Islamic terrorism is terrorist acts committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals. Islamic terrorists justify their violent tactics through interpreting the Quran and Hadith according to their own goals and intentions.
The highest numbers of incidents and fatalities caused by Islamic terrorism occur in Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan and Syria. In recent decades, such incidents have occurred on a global scale, affecting not only Muslim-majority states in Africa and Asia, but also Europe, Russia, Australia, Canada, and the United States. Such attacks have targeted Muslims and non-Muslims. In a number of the worst-affected Muslim-majority regions, these terrorists have been met by armed, independent resistance groups, state actors and their proxies, and politically liberal Muslim protesters.
The literal use of the phrase "Islamic terrorism" is disputed. Such use in Western political speech has variously been called "counter-productive," "unhelpful," "highly politicized, intellectually contestable" and "damaging to community relations." However, others view the refusal to use the term as an act of "Self-deception". President Obama's former director of the Defense Intelligence Agency, retired lieutenant general Michael T. Flynn, states, "You cannot defeat an enemy that you do not admit exists."
- 1 History
- 2 Motivations of Islamic terrorism
- 3 Profiles of terrorists
- 4 Muslim attitudes toward terrorism
- 5 Tactics
- 5.1 Suicide attacks
- 5.2 Hijackings
- 5.3 Kidnappings and executions
- 5.4 Internet recruiting
- 5.5 Selected attacks
- 6 Examples of organizations and acts
- 6.1 South America
- 6.2 Central Asia
- 6.3 Europe
- 6.4 Middle East / Southwest Asia
- 6.5 North and East Africa
- 6.6 North America
- 6.7 South Asia
- 6.8 Southeast Asia
- 6.9 East Asia
- 6.10 Oceania
- 6.11 Transnational
- 7 U.S. State Department list
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
Extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites. From their essentially political position, they developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shi'a Muslims. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach of Takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death.
Motivations of Islamic terrorism
Western foreign policy
According to a graph by U.S State Department, terrorist attacks have escalated worldwide since the invasion of Afghanistan and Iraq.[unreliable source?] Dame Eliza Manningham Buller, the former head of MI5, told the Iraq inquiry, the security services warned Tony Blair launching the War on Terror would increase the threat of terrorism.[better source needed] Robert Pape has argued that at least terrorists utilizing suicide attacks – a particularly effective form of terrorist attack – are driven not by Islamism but by "a clear strategic objective: to compel modern democracies to withdraw military forces from the territory that the terrorists view as their homeland." However, Martin Kramer, who debated Pape on origins of suicide bombing, stated that the motivation for suicide attacks is not just strategic logic but also an interpretation of Islam to provide a moral logic. For example, Hezbollah initiated suicide bombings after a complex reworking of the concept of martyrdom. Kramer explains that the Israeli occupation of the South Lebanon Security Zone raised the temperature necessary for this reinterpretation of Islam, but occupation alone would not have been sufficient for suicide terrorism. "The only way to apply a brake to suicide terrorism," Kramer argues, "is to undermine its moral logic, by encouraging Muslims to see its incompatibility with their own values."
Former CIA analyst Michael Scheuer argues that terrorist attacks (specifically al-Qaeda attacks on America) are not motivated by a religiously inspired hatred of American culture or religion, but by the belief that U.S. foreign policy has oppressed, killed, or otherwise harmed Muslims in the Middle East, condensed in the phrase "They hate us for what we do, not who we are." U.S. foreign policy actions Scheuer believes are fueling Islamic terror include: the U.S.-led intervention in Afghanistan and invasion of Iraq; Israel–United States relations, namely, financial, military, and political support for Israel; U.S. support for "apostate" police states in Muslim nations such as Egypt, Algeria, Morocco, and Kuwait; U.S. support for the creation of an independent East Timor from territory previously held by Muslim Indonesia; perceived U.S. approval or support of actions against Muslim insurgents in India, the Philippines, Chechnya, and Palestine; U.S. troops on Muslim 'holy ground' in Saudi Arabia; the Western world's religious discrimination against Muslim immigrants; historical justification, such as the Crusades.
"a tiny minority, from within the non-Iraqi British Muslim communities, reacted with violence on 7 July 2005. To interpret this simply as a "nationalist struggle" to remove occupation ignores the blatantly obvious fact that, first, the terrorists were not Iraqis, they were British-Pakistanis (though British Iraqis have lived here for a long time); second, the vast majority of the Stop the War protesters were non-Muslims, yet only a handful from among a minority of Muslims reacted to the war with terrorism. Even though occupation may have caused agitation among the 7 July bombers, these northern-born lads with thick Yorkshire accents confessed in their suicide tapes to considering themselves soldiers with a mission to kill our people (Britons) on behalf of their people (Iraqis). The prerequisite to such a disavowal of one’s country of birth is a recalibration of identity; this is the undeniable role of ideological narratives."
Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, in their book, The Age of Sacred Terror, argue that Islamic terrorist attacks are purely religious. They are seen as "a sacrament ... intended to restore to the universe a moral order that had been corrupted by the enemies of Islam." It is neither political or strategic but an "act of redemption" meant to "humiliate and slaughter those who defied the hegemony of God."
Two studies of the background of Muslim terrorists in Europe—one of the UK and one of France—found little connection between religious piety and terrorism. According to a "restricted" report of hundreds of case studies by the UK domestic counter-intelligence agency MI5,
[f]ar from being religious zealots, a large number of those involved in terrorism do not practise their faith regularly. Many lack religious literacy and could actually be regarded as religious novices. Very few have been brought up in strongly religious households, and there is a higher than average proportion of converts. Some are involved in drug-taking, drinking alcohol and visiting prostitutes. MI5 says there is evidence that a well-established religious identity actually protects against violent radicalisation.
A 2015 "general portrait" by Olivier Roy (see above) of "the conditions and circumstances" under which people living in France become "Islamic radicals" (terrorists or would-be terrorists) found radicalisation was not an "uprising of a Muslim community that is victim to poverty and racism: only young people join, including converts". Or as another observer described it:
the large majority of French jihadists are second-generation Muslims who, unlike their parents, speak French, grew up with little to no contact with mosques or Muslim organizations, and before their conversions drank, took drugs, and had girlfriends. They are estranged from their parents and don’t know where to fit in. Or they are recent converts, largely from rural areas and many from divorced families. Why is that, Roy asks? If Islam or social conditions are essentially to blame for breeding terrorism, why do such structural problems affect only this very narrowly defined group? Why does it not attract first- or third-generation French Muslims, or those whose Islamic culture is the deepest? And why does its appeal extend to children of the successful middle class? His answer: jihadism is a nihilistic generational revolt, not a religiously inspired utopianism.
Roy believes terrorism/radicalism is "expressed in religious terms" because
- most of the radicals have a Muslim background, which makes them open to a process of re-Islamisation ("almost none of them having been pious before entering the process of radicalisation"), and
- jihad is "the only cause on the global market". If you kill in silence, it will be reported by the local newspaper; "if you kill yelling `Allahuakbar,` you are sure to make the national headlines". Other extreme causes—ultra-left or radical ecology are "too bourgeois and intellectual" for the radicals.
Interpretations of the Qur'an and Hadith
Donald Holbrook, a Research Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence, analyzes a sample of 30 works by jihadist propagandists and finds several passages of the Quran exploited and distorted to suit the objectives of violent jihad. An-Nisa (4:74-75) is quoted most frequently; other popular passages are At-Taubah (9:13-15,38-39,111) and Al-Baqarah (2:190-191,216). Consider Surah 9:5:
|“||But when these months, prohibited (for fighting), are over, slay the idolaters wheresoever you find them, and take them captive or besiege them, and lie in wait for them at every likely place. But if they repent and fulfill their devotional obligations and pay the zakat, then let them go their way, for God is forgiving and kind.||”|
Holbrook notes they cherry-picked the first part “slay the idolaters” but fail to quote and discuss limiting factors at the end of the ayat, “but if they repent …” This, Holbrook argues, is how violent jihadists are “shamelessly selective in order to serve their propaganda objectives.” Peter Bergen notes that bin Laden cited this verse in 1998 when making a formal declaration of war.
Michael Sells and Jane I. Smith (a Professor of Islamic Studies) write that barring some extremists like al-Qaeda, most Muslims do not interpret Qur'anic verses as promoting warfare today but rather as reflecting historically dated contexts. According to Sells, "[Most Muslims] no more expect to apply [the verses at issue] to their contemporary non-Muslim friends and neighbors than most Christians and Jews consider themselves commanded by God, like the Biblical Joshua, to exterminate the infidels." In his book No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam, Iranian-American scholar Reza Aslan argues that there is an internal battle currently taking place within Islam between individualistic reform ideals and the traditional authority of Muslim clerics similar to that of the 16th-century reformation in Christianity, which was as old as Islam currently is at that period. He writes, "the notion that historical context should play no role in the interpretation of the Koran – that what applied to Muhammad's community applies to all Muslim communities for all time – is simply an untenable position in every sense."
Supporters of bin Laden have also pointed to reports according to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad attacked towns at night or with catapults, and argued that he must have condoned incidental harm to noncombatants, since it would have been impossible to distinguish them from combatants during such attacks. These arguments were not widely accepted by Muslims.
