The militants are known to speak Portuguese, the official language of Mozambique, Kimwane, the local language, and Swahili, the lingua franca language spoken in the Great Lakes region. Reports also state that members are mostly Mozambicans from Mocimboa da Praia, Palma and Macomia districts, but also include foreign nationals from Tanzania and Somalia.
Ansar al-Sunna, also known by its original name "Ahlu Sunnah Wa-Jamo" (translated "adepts of the prophetic tradition"), was initially a religious movement in northern districts of Cabo Delgado which first appeared around 2015. It was formed by followers of the radical Kenyan cleric Aboud Rogo, who was killed in 2012. Thereafter, some members of his movement settled down in Kibiti, Tanzania, before moving into Mozambique.
Ansar al-Sunna claims that Islam as practised in Mozambique has been corrupted and no longer follows the teachings of Muhammad. The movement's members consequently entered traditional mosques with weapons in order to threaten others to follow their own radical beliefs. The movement is also anti-Christian and anti-Western, and has tried to prevent people from attending hospitals or schools which it considers secular and anti-Islamic. This behavior alienated much of the local population instead of converting them to Ahlu Sunnah Wa-Jamo, so that the movement's members broke away and formed their own places of worship. Over time, the group became increasingly violent: It called for Sharia law to be implemented in the country, no longer recognized the Mozambican government, and started to form hidden camps in Macomia District, Mocímboa da Praia District, and Montepuez District. There, Ansar al-Sunna militants were trained by ex-policemen, and ex-frontier guards who had been fired and held grudges against the government. The movement also contacted other Islamist militants in East Africa, and reportedly hired al-Shabaab trainers from Somalia, Tanzania, and Kenya. These al-Shabaab trainers acted as mercenaries, however, and aided Ansar al-Sunna not out of actual connections between al-Shabaab and Ansar al-Sunna, but due to the pay they received from the latter. Some of the Ansar al-Sunna militants have also journeyed abroad to receive direct training by other militant groups.
The militants are not unified, but split into different cells which do not appear to coordinate their actions. By August 2018, the Mozambican police had identified six men as leaders of the militants in Cabo Delgado: Abdul Faizal, Abdul Raim, Abdul Remane, Ibn Omar, "Salimo", and Nuno Remane. Ansar al-Sunna funds itself through heroin, contraband and ivory trade.
While religion does play a fundamental role in the conflict, analysts believe the most important factors in the insurgency are widespread social, economic and political problems in Mozambique. Unemployment and especially youth unemployment are considered the main causes for locals to join the Islamist rebels. Increasing inequalities have led many young people to be easily attracted by such a radical movement, as Ansar al-Sunna promises that its form of Islam will act as "antidote" to the existing "corrupt, elitist rule".
Violence and arrests
- On 5 October, a pre-dawn raid targeted 3 police stations in the town of Mocímboa da Praia. It was led by 30 armed members, who killed 17 people, including two police officers and a community leader. 14 of the perpetrators were captured. During this brief occupation of Mocímboa da Praia, the perpetrators stole firearms and ammunition and told residents that they reject state health and education, and refused to pay taxes. The group is said to be affiliated with Al-Shabaab, the Al Qaeda-affiliated Islamist extremist group situated and operating in mostly the southern regions of Somalia.
- On 10 October, police detained 52 suspects in relation to the attack on 5 October.
- On 21 October, a pre-dawn skirmish took place between the group and government forces in the fishing village of Maluku, approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi) from Mocímboa da Praia. As a result, many locals fled the village.
- On 22 October, further skirmishes occurred near Columbe village, about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) south of an installation of Anadarko Petroleum.
- On 27 October 2017, the Mozambican police confirmed the arrest of 100 more members of the group, included foreigners, in relation to the attack on 5 October.
- On 24 November, in the northern Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado, the government ordered the closure of three mosques located in Pemba and in the neighbourhoods of Cariaco, Alto Gigone and Chiuba, which were believed to have a connection with Islamic fundamentalism.