Jihad and Islamic jurisprudence
The Princeton University Middle Eastern scholar Bernard Lewis states that classical Islamic jurisprudence does not allow terrorism, and the "classical jurists of Islam never remotely considered it the kind of unprovoked, unannounced mass slaughter of uninvolved civil populations". In 2001, Professor Lewis noted:
Being a religious obligation, jihad is elaborately regulated in sharia law, which discusses in minute detail such matters as the opening, conduct, interruption and cessation of hostilities, the treatment of prisoners and noncombatants, the use of weapons, etc. ... Similarly, the laws of Jihad categorically preclude wanton and indiscriminate slaughter. The warriors in the holy war are urged not to harm non-combatants, women and children, "unless they attack you first." ... A point on which they insist is the need for a clear declaration of war before beginning hostilities, and for proper warning before resuming hostilities after a truce. What the classical jurists of Islam never remotely considered is the kind of unprovoked, unannounced mass slaughter of uninvolved civil populations that we saw in New York two weeks ago. For this there is no precedent and no authority in Islam.
While techniques of war are restricted by classical Islamic jurisprudence, the scope is not. Lewis states that Jihad is an unlimited offensive to bring the whole world under Islamic rule and law. Classical Islamic jurisprudence imposes, without limit of time or space, the duty to subjugate non-Muslims, according to Lewis. Wael Hallaq writes that in the modern era the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance and instead gave rise to an ideological and political discourse. While modernists view jihad as defensive and compatible with modern standards of warfare, some Islamists go beyond the classical theory to insist that the purpose of jihad is the fight against oppressive regimes and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam.
Scott Atran has found the greatest predictors of suicide bombings to be not religion but group dynamics: While personal humiliation does not turn out to be a motivation for those attempting to kill civilians, the perception that others with whom one feels a common bond are being humiliated can be a powerful driver for action. "Small-group dynamics involving friends and family that form the diaspora cell of brotherhood and camaraderie on which the rising tide of martyrdom actions is based". Terrorists, according to Atran, are social beings influenced by social connections and values. Rather than dying "for a cause," they might be said to have died "for each other." 
The Muslim world has been afflicted with economic stagnation for many centuries. In 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama stated that apart from crude oil, the exports of the entire Greater Middle East with its 400 million population roughly equals that of Switzerland. It has also been estimated that the exports of Finland, a European country of only five million, exceeded those of the entire 370 million-strong Arab world, excluding oil and natural gas. This economic stagnation is argued by historian David Fromkin in his work A Peace to End All Peace to have commenced with the demise of the Ottoman Empire in 1924, with trade networks being disrupted and societies torn apart with the creation of new nation states. Although the Ottoman Empire was referred to as the Sick man of Europe, the parts of the Middle East under Ottoman rule still had a diverse and steady growing economy with more general prosperity.
Since the 1950s, Muslim immigrants have been forced to emigrate to western countries in large numbers because fellow Muslim countries that are well-off economically and socially do not accept them. Out of the 57 Muslim majority countries, only two nations (Turkey and Malaysia) offer a formal path for immigrants to become naturalized citizens, regardless of birthplace, religious beliefs, marital status or ethnic origin. Even the oil-rich Gulf states do not grant citizenship to immigrants, regardless of how long they have resided in those countries. To make matters more difficult, Gulf states have stringent laws which explicitly state that an immigrant or expat can become a citizen only if his/her father was a citizen or, in some cases, if an expat woman marries an Arab national. These laws make it almost impossible for expats (both Muslim and non-Muslim) to gain citizenship.
In 2014, the self-appointed Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the unrecognised Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, took advantage of this resentment among some Muslims living in other Arab states and urged those Muslims to emigrate to the new Islamic state. ISIS, also known as "The Islamic State," promised all Muslim immigrants "citizenship" immediately upon arrival. They even went as far as issuing "Caliphate Passports" to the newly arrived immigrants.
|Part of a series on|
|Notable jihadist organisations|
|Jihadism in the East|
|Jihadism in the West|
|Part of a series on:
| Part of a series on:
Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia
One ideology that plays a role in terrorism by using the name of Islam, is Wahabism. Wahabism and its allies including Salafism (Salafi jihadism) supports war against any one and every one who is not like them. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, al-Qaeda, Al-Shabaab (militant group), Boko Haram, Indonesian Mujahedeen Council, Taliban, Sipah Sahaba, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi and Hizbul Mujahideen follow intolerant Wahabi or Salafi ideology which is opposed by other Muslims. Non-Muslims, Sufis, and Shias are attacked by hard-core Wahhabis, Deobandis, and jamaatis in the same way that socialists and other leftist proletarians were assaulted by Mussolini's bandits, Jews and others by the Nazis, and "bourgeois," "kulak," intellectual, Jewish, "Menshevik," and "Trotskyist" dissenters, often only alleged to be so, by Stalinism. In India, Wahabism was spread in the name of Deobandi movement, which was opposed by more tolerant Sufi oriented Indian Muslims.
Transnational Islamist ideology, specifically of the militant Islamists, assert that Western policies and society are actively anti-Islamic, or as it is sometimes described, waging a "war against Islam". Islamists often identify what they see as a historical struggle between Christianity and Islam, dating back as far as the Crusades, among other historical conflicts between practitioners of the two respective religions. Osama bin Laden, for example, almost invariably described his enemy as aggressive and his call for action against them as defensive. Defensive jihad differs from offensive jihad in being "fard al-ayn," or a personal obligation of all Muslims, rather than "fard al-kifaya", a communal obligation, that is, some Muslims may perform it but it is not required from others. Hence, framing a fight as defensive has the advantage of both appearing to be a victim rather than an aggressor, and of giving the struggle the very highest religious priority for all good Muslims.
Many of the violent terrorist groups use the name of jihad to fight against certain Western nations and Israel. An example is bin Laden's al-Qaeda, which is also known as "International Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and Crusaders". Most militant Islamists oppose Israel's policies, and often its existence.
According to U.S. Army Colonel Dale C. Eikmeier, "ideology", rather than any individual or group, is the "center of gravity" of al-Qaeda and related groups, and that ideology is a "collection of violent Islamic thought called Qutbism." He summarizes the tenets of Qutbism as being:
- A belief that Muslims have deviated from true Islam and must return to "pure Islam" as originally practiced during the time of Muhammad.
- The path to "pure Islam" is only through a literal and strict interpretation of the Quran and Hadith, along with implementation of Muhammad’s commands.
- Muslims should interpret the original sources individually without being bound to follow the interpretations of Islamic scholars.
- That any interpretation of the Quran from a historical, contextual perspective is a corruption, and that the majority of Islamic history and the classical jurisprudential tradition is mere sophistry.
The historic rivalry between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent has also often been the primary motive behind some of the most deadly terrorist attacks in India. According to a U.S. State Department report, India topped the list of countries most affected by Islamic terrorism.
In addition, Islamist militants, scholars, and leaders opposed Western society for what they see as immoral secularism. Islamists have claimed that such unrestricted free speech has led to the proliferation of pornography, immorality, secularism, homosexuality, feminism, and many other ideas that Islamists often oppose. Although bin Laden almost always emphasized the alleged oppression of Muslims by America and Jews when talking about them in his messages, in his "Letter to America," he answered the question, "What are we calling you to, and what do we want from you," with
We call you to be a people of manners, principles, honour, and purity; to reject the immoral acts of fornication, homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling's, and trading with interest (...) You separate religion from your policies, (...) You are the nation that permits Usury, which has been forbidden by all the religions (...) You are a nation that permits the production, trading and usage of intoxicants (...) You are a nation that permits acts of immorality (...) You are a nation that permits gambling in its all forms. (...) You use women to serve passengers, visitors, and strangers to increase your profit margins. You then rant that you support the liberation of women.
Given their perceived piety, The Times noted the irony when an investigation discovered that Jihadists were seeking anonymity through some of the same networks used to distribute child pornography. The paper praised the raid's ability to "improve understanding of the mindsets of both types of criminals". Similarly, Reuters reported that pornography was found among the materials seized from Osama bin Laden's Abbottabad compound that was raided by U.S. Navy SEALs.
In 2006, Britain's then head of MI5 Eliza Manningham-Buller said of Al-Qaeda that it "has developed an ideology which claims that Islam is under attack, and needs to be defended". "This" she said "is a powerful narrative that weaves together conflicts from across the globe, presenting the West's response to varied and complex issues, from long-standing disputes such as Israel/Palestine and Kashmir to more recent events as evidence of an across-the-board determination to undermine and humiliate Islam worldwide." She said that the video wills of British suicide bombers made it clear that they were motivated by perceived worldwide and long-standing injustices against Muslims; an extreme and minority interpretation of Islam promoted by some preachers and people of influence; their interpretation as anti-Muslim of UK foreign policy, in particular the UK’s involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan." She also cautioned how difficult it was to gain a proper perspective, saying that although there are more important dangers we face daily without feeling so threatened by them, such as climate change and road deaths, and though terrorist deaths were few, the intelligence services had prevented some potentially large threats and that vigilance was needed.
Colonel Eikmeier points out the "questionable religious credentials" of many Islamist theorists, or "Qutbists," which can be a "means to discredit them and their message":
With the exception of Abul Ala Maududi and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam, none of Qutbism's main theoreticians trained at Islam’s recognized centers of learning. Although a devout Muslim, Hassan al-Banna was a teacher and community activist. Sayyid Qutb was a literary critic. Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj was an electrician. Ayman al-Zawahiri is a physician. Osama bin Laden trained to be a businessman.
Identity-based frameworks for analyzing Islamist-based terrorism
Islamist-based fundamentalist terrorism against Western nations and the U.S. in particular, has numerous motivations and takes place the larger context of a complex and tense relationship between the 'West' and the Arab and Muslim 'world,' which is highlighted in the previous section on motivations and Islamic terrorism. Identity-based theoretical frameworks, including theories of social identity, social categorization theory, and psychodynamics are used to explain the reasons terrorism occurs.
Social identity is explained by Karina Korostelina as a "feeling of belonging to a social group, as a strong connection with social category, and as an important part of our mind that affects our social perceptions and behavior" This definition can be applied to the case of Osama bin Laden, who, according to this theory, had a highly salient perception of his social identity as a Muslim, a strong connection to the social category of the Muslim Ummah or 'community,' which affect his social perceptions and behaviors. Bin Laden's ideology and interpretation of Islam led to the creation of al-Qaeda in response to perceived threats against the Muslim community by the Soviet Union, the U.S. in particular due to its troop presence in Saudi Arabia, and American support for Israel. The Islamist terrorist group al-Qaeda has a group identity, which includes "shared experiences, attitudes, beliefs, and interests of in-group members," and is "described through the achievement of a collective aim for which this group has been created," which in this case is to achieve "a complete break from the foreign influences in Muslim countries, and the creation of a new Islamic caliphate."
Social categorization theory has been discussed as a three-stage process of identification, where "individuals define themselves as members of a social group, learn the stereotypes and norms of the group, and group categories influence the perception and understanding of all situations in a particular context" This definition can be applied to the U.S.-led war on terror, in which conflict features such as the phenomenon of Anti-Americanism and the phenomenon of non-Arab countries like Iran and Afghanistan lending support to Islamist-based terrorism by funding or harboring terrorist groups such as Hezbollah and al-Qaeda against Western nations, particularly Israel and the United States are, according to social categorization theory, influenced by a three-stage process of identification. In this three-stage process of identification, the Arab and Muslim world(s) are the social group(s), in which their members learn stereotypes and norms which categorize their social group vis-à-vis the West. This social categorization process creates feelings of high-level in-group support and allegiance among Arabs and Muslims and the particular context within which members of the Arab and Muslim world(s) social group(s) understand all situations that involve the West. Social categorization theory as a framework for analysis indicates causal relationships between group identification processes and features of conflict situations.
Profiles of terrorists
According to Scott Atran, a NATO researcher studying suicide terrorism, the available evidence contradicts a number of simplistic explanations for the motivations of terrorists, including mental instability, poverty, and feelings of humiliation.
Forensic psychiatrist and former foreign service officer Marc Sageman made an "intensive study of biographical data on 172 participants in the jihad," in his book Understanding Terror Networks. He concluded social networks, the "tight bonds of family and friendship", rather than emotional and behavioral disorders of "poverty, trauma, madness, [or] ignorance", inspired alienated young Muslims to join the jihad and kill.
What the recruits tended to have in common – besides their urbanity, their cosmopolitan backgrounds, their education, their facility with languages, and their computer skills – was displacement. Most who joined the jihad did so in a country other than the one in which they were reared. They were Algerians living in expatriate enclaves in France, Moroccans in Spain, or Yemenis in Saudi Arabia. Despite their accomplishments, they had little standing in the host societies where they lived."
Scholar Olivier Roy describes the background of the hundreds of global (as opposed to local) terrorists who were incarcerated or killed and for whom authorities have records, as being surprising for their Westernized background; for the lack of Palestinians, Iraqis, Afghans "coming to avenge what is going on in their country"; their lack of religiosity before being "born again" in a foreign country; the high percentage of converts to Islam among them; their "de-territorialized backgrounds" – "For instance, they may be born in a country, then educated in another country, then go to fight in a third country and take refuge in a fourth country"; their nontraditional belief that jihad is permanent, global, and "not linked with a specific territory."
This profile differs from that found among recent local (as opposed to global) Islamist suicide bombers in Afghanistan, according to a 2007 study of 110 suicide bombers by Afghan pathologist Dr. Yusef Yadgari. Yadgari found that 80% of the attackers studied had some kind of physical or mental disability. The bombers were also "not celebrated like their counterparts in other Muslim nations. Afghan bombers are not featured on posters or in videos as martyrs." Daniel Byman, a Middle East expert at the Brookings Institution, and Christine Fair, an assistant professor in peace and security studies at Georgetown University, say that many of the Islamic terrorists are foolish and untrained, perhaps even untrainable.
Studying 300 cases of people charged with jihadist terrorism in the United States since September 11, 2001, author Peter Bergen found the perpetrators were "generally motivated by a mix of factors", including "militant Islamist ideology; dislike of American foreign policy in the Muslim world; a need to attach themselves to an ideology or organization that gave them a sense of purpose"; and a “cognitive opening” to militant Islam that often was "precipitated by personal disappointment, like the death of a parent".
Muslim attitudes toward terrorism
||It has been suggested that this article be merged with Muslim attitudes towards terrorism. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2016.|
Muslim popular opinion on the subject of attacks on civilians by Islamist groups varies. Fred Halliday, a British academic specialist on the Middle East, argues that most Muslims consider these acts to be egregious violations of Islam's laws. Muslims living in the West denounce the September 11th attacks against United States, while Hezbollah contends that their rocket attacks against Israeli civilian targets are defensive Jihad by a legitimate resistance movement rather than terrorism. Subsequently, however, on Osama bin Laden's death, some Muslims in the UK came out on streets in support of Osama, announcing him as an Islamic hero and condemned the role of US and west in killing him. The protest against Bin Laden’s death was organised by controversial preacher Anjem Choudary – who praised both 7/7 and the September 11 attacks. Statistics compiled by the United States government's Counterterrorism Center present a complicated picture: of known and specified terrorist incidents from the beginning of 2004 through the first quarter of 2005, slightly more than half of the fatalities were attributed to Islamic extremists but a majority of over-all incidents were considered of either "unknown/unspecified" or a secular political nature. The vast majority of the "unknown/unspecified" terrorism fatalities did however happen in Islamic regions such as Iraq and Afghanistan, or in regions where Islam is otherwise involved in conflicts such as the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, southern Thailand and Kashmir.
Views of modern Islamic scholars
Although Islamic terrorism is commonly associated with the Salafis (or "Wahhabis"), the scholars of the group have constantly attributed this association to ignorance, misunderstanding and sometimes insincere research and deliberate misleading by rival groups. Following the September 11 attacks, Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh, the Grand Mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, made an official statement that "the Islamic Sharee'ah (legislation) does not sanction" such actions. A Salafi "Committee of Major Scholars" in Saudi Arabia has declared that "Islamic" terrorism, such as the May 2003 bombing in Riyadh, are in violation of Sharia law and aiding the enemies of Islam.
Abdal-Hakim Murad (Timothy Winter) wrote that the proclamations of bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri "ignore 14 centuries of Muslim scholarship", and that if they "followed the norms of their religion, they would have had to acknowledge that no school of mainstream Islam allows the targeting of civilians."
Fethullah Gülen, a prominent Turkish Islamic scholar, has claimed that "a real Muslim," who understood Islam in every aspect, could not be a terrorist. There are many other people with similar points of view such as Prof. Ahmet Akgunduz, Harun Yahya and Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri. Huston Smith, an author on comparative religion, noted that extremists have hijacked Islam, just as has occurred periodically in Christianity, Hinduism and other religions throughout history. He added that the real problem is that extremists do not know their own faith.
Ali Gomaa, former Grand Mufti of Egypt, stated not only for the Islam but in general: "Terrorism cannot be born of religion. Terrorism is the product of corrupt minds, hardened hearts, and arrogant egos, and corruption, destruction, and arrogance are unknown to the heart attached to the divine."
In reference to suicide attacks, Hannah Stuart notes there is a “significant debate among contemporary clerics over which circumstance permit such attacks.” Qatar-based theologian, Yusuf al-Qaradawi, criticized the 9/11 attacks but previously justified suicide bombings in Israel on the grounds of necessity and justified such attacks in 2004 against American military and civilian personnel in Iraq. According to Stuart, 61 contemporary Islamic leaders have issued fatawa permitting suicide attacks, 32 with respect to Israel. Stuart points out that all of these contemporary rulings are contrary to classical Islamic jurisprudence.
A 600-page legal opinion (fatwa) by Sheikh Tahir-ul-Qadri condemned suicide bombings and other forms of terrorism as kufr (unbelief), stating that it "has no place in Islamic teaching and no justification can be provided for it, or any kind of excuses or ifs or buts." Iranian Ayatollah Ozma Seyyed Yousef Sanei has preached against suicide attacks and stated in an interview: "Terror in Islam, and especially Shiite, is forbidden."
According to Javed Ahmad Ghamidi, the only purposes of Islamic jihad are putting an end to persecution — even that of the non-Muslims — and making the religion of Islam reign supreme in the Arabian peninsula, the latter type being specific to Muhammad and no longer operative; it can only be waged under a sovereign state; there are strict ethical limits for jihad which do not allow fighting non-combatants; acts of terrorism including suicide bombing are prohibited.
- Gallup conducted tens of thousands of hour-long, face-to-face interviews with residents of more than 35 predominantly Muslim countries between 2001 and 2007. It found that more than 90% of respondents condemned the killing of non-combatants on religious and humanitarian grounds.
- A subsequent gallup poll released in 2011 suggested "that one's religious identity and level of devotion have little to do with one's views about targeting civilians... it is human development and governance - not piety or culture - that are the strongest factors in explaining differences in how the public perceives this type of violence." The same poll concluded that populations of countries in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference were slightly more likely to reject attacks on civilians in all cases, both military and individual, than those in non-member countries.
- In 2004, a year after the invasion of Iraq, Pew Research Center survey found that suicide bombings against Americans and other Westerners in Iraq were seen as "justifiable" by many Jordanians (70%), Pakistanis (46%), and Turks (31%). At the same time, the survey found that support for the U.S.-led War on Terror had increased.
- A 2005 Pew Research study, that involved 17,000 people in 17 countries showed support for terrorism was declining in the Muslim world along with a growing belief that Islamic extremism represents a threat to those countries. A 2005 Daily Telegraph survey showed that 88% of Muslims said the July 2005 bombings in the London Underground were unjustified, while 6% disagreed. However it also found that 24% of British Muslims showed some sympathy with the people who carried out the attacks.