- On 29 November, the group attacked the villages of Mitumbate and Maculo, injuring two and killing at least two people. The two deaths were by decapitation and death by burning. According to local authorities, the terrorists also destroyed a church and 27 homes.
- On 4 December, the district government of Moçímboa da Praia in northern Mozambique named two men, Nuro Adremane and Jafar Alawi, as suspected of organising the attacks by an armed group against the police in October. Both men were Mozambican nationals. The district government stated that both men studied Islam in Tanzania, Sudan and Saudi Arabia, where they allegedly also received military training.
- On 17 December, a successful assassination attempt was committed on the National Director of Reconnaissance of the Police Rapid Intervention Unit.
- On 26 December, Police Spokesman Inacio Dino announced the commencement of counter-insurgency operations in the forests surrounding Mutumbate, in Cabo Delgado province. Since the amnesty for surrendering expired, stated that 36 Tanzanian citizens would be targeted by the operations.
- On 29 December, the independent Mozambican newspaper "O Pais" reported that Mozambican paratroopers and marines attacked the village of Mitumbate via air and sea, regarding it as a stronghold for the insurgents. The aftermath of the attack left 50 dead, including women and children, and an unknown number injured.
- On 3 January, Mozambican police announced that the attacks on December 29 were classified as acts of terrorism.
- On 13 January, a group of terrorists entered the town of Olumbi in the Palma district around 8pm and fired into a market and a government administrative building, killing 5.
- On 28 January, a video appeared on social media showing six Islamist extremists dressed in civilian clothing and appealing to Mozambicans to join them in the fight for the values of Islamic doctrine and to establish Islamic law. The video was in both Portuguese and Arabic.
- On 12 March, Radio Moçambique reported that an armed group attacked the village of Chitolo. Burning down 50 homes and killing residents in the process.
- On 21 March, residents of the village of Manilha abandoned their homes after witnessing armed men carrying out attacks in the surrounding area on the banks of the river Quinhevo.
- On 20, 21 and 22 April the group attacked the villages of Diaca Velha, near the boundary with Nangade district as well as the village of Mangwaza in the Palma district. Looting houses, burning four houses and killing one person and taking three hostages. However pursuit operations were launched on 22 April by Mozambican security personnel capturing 30 jihadist in the process. Meanwhile, a South African newspaper reported that about 90 militants belonging to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant had infiltrated northern Mozambique, citing unnamed intelligence sources. The Mozambican government promptly denied this report as baseless. Nevertheless, the Africa Union reported in May that it had confirmed the presence of ISIL forces in Mozambique.
- On 27 May, ten people, including children, were beheaded in the village of Monjane in the Palma district of Cabo Delgado province. Locals attribute the violence to al-Shabab, a terrorist group founded in 2015 (no relation to the Somali terrorist group al-Shabab). Twelve days later, the U.S. Embassy in Mozambique warned American citizens to leave the district headquarters of Palma, citing a risk of another imminent attack.
- On 3 June, five civilians were decapitated in an attack on the village of Rueia in the Macomia district.
- On 5 June, six men armed with machetes and guns killed seven people and injured four others and set dozens of homes on fire in the village of Naunde in the Macomia district.
- On 6 June, at least six people were killed and two seriously injured when terrorists armed with knives and machetes attacked the village of Namaluco in the Quissanga district. The assailants also burned down a hundred houses.
- On 11 June, terrorists armed with machetes and firearms attacked the village of Changa in the Nangade district in the northern Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado, killing four people. The attackers also burned down several houses.
- On 12 June,a group of armed men attacked the village of Nathuko in the Macomia district in the Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado. The terrorists decapitated a villager, burned down several houses and killed all the animals.
- On 21 September, 12 people were killed, 15 injured, and 55 houses were burned by jihadists in the village of Paqueue in the province of Cabo Delgado. 10 of the victims were shot to death and 2 were burned to death, with at least one of the victims being decapitated post-mortum.