- Polls taken by Saudi owned Al Arabiya and Gallup suggest moderate support for the September 11 terrorist attacks within the Islamic world, with 36% of Arabs polled by Al Arabiya saying the 9/11 attacks were morally justified, 38% disagreeing and 26% of those polled being unsure. A 2008 study, produced by Gallup, found similar results with 38.6% of Muslims questioned believing the 9/11 attacks were justified. Another poll conducted, in 2005 by the Fafo Foundation in the Palestinian Authority, found that 65% of respondents supported the September 11 attacks.
- In Pakistan, despite the recent rise in the Taliban's influence, a poll conducted by Terror Free Tomorrow in Pakistan in January 2008 tested support for al-Qaeda, the Taliban, other militant Islamist groups and Osama bin Laden himself, and found a recent drop by half. In August 2007, 33% of Pakistanis expressed support for al-Qaeda; 38% supported the Taliban. By January 2008, al-Qaeda's support had dropped to 18%, the Taliban's to 19%. When asked if they would vote for al-Qaeda, just 1% of Pakistanis polled answered in the affirmative. The Taliban had the support of 3% of those polled.
- Pew Research surveys in 2008, show that in a range of countries – Jordan, Pakistan, Indonesia, Lebanon, and Bangladesh – there have been substantial declines in the percentages saying suicide-bombings and other forms of violence against civilian targets can be justified to defend Islam against its enemies. Wide majorities say such attacks are, at most, rarely acceptable. The shift of attitudes against terror has been especially dramatic in Jordan, where 29% of Jordanians were recorded as viewing suicide-attacks as often or sometimes justified (down from 57% in May 2005). In the largest majority-Muslim nation, Indonesia, 74% of respondents agree that terrorist attacks are "never justified" (a substantial increase from the 41% level to which support had risen in March 2004); in Pakistan, that figure is 86%; in Bangladesh, 81%; and in Iran, 80%.
- A poll conducted in Osama bin Laden's home country of Saudi Arabia in December 2008 shows that his compatriots have dramatically turned against him, his organisation, Saudi volunteers in Iraq, and terrorism in general. Indeed, confidence in bin Laden has fallen in most Muslim countries in recent years.
An increasingly popular tactic used by terrorists is suicide bombing. This tactic is used against civilians, soldiers, and government officials of the regimes the terrorists oppose. A recent clerical ruling declares terrorism and suicide bombing as forbidden by Islam. However, groups who support its use often refer to such attacks as "martyrdom operations" and the suicide-bombers who commit them as "martyrs" (Arabic: shuhada, plural of "shahid"). The bombers, and their sympathizers often believe that suicide bombers, as martyrs (shaheed) to the cause of jihad against the enemy, will receive the rewards of paradise for their actions.
Islamic terrorism sometimes employs the hijacking of passenger vehicles. The most infamous were the "9/11" attacks that killed nearly 3,000 people on a single day in 2001, effectively ending the era of aircraft hijacking.
Kidnappings and executions
Along with bombings and hijackings, Islamic terrorists have made extensive use of highly publicised kidnappings and executions, often circulating videos of the acts for use as propaganda. A frequent form of execution by these groups is decapitation, another is shooting. In the 1980s, a series of abductions of American citizens by Hezbollah during the Lebanese Civil War resulted in the 1986 Iran–Contra affair. During the chaos of the Iraq War, more than 200 kidnappings foreign hostages (for various reasons and by various groups, including purely criminal) gained great international notoriety, even as the great majority (thousands) of victims were Iraqis. In 2007, the kidnapping of Alan Johnston by Army of Islam resulted in the British government meeting a Hamas member for the first time.
Islamist militants, including Boko Haram, Hamas, al-Qaeda and the ISIS, have used kidnapping as a method of fundraising, as a means of bargaining for political concessions, and as a way of intimidating potential opponents.
Michael Rubin argued in 2005 that hostage-taking became popular among terrorist groups as a tactic that can hold the attention of a public that had become inured to mass death techniques such as suicide bombing, and that it can garner significant "political and diplomatic" payoff. Rubin writes that Islamist kidnappers have the additional, "ideological goals" of using hostages both to "shock the outside world" and to "appeal to their own constituency", and that the public humiliation of hostages is a specific Islamist goal. He also deems hostage taking as an effective technique for cowing a population by making governments appear weak and by inspiring fear of opposing the Islamists. He does not regard kidnapping as an effective recruitment technique.
In his 2007 book, Islamic Terror Abductions in the Middle East, military historian Shaul Shay argued in 2014 that Islamists consider hostage taking as a strategic tool that can effectively gain concessions from targeted governments.<
Kidnapping as political tactic
In September 2014, the German Foreign Ministry reported that the Islamist militant group Abu Sayyaf had kidnapped two German nationals and was threatening to kill them unless the German government withdraw its support for the war against ISIS and also pay a large ransom. In September 2014 an Islamist militant group kidnapped a French national in Algeria and threatened to kill the hostage unless the government of France withdrew its support for the war against ISIS.
According to the International Business Times, in October, 2014 the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) released a five-point justification of its right to take non-Muslims hostage, and decapitate, ransom or enslave them. British Muslim cleric Anjem Choudary told The Clarion Project that kidnapping and even beheading hostages is justified by Islam.
Kidnapping as revenue
Nasir al-Wuhayshi leader of the Islamist militant group Al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula describes kidnapped hostages as "an easy spoil... which I may describe as a profitable trade and a precious treasure."
A 2014 investigation, by journalist Rukmini Maria Callimachi published in The New York Times demonstrated that between 2008 and 2014, Al Qaeda and groups directly affiliated with al-Qaeda took in over US$125 million from kidnapping, with $66 million of that total paid in 2013 alone. The article showed that from a somewhat haphazard beginning in 2003, kidnapping grew into the group's main fundraising strategy, with targeted, professional kidnapping of civilians from wealthy European countries - principally France, Spain and Switzerland - willing to pay huge ransoms. US and UK nationals are less commonly targeted since these governments have shown an unwillingness to pay ransom.
Boko Haram kidnapped Europeans for the Ransom their governments would pay in the early 2010s. For example, in the spring of 2013, Boko haram kidnapped and within 2 months released a French family of 7 and 9 other hostages in exchange for a payment by the French government of $3.15 million.
According to Yochi Dreazen writing in Foreign Policy, although ISIS received funding from Qatar, Kuwait and other Gulf oil states, "traditional criminal techniques like kidnapping", are a key funding source for ISIS. Armin Rosen writing in Business Insider, kidnapping was a "crucial early source" of funds as ISIS expanded rapidly in 2013. In March, upon receiving payment from the government of Spain, ISIS released 2 Spanish hostages working for the newspaper El Mundo, correspondent Javier Espinosa and photographer Ricardo Garcia Vilanova, who had been held since September, 2013. Philip Balboni, CEO of GlobalPost told the press that he had spent "millions" in efforts to ransom journalist James Foley, and an American official told the Associated Press that demand from ISIS was for 100 million ($132.5). In September 2014, following the release of ISIS Beheading videos of journalists James Foley and Steven Sotloff, British Prime Minister David Cameron appealed to members of the G7 to abide by their pledges not to pay ransom "in the case of terrorist kidnap."
Holding foreign journalists as hostages is so valuable to ISIS that Rami Jarrah, a Syrian who has acted as go-between in efforts to ransom foreign hostages, told the Wall Street Journal that ISIS had "made it known" to other militant groups that they "would pay" for kidnapped journalists. ISIS has also kidnapped foreign-aid workers and Syrians who work for foreign-funded groups and reconstruction projects in Syria. By mid-2014, ISIS was holding assets valued at US$2 billion, which made it the world's wealthiest Islamist group.
Kidnapping women for sex
According to Islamism expert Jonathan N.C. Hill, in 2014, under the influence of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, Boko Haram had begun kidnapping large numbers of girls and young women for sexual use. The attacks echoed kidnappings of girls and young women for sexual use by Algerian Islamists in the 1990s and early 2000s.
Haleh Esfandiari from the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars has highlighted the abuse of local women by Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant militants after they have captured an area. "They usually take the older women to a makeshift slave market and try to sell them. The younger girls ... are raped or married off to fighters", she said, adding, "It's based on temporary marriages, and once these fighters have had sex with these young girls, they just pass them on to other fighters." Speaking of Yazidi women captured by ISIS, Nazand Begikhani said "[t]hese women have been treated like cattle... They have been subjected to physical and sexual violence, including systematic rape and sex slavery. They've been exposed in markets in Mosul and in Raqqa, Syria, carrying price tags." The UN confirmed in 2014 that 5,000–7,000 Yazidi women and children had been abducted by ISIL and sold into slavery.
According to CNN, the self-styled Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant "justifies its kidnapping of women as sex slaves citing Islamic theology" in an article entitled, 'The revival (of) slavery before the Hour,' (of Judgement Day), published in the ISIL online magazine, "Dabiq", claimed that Yazidi women can be taken captive and forced to become sex slaves or concubines under Islamic law, "One should remember that enslaving the families of the kuffar -- the infidels -- and taking their women as concubines is a firmly established aspect of the Shariah, or Islamic law."
Abubakar Shekau, the leader of Boko Haram, a Nigerian extremist group, said in an interview "I shall capture people and make them slaves." when claiming responsibility for the 2014 Chibok kidnapping.
Kidnapping as psychological warfare
According to psychologist Irwin Mansdorf, Hamas demonstrated effectiveness of kidnapping as a form of psychological warfare in the 2006 capture of the Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit when public pressure forced the government of Israel to release 1027 prisoners, including 280 convicted of terrorism by Israel, in exchange for his release. According to the New York Times, "Hamas has recognized the pull such incidents have over the Israeli psyche and clearly has moved to grab hostages in incidents such as the Death and ransoming of Oron Shaul." 
In the beginning of the 21st century, emerged a worldwide network of hundreds of web sites that inspire, train, educate and recruit young Muslims to engage in jihad against America and the West, taking less prominent roles in mosques and community centers that are under scrutiny. According to The Washington Post, "Online recruiting has exponentially increased, with Facebook, YouTube and the increasing sophistication of people online".
- 5–6 September 1972 – Munich massacre Members of the Black September Organization attacked eleven Israeli athletes, killing two and holding 9 hostage. The following day, the Black September affiliates and the athletes were flown out via two helicopters, where one helicopter was bombed and the remaining hostages were shot dead.
- 18 April 1983 – 1983 United States embassy bombing got 63 killed, 120 wounded.
- 23 October 1983 – 1983 Beirut barracks bombing 305 killed, 75 wounded.
- 21 January 1985 – Indonesia's temple of Borobudur was bombed, causing severe damages on the stupas.
- 26 February 1993 – World Trade Center bombing, New York City. Six killed.
- 13 March 1993 – 1993 Bombay bombings. Mumbai, India. 250 dead, 700 injured.
- 28 July 1994 – Buenos Aires, Argentina. Vehicle suicide bombing attack against AMIA building, the local Jewish community representation. 85 dead, more than 300 injured.
- 24 December 1994 – Air France Flight 8969 hijacking in Algiers by three members of Armed Islamic Group of Algeria and another terrorist. Seven killed, including the hijackers.
- 25 June 1996 – Khobar Towers bombing, 20 killed, 372 wounded.
- 17 November 1997 – Luxor attack, six terrorists attack tourists at Egypts famous Luxor Ruins. 68 foreign tourists killed.
- 14 February 1998 – Bombing in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. 13 bombs explode within a 12 km radius. 46 killed and over 200 injured.
- 7 August 1998 – 1998 United States embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya. 224 dead. 4000+ injured.
- 4 September 1999 – A series of bombing attacks in several cities of Russia, nearly 300 killed.
- 12 October 2000 – Attack on the USS Cole in the Yemeni port of Aden.
- 24 December 2000 – Bombings in various churches during Christmas Eve services in Indonesia.
- 11 September 2001 – Four planes hijacked and crashed into World Trade Center, The Pentagon and into a field in Shanksville by 19 hijackers. 2,977 killed and over 6,000 injured.
- 13 December 2001 – Suicide attack on Indian parliament in New Delhi by Pakistan-based Islamist terrorist organizations, Jaish-E-Mohammad and Lashkar-e-Toiba. Aimed at eliminating the top leadership of India and causing anarchy in the country. 7 dead, 12 injured.
- 27 March 2002 – Suicide bomb attack on a Passover Seder in a Hotel in Netanya, Israel. 30 dead, 133 injured.
- 30 March 2002 and 24 November 2002 – Attacks on the Hindu Raghunath temple, India. Total 25 dead.
- 24 September 2002 – Machine gun attack on Hindu temple in Ahmedabad, India. 31 dead, 86 injured.
- 12 October 2002 – Bombings in two nightclubs in Bali, Indonesia. 202 killed, 300 injured.
- 16 May 2003 – Casablanca Attacks – Four simultaneous attacks in Casablanca killing 33 civilians (mostly Moroccans) carried by Salafia Jihadia.
- 5 August 2003 – The bombing on Marriott hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia. 12 killed and 150 injured.
- 11 March 2004 – Multiple bombings on trains near Madrid, Spain. 191 killed, 1460 injured (alleged link to Al-Qaeda).
- 1 September 2004 – Beslan school hostage crisis, approximately 344 civilians including 186 children killed.
- 9 September 2004 – Australian embassy in Jakarta was bombed only 11 days before the second round of Indonesian presidential election.
- 2 November 2004 – The murder of Theo van Gogh (film director) by Amsterdam-born jihadist Mohammed Bouyeri.
- 5 July 2005 – Attack at the Hindu Ram temple at Ayodhya, India; one of the most holy sites of Hinduism. 6 dead.
- 7 July 2005 – Multiple bombings in London Underground. 53 killed by four suicide bombers. Nearly 700 injured.
- 23 July 2005 – Bomb attacks at Sharm el-Sheikh, an Egyptian resort city, at least 64 people killed.
- 1 October 2005 – Another bombings in Bali killed 20 people, including 3 perpetrators.
- 29 October 2005 – 29 October 2005 Delhi bombings, India. Over 60 killed and over 180 injured in a series of three attacks in crowded markets and a bus, just 2 days before the Diwali festival.
- 30 October 2005 – Three Christian girls were decapitated in Poso, Indonesia by Muslim militants.
- 9 November 2005 – 2005 Amman bombings. A series of coordinated suicide attacks on hotels took place in Amman, Jordan. Over 60 killed over 100 injured. Four attackers including a husband and wife team were involved.
- 7 March 2006 – 2006 Varanasi bombings, India. A series of attacks in the Sankatmochan Hanuman temple and Cantonment Railway Station in the Hindu holy city of Varanasi. 28 killed and over 100 injured.
- 11 July 2006 – 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings, Mumbai, India; a series of seven bomb blasts that took place over a period of 11 minutes on the Suburban Railway in Mumbai. 209 killed and over 700 injured.
- 14 August 2007 – Qahtaniya bombings: Four suicide vehicle bombers massacred nearly 800 members of northern Iraq's Yazidi sect in the deadliest Iraq war's attack to date.
- 26 July 2008 – 2008 Ahmedabad bombings, India. Islamic terrorists detonate at least 21 explosive devices in the heart of this industrial capital, leaving at least 56 dead and 200 injured. A Muslim group calling itself the Indian Mujahideen claims responsibility. Indian authorities believe that extremists with ties to Pakistan and/or Bangladesh are likely responsible and are intent on inciting communal violence. Investigation by Indian police led to the eventual arrest of a number of terrorists suspected of carrying out the blasts, most of whom belong to a well-known terrorist group, the Students Islamic Movement of India.
- 13 September 2008 – Bombing series in Delhi, India. Pakistani extremist groups plant bombs at several places including India Gate, out of which the ones at Karol Bagh, Connaught Place and Greater Kailash explode leaving around 30 people dead and 130 injured, followed by another attack two weeks later at the congested Mehrauli area, leaving 3 people dead.
- 26 November 2008 – Muslim extremists kill at least 174 people and wound numerous others in a series of coordinated attacks on India's largest city and financial capital, Mumbai. he government of India blamed Pakistan based militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba and stated that the terrorists killed/caught were citizens of Pakistan, a claim which the Pakistani government has refused. Ajmal Kasab, one of the terrorists, was caught alive.
- 17 July 2009 – Bombings in Jakarta's Marriott and Ritz-Carlton hotels. Nine killed, including 2 bombers. The bombings also cancelled Manchester United's tour match at Gelora Bung Karno Main Stadium, which scheduled to be held on 20 July. The club had booked rooms in one of the hotels.
- 25 October 2009 – Baghdad, Iraq. During a terrorist attack, two bomber vehicles detonated in the Green Zone, killing at least 155 people and injuring 520.
- 28 October 2009 – Peshawar, Pakistan. A car bomb is detonated in a woman exclusive shopping district, and over 110 killed and over 200 injured.
- 3 December 2009 – Mogadishu, Somalia. A male suicide bomber disguised as a woman detonates in a hotel meeting hall. The hotel was hosting a graduation ceremony for local medical students when the blast went off, killing four government ministers as well as other civilians.
- 1 January 2010 – Lakki Marwat, Pakistan. A suicide car bomber drove his explosive-laden vehicle into a volleyball pitch as people gathered to watch a match killing more than 100 people.
- 1 May 2010 – New York, New York, USA. Faisal Shahzad, an Islamic Pakistani American who received U.S. citizenship in December 2009, attempted to detonate a car bomb in Times Square working with the Pakistani Taliban or Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan–
- 13 May 2011 – Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan claimed attacks on two mosques simultaneously belonging to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, killing nearly 100 and injuring many others.
- 13 July 2011 – Three bombs exploded at different locations in Mumbai, perpetrated by Indian Mujahideen.
- 11 September 2012 – The 2012 Benghazi Attack took place on the evening of September 11, 2012; Islamic militants attacked the American diplomatic mission at Benghazi, in Libya, killing U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and Sean Smith, U.S. Foreign Service Information Management Officer.
- 15 April 2013 – Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev set off two pressure cooker bombs at the finish line of the 2013 Boston Marathon and killed three people.
- 22 May 2013 – Two Nigerian men attack and kill British Soldier, Lee Rigby in Woolwich, London, UK.
- 22 September 2013 – 61 civilians, 6 Kenyan soldiers, and 5 attackers die in the Westgate shopping mall attack.
- 1 March 2014 Kunming attack – Kunming, China. A group of knife-wielding Uyghur attackers stormed Kunming Railway Station, killing 29 civilians and wounding 143 people. 4 of the attackers were shot dead.
- 7 January 2015 – Charlie Hebdo shooting - Two masked gunmen armed with Kalashnikov rifles and shotguns stormed the headquarters of the French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo in Paris. They shot and killed 12 people, and wounded 11 others.