- On 3 November, suspected Ansar al Sunna insurgents looted houses and set on fire at least 45 houses in an isolated village in the Macomia District, no casualties were reported in the incident.
- On 7 December 30-year-old Mustafa Suale Machinga was captured by local residents and referred to authorities in Litingina village in Nangade Districtin Mozambique's Cabo Delgado province. Machinga a former member of the Mozambican armed forces was captured after being accused by residents of leading the group responsible for Islamist militant-inspired attacks in the zone.
- Sometime in January or early February 2019, security forces captured Abdul Rahmin Faizal, a suspected insurgent leader of Ugandan nationality.
- On 8 February, Islamist fighters attacked Piqueue village in Cabo Delgado, killing and dismembering seven men, and kidnapping four women.
- After Cyclone Kenneth hit Mozambique on 25 April, resulting in much devastation, the rebels initially halted their attacks. On 3 May, however, they struck once again by destroying the village of Nacate, Macomia District, killing six civilians. In the following weeks, the Islamists increased their attacks, raiding and burning several villages such as Ntapuala and Banga-Vieja in Macomia District, as well as Ida and Ipho in Meluco District. They also carried out ambushes, and told locals to abandon their homes. At least two attacks targeted workers of Anadarko Petroleum, a United States-headquartered hydrocarbon exploration company.
- On 4 June, ISIL claimed that its "Central Africa Province" branch had carried out a successful attack on the Mozambican Army at Mitopy in the Mocímboa da Praia District. At least 16 people were killed and about 12 wounded during the attack. By this point, ISIL considered Ansar al-Sunna as one its affiliates, though how many Islamist rebels in Mozambique are actually loyal to ISIL remains unclear.
- On 3 July, an attack by Islamists in Nangade District killed seven people, including civilians and a policeman. On 6 July ISIL claimed responsibility for the attack.
- On 25 September, Russian military hardware, namely two Mi-17 helicopters, was delivered via a Russian Air Force An-124 (registration RA-82038) transport aeroplane which landed at Nacala. The Russian and Mozambican governments had previously signed an agreement on military and technical cooperation in late January 2017.
- In early October, the Mozambican military launched several counter-insurgency operations with the support of Russian mercenaries and defense contractors from the Wagner Group. The rebels were pushed back in many areas of Cabo Delgado, and forced to retreat into the woods. In addition, 34 individuals were detained while traveling from Nampula to Cabo Delgado in order to join the ISIL-affiliated insurgent group. The rebels retiliated by killing seven Russian mercenaries as well as 20 Mozambican soldiers during two ambushes. The attacks were attributed to the Islamic State's Central Africa Province.
- In November, a number of government troops and 5 fighters from the Wagner Group were killed in an ambush, with ISIL claiming responsibility for the attack.
- On 23 March, Mocímboa da Praia was captured by Islamist militants in a coordinated attack from land and sea. The rebels destroyed government buildings and raised a Jihadist flag, but refrained from targeting civilians. Instead, the insurgents distributed food and looted goods to the locals, and withdrew from the city later that day.
- On 25 March, rebels raided the capital of Quissanga District, followed by several more villages.
- On 7 April, militants killed 52 villagers in Xitaxi village, who refused to join them. Islamic State's Central Africa Province was regarded as responsible for the massacre. On the same day, Mozambican security forces reportedly killed 39 militants during an attempted attack on Muidumbe village. Meanwhile, several local rebels declared their intention to establish a caliphate in northern Mozambique.
- On 10 April, security forces alledgedly killed 59 rebels during a clash on the Quirimbas Islands.
- Mozambican security forces reportedly killed 31 insurgents during operations on Ibo island from 11 to 13 April.
- On 24 April, the Mozambican government admitted for the first time that Islamic State followers were active in the country and involved in the insurgency.
- On 14 May, Mozambican Interior Minister Amade Miquidade claims that the government forces had killed 50 insurgents in separate incidents in the northern part of Cabo Delgado Province.