- 26 June 2015 – Three separate attacks in a single day by ISIS terrorists, during the month of Ramadan, were carried out: in a US-owned gas factory outside Lyon, France, a man driving a delivery van gained entry and caused a massive explosion, leaving the head of his decapitated boss impaled on the factory's fence; in the Tunisian resort of Sousse, an ISIS gunman opened fire on tourists, targeting British holiday makers in particular, killing 38 people; and in Kuwait City, a suicide bomber detonated himself in a mosque packed with around 2,000 people, killing at least 25 people.
- 13 November 2015 – Coordinated shootings and suicide bombings in Paris, France. 130 dead, 368 injured.
- 2 December 2015 – Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik carry out a mass shooting and an attempted bombing in San Bernardino, California, killing 14 civilians.
- 14 January 2016 – Explosions and gunfires in Jakarta causing the death of 8 people, half of them were the ISIL-affiliated attackers.
- 22 March 2016 – 2016 Brussels bombings in Brussels, Belgium. At least 34 deaths, At least 187 injured.
- 12 June 2016 – 2016 Orlando nightclub shooting 49 civilian casualties, 53 non-fatal injuries. Deadliest mass shooting in US history.
- 14 July 2016 - 2016 Nice attack in Nice, France. Use of vehicle ramming that killed 87 and injured 434.
Examples of organizations and acts
Some prominent Islamic terror groups and incidents include the following:
The 1992 attack on Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, was a suicide bombing attack on the building of the Israeli embassy of Argentina, located in Buenos Aires, which was carried out on 17 March 1992. Twenty-nine civilians were killed in the attack and 242 additional civilians were injured. A group called Islamic Jihad Organization, which has been linked to Iran and possibly Hezbollah, claimed responsibility.
An incident from 1994, known as the AMIA bombing, was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) building in Buenos Aires. It occurred on July 18 and killed 85 people and injured hundreds more. A suicide bomber drove a Renault Trafic van bomb loaded with about 275 kilograms (606 lb) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and fuel oil explosive mixture, into the Jewish Community Center building located in a densely constructed commercial area of Buenos Aires. Prosecutors Alberto Nisman and Marcelo Martínez Burgos formally accused the government of Iran of directing the bombing, and the Hezbollah militia of carrying it out. The prosecution claimed that Argentina had been targeted by Iran after Buenos Aires' decision to suspend a nuclear technology transfer contract to Tehran.
According to Human Rights Watch, Taliban and Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin forces have "sharply escalated bombing and other attacks" against civilians since 2006. In 2006, "at least 669 Afghan civilians were killed in at least 350 armed attacks, most of which appear to have been intentionally launched at civilians or civilian objects."
The government blamed the IMU (Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan) for training those responsible for carrying out a suicide car bombing of a police station in Khujand on September 3, 2010. Two policemen were killed and 25 injured.
On February 16, 1999, six car bombs exploded in Tashkent, killing 16 and injuring more than 100, in what may have been an attempt to assassinate President Islam Karimov. The IMU was blamed.
The IMU launched a series of attacks in Tashkent and Bukhara in March and April 2004. Gunmen and female suicide bombers took part in the attacks, which mainly targeted police. The violence killed 33 militants, 10 policemen, and four civilians. The government blamed Hizb ut-Tahrir, though the Islamic Jihad Union (IJU) claimed responsibility.
On July 30, 2004, suicide bombers struck the entrances of the US and Israeli embassies in Tashkent. Two Uzbek security guards were killed in both bombings. The IJU again claimed responsibility.
Major lethal attacks on civilians in Europe credited to Islamist terrorism include the 1985 El Descanso bombing in Madrid, the 1995 Paris Metro bombings, 11 March 2004 bombings of commuter trains in Madrid, where 191 people were killed, the 7 July 2005 London bombings, also of public transport, which killed 52 commuters, and the 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting, in Paris, where 12 people were killed in response to the satirical weekly newspaper Charlie Hebdo depicting cartoons of Muhammad. On November 13, 2015 the French capital was victim of a series of simultaneous attacks, claimed by ISIS, that killed 129 people in restaurants, the Bataclan theatre and the Stade de France. On 22 March 2016, ISIS terrorists bombed the Zaventem Airport and a metro station in Brussels, Belgium, killing 32 people.
In 2009, a Europol report showed that more than 99% of terrorist attacks in Europe over the last three years were, in fact, carried out by non-Muslims. Out of 1,009 arrests for terrorism in 2008, 187 were in relation to Islamist terrorism. The report showed that the majority of Islamist terror suspects were second or third generation immigrants. Swedish economist Tino Sanandaji has criticised the use of these statistics, as they count window-smashing and property damage as acts of terrorism on par with terrorist mass killings.
The majority of deaths by terrorism in Europe from 2001 to 2014 were caused by Islamic terrorism, even while not including Islamic terrorist attacks in Russia.
Politically and religiously motivated attacks on civilians in Russia have been traced to separatist sentiment among the largely Muslim population of its North Caucasus region, particularly in Chechnya, where the central government of the Russian Federation has waged two bloody wars against the local secular separatist government since 1994. In the Moscow theater hostage crisis in October 2002, three Chechen separatist groups took an estimated 850 people hostage in the Russian capital; at least 129 hostages died during the storming by Russian special forces, all but one killed by the chemicals used to subdue the attackers (whether this attack would more properly be called a nationalist rather than an Islamist attack is in question). In the September 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis more than 1,000 people were taken hostage after a school in the Russian republic of North Ossetia–Alania was seized by a pro-Chechen multi-ethnic group aligned to Riyad-us Saliheen Brigade of Martyrs; hundreds of people died during the storming by Russian forces.
Since 2000, Russia has also experienced a string of suicide bombings that killed hundreds of people in the Caucasian republics of Chechnya, Dagestan and Ingushetia, as well as in Russia proper including Moscow. Responsibility for most of these attacks were claimed by either Shamil Basayev's Islamic-nationalist rebel faction or, later, by Dokka Umarov's pan-Islamist movement Caucasus Emirate which is aiming to unite most of Russia's North Caucasus as an emirate since its creation in 2007. Since the creation of the Caucasus Emirate, the group has abandoned its secular nationalist goals and fully adopted the ideology of Salafist-takfiri Jihadism which seeks to advance the cause of Allah on the earth by waging war against the Russian government and non-Muslims in the North Caucasus, such as the local Sufi Muslim population, whom they view as mushrikeen (polytheists) who do not adhere to true Islamic teachings. In 2011, the U.S. Department of State included the Caucasus Emirate on its list of terrorist organisations.
Middle East / Southwest Asia
Hezbollah in Turkey (unrelated to the Shia Hezbollah in Lebanon) is a Sunni terrorist group accused of a series of attacks, including the November 2003 bombings of two synagogues, the British consulate in Istanbul and HSBC bank headquarters that killed 58. Hizbullah's leader, Hüseyin Velioğlu, was killed in action by Turkish police in Beykoz on 17 January 2000. Besides Hizbullah, other Islamic groups listed as a terrorist organization by Turkish police counter-terrorism include Great Eastern Islamic Raiders' Front, al-Qaeda in Turkey, Tevhid-Selam (also known as al-Quds Army) and Caliphate State. Islamic Party of Kurdistan and Hereketa İslamiya Kurdistan are also Islamist groups active against Turkey, however unlike Hizbullah they're yet to be listed as active terrorist organizations in Turkey by Turkish police counter-terrorism.
The area that has seen some of the worst terror attacks in modern history has been Iraq as part of the Iraq War. In 2005, there were more than 400 incidents of suicide bombing attacks, killing more than 2,000 people. In 2006, almost half of all reported terrorist attacks in the world (6,600), and more than half of all terrorist fatalities (13,000), occurred in Iraq, according to the National Counterterrorism Center of the United States. Along with nationalist groups and criminal, non-political attacks, the Iraqi insurgency includes Islamist insurgent groups, such as Al-Qaeda in Iraq, who favor suicide attacks far more than non-Islamist groups. At least some of the terrorism has a transnational character in that some foreign Islamic jihadists have joined the insurgency.
Israel and the Palestinian territories
Hamas ("zeal" in Arabic and an acronym for Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya) grew in power and began attacks on military and civilian targets in Israel at the beginning of the First Intifada in 1987. The 1988 charter of Hamas calls for the destruction of Israel. Hamas's armed wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was established in mid 1991 and claimed responsibility for numerous attacks against Israelis, principally suicide bombings and rocket attacks. Hamas has been accused of sabotaging the Israeli-Palestine peace process by launching attacks on civilians during Israeli elections to anger Israeli voters and facilitate the election of harder-line Israeli candidates. Hamas has been designated as a terrorist group by Canada, the United States, Israel, Australia, Japan, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and Human Rights Watch. It is banned in Jordan. Russia does not consider Hamas a terrorist group as it was "democratically elected". During the second intifada (September 2000 through August 2005) 39.9 percent of the suicide attacks were carried out by Hamas. The first Hamas suicide attack was the Mehola Junction bombing in 1993. Hamas claims its aimes are "To contribute in the effort of liberating Palestine and restoring the rights of the Palestinian people under the sacred Islamic teachings of the Holy Quran, the Sunna (traditions) of Prophet Mohammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the traditions of Muslims rulers and scholars noted for their piety and dedication."
Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine is a Palestinian Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascus, and dedicated to waging jihad to eliminate the state of Israel. It was formed by Palestinian Fathi Shaqaqi in the Gaza Strip following the Iranian Revolution which inspired its members. From 1983 onward, it engaged in "a succession of violent, high-profile attacks" on Israeli targets. The Intifada which "it eventually sparked" was quickly taken over by the much larger Palestine Liberation Organization and Hamas. Beginning in September 2000, it started a campaign of suicide bombing attacks against Israeli civilians. The PIJ's armed wing, the Al-Quds brigades, has claimed responsibility for numerous terrorist attacks in Israel, including suicide bombings. The group has been designated as a terrorist organization by several Western countries.
Popular Resistance Committees is a coalition of a number of armed Palestinian groups opposed to what they regard as the conciliatory approach of the Palestinian Authority and Fatah towards Israel. The PRC is especially active in the Gaza Strip, through its military wing, the Al-Nasser Salah al-Deen Brigades. The PRC is said to have an extreme Islamic worldview and operates with Hamas and the Islamic Jihad movement. The PRC has carried out several attacks against Israeli civilians and soldiers including hundreds of shooting attacks and other rocket and bombing attacks.
Hezbollah first emerged in 1982, as a militia during the 1982 Lebanon War. Its leaders were inspired by the Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of Iranian Revolutionary Guards. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its three main goals as "putting an end to any colonialist entity" in Lebanon, bringing the Phalangists to justice for "the crimes they [had] perpetrated," and the establishment of an Islamic regime in Lebanon. Hezbollah leaders have also made numerous statements calling for the destruction of Israel, which they refer to as a "Zionist entity... built on lands wrested from their owners."
Hezbollah, which started with only a small militia, has grown to an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite television-station, and programs for social development. They maintain strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, and gained a surge of support from Lebanon's broader population (Sunni, Christian, Druze) immediately following the 2006 Lebanon War, and are able to mobilize demonstrations of hundreds of thousands. Hezbollah along with some other groups began the 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests in opposition to the government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora. A later dispute over Hezbollah preservation of its telecoms network led to clashes and Hezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West Beirut neighborhoods from Future Movement militiamen loyal to Fouad Siniora. These areas were then handed over to the Lebanese Army.
A national unity government was formed in 2008, in Lebanon, giving Hezbollah and its opposition allies control of 11 of 30 cabinets seats; effectively veto power. Hezbollah receives its financial support from the governments of Iran and Syria, as well as donations from Lebanese people and foreign Shi'as. It has also gained significantly in military strength in the 2000s. Despite a June 2008 certification by the United Nations that Israel had withdrawn from all Lebanese territory, in August, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which secures Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands." Since 1992, the organization has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The United States, Canada, Israel, Bahrain, France, Gulf Cooperation Council, and the Netherlands regard Hezbollah as a terrorist organization, while the United Kingdom, the European Union and Australia consider only Hezbollah's military wing or its external security organization to be a terrorist organization. Many consider it, or a part of it, to be a terrorist group responsible for blowing up the American embassy and later its annex, as well as the barracks of American and French peacekeeping troops and a dozens of kidnappings of foreigners in Beirut. It is also accused of being the recipient of massive aid from Iran, and of serving "Iranian foreign policy calculations and interests," or serving as a "subcontractor of Iranian initiatives" Hezbollah denies any involvement or dependence on Iran. In the Arab and Muslim worlds, on the other hand, Hezbollah is regarded as a legitimate and successful resistance movement that drove both Western powers and Israel out of Lebanon. In 2005, the Lebanese Prime Minister said of Hezbollah, it "is not a militia. It's a resistance."
Fatah al-Islam is an Islamist group operating out of the Nahr al-Bared refugee camp in northern Lebanon. It was formed in November 2006, by fighters who broke off from the pro-Syrian Fatah al-Intifada, itself a splinter group of the Palestinian Fatah movement, and is led by a Palestinian fugitive militant named Shaker al-Abssi. The group's members have been described as militant jihadists, and the group itself has been described as a terrorist movement that draws inspiration from al-Qaeda. Its stated goal is to reform the Palestinian refugee camps under Islamic sharia law, and its primary targets are the Lebanese authorities, Israel and the United States.
North and East Africa
The Armed Islamic Group, active in Algeria between 1992 and 1998, was one of the most violent Islamic terrorist groups, and is thought to have takfired the Muslim population of Algeria. Its campaign to overthrow the Algerian government included civilian massacres, sometimes wiping out entire villages in its area of operation. It also targeted foreigners living in Algeria, killing more than 100 expatriates in the country. In recent years it has been eclipsed by a splinter group, the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), now called Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb.
Boko Haram is an Islamic extremist group based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.
Somalia and the Horn of Africa
Al-Shabaab is a militant jihadist terrorist group based in East Africa. In 2012, it pledged allegiance to the militant Islamist organization Al-Qaeda. It is a participant in the Somali Civil War, and is reportedly being used by Egypt to destabilize Ethiopia, and attracting converts from predominantly Christian Kenya.
According to recent government statements Islamic terrorism is the biggest threat to Canada. The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) reported that terrorist radicalization at home is now the chief preoccupation of Canada's spy agency. The most notorious arrest in Canada's fight on terrorism, was the 2006 Ontario terrorism plot in which 18 Al-Qaeda-inspired cell members were arrested for planning a mass bombing, shooting, and hostage taking terror plot throughout Southern Ontario. There have also been other arrests mostly in Ontario involving terror plots.
Between 1993 and 2001, the major attacks or attempts against U.S. interests stemmed from militant Islamic jihad extremism except for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. On September 11, 2001, nearly 3,000 people were killed in New York City, Washington, D.C., and Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, during the September 11 attacks organized by 19 al-Qaeda members and largely perpetrated by Saudi nationals, sparking the War on Terror. Former CIA Director Michael Hayden considers homegrown terrorism to be the most dangerous threat and concern faced by American citizens today. As of July 2011, there have been 52 homegrown jihadist extremist plots or attacks in the United States since the September 11 attacks.
The worst mass shooting in U.S. history was committed by a Muslim against LGBT people. Omar Mateen, in the name of Islam, and specifically in allegiance to Islamic State, shot and murdered 49 people and wounded more than 50 in a gay nightclub, Pulse, in Orlando, Florida.
In Bangladesh, the group Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh was formed sometime in 1998, and gained prominence in 2001. The organization was officially banned in February 2005 after attacks on NGOs, but struck back in August when 300 bombs were detonated almost simultaneously throughout Bangladesh, targeting Shahjalal International Airport, government buildings and major hotels.
The Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT), also called Ansar Bangla is an Islamic extremist organization in Bangladesh, implicated in crimes including some brutal attacks and murders of atheist bloggers from 2013 to 2015 and a bank heist in April 2015.
Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (Arabic: حركة الجهاد الإسلامي, Ḥarkat al-Jihād al-Islāmiyah, meaning "Islamic Jihad Movement", HuJI) is an Islamic fundamentalist organisation most active in South Asian countries of Pakistan, Bangladesh and India since the early 1990s. It was banned in Bangladesh in 2005.
Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed are militant groups seeking accession of Kashmir to Pakistan from India. The Lashkar leadership describes Indian and Israel regimes as the main enemies of Islam and Pakistan that is an extremist thought but is not real. Lashkar-e-Toiba, along with Jaish-e-Mohammed, another militant group active in Kashmir are on the United States’ foreign terrorist organizations list, and are also designated as terrorist groups by the United Kingdom, India, Australia and Pakistan. Jaish-e-Mohammed was formed in 1994 and has carried out a series of attacks all over India. The group was formed after the supporters of Maulana Masood Azhar split from another Islamic militant organization, Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. Jaish-e-Mohammed is viewed by some as the "deadliest" and "the principal terrorist organization in Jammu and Kashmir." The group was also implicated in the kidnapping and murder of American journalist Daniel Pearl.
Most of the terrorist incidents in Thailand are related to the South Thailand insurgency.
The Abu Sayyaf Group, also known as al-Harakat al-Islamiyya, is one of several militant Islamic-separatist groups based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, in Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao) where for almost 30 years various Muslim groups have been engaged in an insurgency for a state, independent of the predominantly Christian Philippines. The name of the group is derived from the Arabic ابو, abu ("father of") and sayyaf ("Swordsmith"). Since its inception in the early 1990s, the group has carried out bombings, assassinations, kidnappings and extortion in their fight for an independent Islamic state in western Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago with the stated goal of creating a pan-Islamic superstate across southeast Asia, spanning from east to west; the island of Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, the island of Borneo (Malaysia, Indonesia), the South China Sea, and the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Myanmar). The U.S. Department of State has branded the group a terrorist entity by adding it to the list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.
- 1992 Ürümqi bombings
- 1997 Ürümqi bus bombings
- 2010 Aksu bombing
- 2013 Tiananmen Square attack
- Kunming station massacre
|This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2011)|
Al-Qaeda's stated aim is the use of jihad to defend and protect Islam against Zionism, Christianity, Hinduism, the secular West, and Muslim governments such as Saudi Arabia, which it sees as insufficiently Islamic and too closely tied to the United States. Formed by Osama bin Laden and Muhammad Atef in the aftermath of the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the late 1980s, al-Qaeda called for the use of violence against civilians and military of the United States and any countries that are allied with it.[better source needed]
U.S. State Department list
- Islamic terrorism in the United Kingdom
- United States and state-sponsored terrorism
- Religion and peacebuilding
- Religious war
- Religion of Peace
- List of Islamic terrorist attacks
- Islamic extremism
- Christian Terrorism
- Criticism of Islamism
- History of terrorism
- Homegrown terrorism
- Iran and state terrorism
- Islam: What the West Needs to Know
- Arab-Israeli conflict
- Zionist political violence
- Jewish religious terrorism
- Palestinian political violence
- B. Hoffman, "Inside Terrorism", Columbia University Press, 1999, pp. 89–97. ISBN 978-0231126991
- Holbrook, Donald (2010). "Using the Qur'an to Justify Terrorist Violence". Perspectives on Terrorism. Terrorism Research Initiative and Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence. 4 (3).
- Holbrook, Donald (2014). The Al-Qaeda doctrine. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 30ff, 61ff, 83ff. ISBN 978-1623563141.