- On 28 May around 90 islamist fighters attacked the town of Macomia and raised the black standard flag.
- By June, South African SANDF special forces had become active in Mozambique, assisting local security forces against the local rebels.
- 1 June: Government forces recaptured Macomia killing two jihadist leaders.
- 27 June: Mocímboa da Praia was again captured by Islamist militants, with IS-CAP claiming to be responsible. Many local civilians consequently fled the town. On the same day, other rebels ambushed workers beloning to Fenix Constructions Service Lda, a private construction firm subcontracted by oil and gas company Total S.A., killing at least killed eight employees.
- 30 June: Government forces recaptured Mocímboa da Praia.
- 25 July: Islamic State-aligned militants killed two civilians in Chai village near Macomia.
- 26 July: Government forces recaptured Chai.
Limits on media freedom
There is a lack of access reliable information in the region due to journalists being intimidated by government and military personnel. On 5 January 2019, Mozambican authorities also unlawfully detained journalist Amade Abubacar who had reported on the insurgency. He was subsequently subjected to torture, and only released on bail after 107 days in detention.
- "Military & Defense - Russia, Mozambique to step up military-technical cooperation". TASS. Archived from the original on 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2018-05-11.
- Sirwan Kajjo; Salem Solomon (7 June 2019). "Is IS Gaining Foothold in Mozambique?". Voice of America. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
- "AU confirms ISIS infiltration in East Africa". The Independent (Uganda). 24 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- West (2018), p. 6.
- "Beheadings, kidnappings amid surge in Mozambique attacks: UN". Al Jazeera. 7 February 2020. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- "Captured insurgents will be presented publicly". Club of Mozambique. 6 February 2019. Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- "Mozambique police name "ringleaders" behind Islamist threat". Reuters. 13 August 2018. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
- ‘SA private military contractors’ and Mozambican airforce conduct major air attacks on Islamist extremists
- "Questions about SANDF deployment in Mozambique unanswered". news24. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
- "Mozambique: Former Policemen Train Islamist Group". Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique (Maputo). 2018-05-01. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Caleb Weiss (4 June 2019). "Islamic State claims first attack in Mozambique". Long War Journal. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
- "2018 Mozambique Military Strength". Global Firepower. Archived from the original on 19 October 2018. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
- Pjotr Sauer (19 November 2019). "In Push for Africa, Russia's Wagner Mercenaries Are 'Out of Their Depth' in Mozambique". Moscow Times. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Growing terrorism in Mozambique, with suspected links to ISIS, wreaking havoc with no end in sight". News24. Dec 19, 2019. Retrieved Apr 22, 2020.
- "Homens armados entregam-se às autoridades em Mocímboa da Praia". News Aiep (in Portuguese). 21 March 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2018.
- "Mozambique: Islamist Raids Continuing in Mocimboa Da Praia". AllAfrica.com. 5 December 2017. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Alleged Islamist base shelled near Mocimboa da Praia - By Joseph Hanlon". clubofmozambique.com. Archived from the original on 11 January 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "População captura supostos membros do grupo armado que atacou Mocímboa da Praia". Verdade.co.mz. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- West (2018), p. 5.
- Jasmine Opperman (31 May 2018). "Is northern Mozambique faced with an emerging extremist threat?". Daily Maverik. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
- "Mocímboa da Praia: problema com ataques controlado?". Archived from the original on 2018-05-22. Retrieved 2019-04-26.
- "ISS Today: Mozambique's first Islamist attacks shock the region - Daily Maverick". Dailymaverick.co.za. Archived from the original on 19 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Mozambique: Mocimboa DA Praia - 52 People Arrested". AllAfrica.com. 12 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Mozambique's first Islamist attacks shock the region - ISS Africa". ISS Africa. Archived from the original on 29 October 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- [dead link]
- "Mozambique closes three mosques after deadly attacks". Businesslive.co.za. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- Júnior, Francisco. "Mais um ataque em Mocimboa da Praia". Voaportugues.com. Archived from the original on 26 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Authorities name 2 Mozambican men suspected leaders of Mocímboa attacks; link them to Tanzania, Sudan, Saudi Arabia". Clubofmozambique.com. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26.
- ""Ataques em Mocímboa da Praia expõem a fragilidade do Estado Moçambicano"". M.dw.com. Archived from the original on 27 December 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2017.
- "Mozambique cracks down on Tanzanians accused of terrorism". businesslive.co.za. Archived from the original on 15 January 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-01-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Police classify attacks in north Mozambique as terrorism - Xinhua - English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-16. Retrieved 2018-01-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- DGA. "PRM desconhece suposto grupo terrorista fixado em Cabo Delgado e que apela para violência através de vídeo nas redes sociais". verdade.co.mz. Archived from the original on 2 February 2018. Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "Grupo armado ataca aldeia no norte de Moçambique - África 21 Digital". África 21 Digital (in Portuguese). 2018-03-14. Archived from the original on 2018-03-24. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Notícias, MMO (2018-03-23). "População abandona aldeia por medo de ataques armados - MMO". MMO Notícias (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2018-06-11. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- "Mozambique: Three Islamist Attacks Reported Over Weekend". Agencia de Informacao de Mocambique (Maputo). 2018-04-25. Archived from the original on 2018-06-03. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
- Bridget Johnson (18 April 2018). "Mozambique: Police Deny Alleged Terrorist Infiltration". AllAfrica. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
- "Mozambique 'jihadists behead' villagers". BBC News. 29 May 2018. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- Sterling, Joe (9 June 2018). "US Embassy warns of 'imminent attacks' in Mozambique". CNN. Archived from the original on 9 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018.
- DGA. "Al Shabaab moçambicano mata mais 12 civis em Cabo Delgado; Presidente Nyusi mudo". @Verdade Online (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2018-06-10. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Attackers hack seven to death in Mozambique". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 2018-06-06. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- AfricaNews. "At least 7 killed in machete attack in Mozambique, police say". Africanews. Archived from the original on 2018-06-08. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Al menos 6 muertos en un nuevo ataque yihadista en el norte de Mozambique". La Vanguardia. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-06-07.
- "Mozambique: Four dead in new terrorist attack in Changa, Nangade district - AIM report". Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "Breaking: Insurgents wreak death and destruction in Nathuko, Macomia - Mozambique". Archived from the original on 25 August 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "At least 12 killed, 14 wounded in Mozambique jihadist attacks: source". News24. 21 September 2018. Archived from the original on 21 September 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
- "Grupo armado rouba e incendeia aldeia remota no norte de Moçambique". observador.pt (in Portuguese). 2018-11-04. Archived from the original on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
- "Novo ataque deixa rastro de destruição em aldeia de Cabo Delgado". www.dw.com (in Portuguese). 2018-11-04. Archived from the original on 2018-11-04. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
- "Capture of alleged Islamist militant leader likely to lessen frequency of attacks in Mozambique's Cabo Delgado | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-22. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
- AFP (8 February 2019). "Suspected jihadists kill 7 in north Mozambique". News24. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
- Joaquim Nhamirre (29 May 2019). "Mozambique islamists step up attacks after cyclone". AFP. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- "Seven killed in Mozambique jihadist attack claimed by IS: sources". 6 July 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
- "Russian military hardware delivered to Mozambique". Sep 27, 2019. Retrieved Nov 1, 2019.
- “War ‘declared'”: Report on latest military operations in Mocimboa da Praia and Macomia – Carta
- "Mozambique: Police detain 34 alleged recruits of armed groups". Club of Mozambique. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- Sauer, Pjotr (31 October 2019). "7 Kremlin-Linked Mercenaries Killed in Mozambique in October — Sources". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
- "Newspaper home delivery, website, iPad, iPhone & Android apps". Subscribe to The Australian. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- Sof, Eric (2019-11-01). "Seven Russian contractors from Wagner Group killed in an ambush in Mozambique". Spec Ops Magazine. Retrieved 2019-11-11.
- "Jihadists seize Mozambique town in gas-rich region". BBC News. 2020-03-23. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
- "Mozambique: Ministers Visit Mocimboa da Praia". allAfrica.com. 2020-03-25. Retrieved 2020-04-04.
- "Mozambique: Quissanga Attack - Police Command Seized, Residents Flee". allAfrica.com. 2020-03-26. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
- "Mozambique admits presence of Islamic State fighters for first time". the South African. 25 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Mucari, Manuel; Toyana, Mfuneko (April 28, 2020). McCool, Grant (ed.). "Mozambique forces killed over 100 Islamist insurgents in past month: government". Reuters.
- "Mozambique government kill 50 insurgents in recent days -minister". Reuters. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- "Mozambique: Terrorists Attack Macomia Town". 29 May 2020.
- "Mozambique: Defense Forces shoot two terrorist group leaders – minister". 1 June 2020.
- "Mozambique: Mocimboa da Praia Occupied Again". 28 June 2020.
- "Insurgents Kill 8 Gas Project Workers in Northern Mozambique". Defense Post. 6 July 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2020.
- "Vila de Mocímboa da Praia com cenário de "grande destruição" após ataques". 30 June 2020.
- "Gulf of Aden Security Review – July 27, 2020". 27 July 2020.
- "Mozambique: Detained journalist in critical condition denied medical treatment". Amnesty International. 5 March 2019. Retrieved 8 October 2019.
- West, Sunguta (14 June 2018). "Ansar al-Sunna: A New Militant Islamist Group Emerges in Mozambique" (PDF). Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 15 (12): 5–7. Retrieved 23 August 2018.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Eric Morier-Genoud, "Why Islamist attack demands a careful response from Mozambique", The Conversation, October 18, 2017
- Eric Morier-Genoud, "Mozambique’s own version of Boko Haram is tightening its deadly grip", The Conversation, June 11, 2018
- Bonate, Liazzat J. K. “Why the Mozambican Government’s alliance with the Islamic Council of Mozambique might not end the insurgency in Cabo Delgado” Zitamar News, 14 June 2019.
- Bonate, Liazzat J. K. “The Islamic side of the Cabo Delgado crisis" Zitamar News, 20 June 2018
- Bonate, Liazzat J. K. ,“Islam in Northern Mozambique: A Historical Overview.” History Compass, 8/7, 2010, 573-593.
- Bonate, Liazzat J. K., “L’Agence des musulmans d’Afrique. Les transformations de l’islam à Pemba au Mozambique”. Afrique Contemporaine, No. 231, 2009, 63-80.
- Bonate, Liazzat J. K., “Muslim Religious Leadership in Post-Colonial Mozambique.” South African Historical Journal, No 60 (4), 2008, 637-654.
- Bonate, Liazzat J. K., “Between Da’wa and Development: Three Transnational Islamic Nongovernmental Organizations in Mozambique, 1980–2010”. Newsletter of the Africa Research Initiative, Second Edition –March 2015, Centre for Strategic Intelligence Research, National Intelligence University, Washington DC, pp. 7-11.
- Morier-Genoud, Eric, “A Prospect of Secularization? Muslims and Political Power in Mozambique Today”, Journal for Islamic Studies, Cape Town: University of Cape Town, vol.27, 2007, pp.233-266. [French version here]
- Morier-Genoud, Eric, “L’Islam au Mozambique après l’indépendance. Histoire d’une montée en puissance”, L’Afrique Politique 2002, Paris: Karthala, 2002, pp. 123-146. [Portuguese version here ]
- Morier-Genoud, Eric, “The 1996 ‘Muslim holiday’ affair. Religious competition and state mediation in contemporary Mozambique”, Journal of Southern African Studies, Oxford: Taylor & Francis, vol.26, n°3, September 2000, pp. 409-27.