- "Global Terrorism Index Report 2015" (PDF). Institute for Economics & Peace. November 2015. p. 10. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
- Siddiqui, Mona (August 23, 2014). "Isis: a contrived ideology justifying barbarism and sexual control". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 24, 2014. Retrieved January 7, 2015.
- Constanze Letsch. "Kurdish peshmerga forces arrive in Kobani to bolster fight against Isis". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Christine Sisto. "Moderate Muslims Stand against ISIS - National Review Online". National Review Online. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Jackson, Richard (2007). "Constructing Enemies: 'Islamic Terrorism' in Political and Academic Discourse". Government and Opposition. Wiley Online Library. 42 (3): 394–426. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.2007.00229.x. ISSN 0017-257X. (subscription required (. ))
- Shane, Scott (February 18, 2015). "Faulted for Avoiding 'Islamic' Labels to Describe Terrorism, White House Cites a Strategic Logic". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Another battle with Islam's 'true believers'". The Globe and Mail.
- Mohamad Jebara More Mohamad Jebara. "Imam Mohamad Jebara: Fruits of the tree of extremism". Ottawa Citizen.
- Rees, John (January 7, 2015). "What you need to know about terrorism and its causes: a graphic account". stopwar.org.uk. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015.
- For example, according to Pape, from 1980 to 2003 suicide attacks amounted to only 3% of all terrorist attacks, but accounted for 48% of total deaths due to terrorism – this excluding 9/11 attacks, from Pape, Dying to Win, (2005), p.28
- McConnell, Scott (2005). "The Logic of Suicide Terrorism". The American Conservative magazine. The American Conservative. Archived from the original on June 22, 2006. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "Suicide Terrorism in the Middle East: Origins and Response". Washingtoninstitute.org. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Scheuer (2004), p. 9
"The focused and lethal threat posed to U.S. national security arises not from Muslims being offended by what America is, but rather from their plausible perception that the things they most love and value – God, Islam, their brethren, and Muslim lands – are being attacked by America."
- "US Support for Israel prompted 9/11". The Australian. AFP. September 14, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2016.
- Mearsheimer, John J. and Walt, Stephen (2007). The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-17772-4.
- "Six shot, one killed at Seattle Jewish federation". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. 27 July 2006.
- Purdy, Matthew (25 February 1997). "The Gunman Premeditated The Attack, Officials Say". The New York Times.
- "Frontline: Al Qaeda's New Front: Interviews: Michael Scheuer". Retrieved March 8, 2008.
Bin Laden has had success because he's focused on a limited number of U.S. foreign policies in the Muslim world, policies that are visible and are experienced by Muslims on a daily basis: our unqualified support for Israel; our ability to keep oil prices at a level that is more or less acceptable to Western consumers. Probably the most damaging of all is our 30-year support for police states across the Islamic world: the Al Sauds and the Egyptians under [Hosni] Mubarak and his predecessors; the Algerians; the Moroccans; the Kuwaitis. They're all police states.
- Scheuer (2004), pp. 11-13
- "Age of extremes: Mehdi Hasan and Maajid Nawaz debate". London: New Statesman. 4 July 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- Daniel Benjamin; Steven Simon (2002). The Age of Sacred Terror. Random House. p. 40. ISBN 978-0756767518.
- Travis, Alan (20 August 2008). "MI5 report challenges views on terrorism in Britain". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
- Roy, Olivier (18 December 2015). "What is the driving force behind jihadist terrorism?". insidestory.org.au. Retrieved 25 February 2016.
- Lilla, Mark (10 March 2016). "France: Is There a Way Out?". New York Review of Books. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- Peter Bergen (13 Jan 2015). "Does Islam fuel terrorism?". CNN. Retrieved 28 Jun 2016.
- Michael Sells (August 8, 2002). "Understanding, Not Indoctrination". The Washington Post.
- Jane I. Smith (2005). "Islam and Christianity". Encyclopedia of Christianity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-522393-4.
- Shasha, David (January 2002). "No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam". International Journal of Kurdish Studies.
- Author of No god but God: The Origins, Evolution and Future of Islam to speak on campus. Stanford University press release. Published October 20, 2006. Accessed May 7, 2009.
- 'No god but God': The War Within Islam (Book Review) |By MAX RODENBECK| nytimes.com| May 29, 2005
- Peters, Rudolph; Cook, David (2014). "Jihād". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (subscription required (. ))
- Lewis, Bernard, 'Islam: The Religion and the People' (2009). Page 53, 145–150
- Bernard Lewis (September 27, 2001). "Jihad vs. Crusade". Opinionjournal.com. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Bukhari 50:891
- Quran (8:12)
- Lewis, Bernard, The Middle East: A Brief History of the Last 2000 Years, pp.233-234
- Lewis, Bernard, The Political Language of Islam, p.73
- Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press. p. 335.
- Wael B. Hallaq (2009). Sharī'a: Theory, Practice, Transformations. Cambridge University Press. pp. 338–339.
- The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism p.138, 144
- Burke, Jason (23 October 2010). "Talking to the Enemy by Scott Atran – [book] review". The Observer. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- Chaney, Eric (October 24, 2007). "Economic Development, Religious Competition, and the Rise and Fall of Muslim Science" (PDF). eml.berkeley.edu. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Islamic world faces intellectual stagnation". Nationmultimedia.com. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- Singletary, Michelle (19 May 2011). "The economics of Obama's Arab Spring speech". The Washington Post.
- "How the Islamic World Lost Its Edge". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Fromkin, David (1989) . A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East, 1914-1922 (PDF). Andre Deutsch. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2014.
- "GCC Citizenship Debate: A Place To Call Home". Gulf Business. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "GCC residents demand Gulf states grant citizenship - Politics & Economics". ArabianBusiness.com. 2007-12-17. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "ISIS Urges Muslims To Emigrate To 'New State'". Sky News. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "ISIS allegedly issues 'caliphate' passport". Al Arabia. July 5, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Naval Postgraduate Naval Postgraduate School (19 March 2015). Wahhabism: Is It a Factor in the Spread of Global Terrorism?. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1-5089-3613-8.
- Charles Allen (1 March 2009). God's Terrorists: The Wahhabi Cult and the Hidden Roots of Modern Jihad. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-7867-3300-2.
- Natana J. DeLong-Bas (2007). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad. I.B.Tauris. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-84511-322-3.
- "How Saudi Wahhabism Is the Fountainhead of Islamist Terrorism". Huffington Post. 20 January 2015.
- Choksy, Carol E. B.; Jamsheed K. Choksy (May–June 2015). "The Saudi Connection: Wahhabism and Global Jihad". World Affairs. Archived from the original on May 9, 2015.
- "Under London's Wing: ISIS: Saudi-Qatari-Funded Wahhabi Terrorists Worldwide". larouchepub.com.
- Habib, S. Irfan (November 19, 2014). "Radical face of Saudi Wahhabism". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Karuvarakundu, Luqman (July 25, 2011). "Wahhabism, Terrorism, Islam - Interview with Stephen Suleyman Schwartz". Center for Islamic Pluralism. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Aubrey, Stefan M. (2004), The New Dimension of International Terrorism, vdf Hochschulverlag AG, p. 94, ISBN 978-3-7281-2949-9, retrieved 4 August 2016
- Eikmeier, Dale C. (Spring 2007). "Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism". Parameters. XXXVII (1): 85–98. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007.
- Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America' accessed 24 May 2007
- Dangerous and depraved: paedophiles unite with terrorists online, Richard Kerbaj, Dominic Kennedy, Richard Owen and Graham Keeley, The Times, 17 October 2008. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
- Exclusive: Pornography found in bin Laden hideout: officials, "Reuters", 13 May 2011
- Manningham-Buller, Eliza (November 10, 2006). "Transcript of speech: The International Terrorist Threat to the UK". ICJS Research. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "The Muslim world and the West: the roots of conflict." 2005. Web. 16 April 2010.
- "Perspectives on Terrorism – Explaining Terrorism: A Psychosocial Approach." Web. 16 April 2010.
- Korostelina, K. (2007). Social Identity and Conflict: Structures, Dynamics and Implications. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
- "Osama bin Laden's growing anxiety / The Christian Science Monitor – CSMonitor.com." Web. 16 Apr. 2010
- "Al-Qaeda Blames 9/11 on US Support for Israel – Defense/Middle East – Israel News – Israel National News." Web. 16 Apr. 2010.
- "Understanding Arab anti-Americanism. - By Lee Smith - Slate Magazine." Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
- "Hizballah (Party of God)." Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
- "Analysis Of Al Qaeda In Afghanistan And Pakistan | Eurasia Review." Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
- "Hezbollah and its Goals." Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
- "Al-Qaida." Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
- "Global Connections. Stereotypes | PBS." Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
- Korostelina, K. (2007) Social Identity and Conflict: Structures, Dynamics and Implications. New York: Palgrave Macmillan
- Sageman (2004)
- "Understanding Terror Networks, Marc Sageman". Upenn.edu. September 11, 2001. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Wright, Loming Tower (2006), p.304
- "Olivier Roy Interview (2007): Conversations with History; Institute of International Studies, UC Berkeley". Globetrotter.berkeley.edu. May 3, 2007. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Disabled Often Carry Out Afghan Suicide Missions". Npr.org. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Byman, Daniel; Christine Fair (July–August 2010). "The Case for Calling Them Nitwits". Atlantic Magazine. Archived from the original on June 10, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- Bergen, Peter (15 June 2016). "Why Do Terrorists Commit Terrorism?". New York Times. Retrieved 16 June 2016.
- Halliday, Fred: Islam and the Myth of Confrontation: Religion and Politics in the Middle East (New York: I.B. Tauris, 2003), 107
- "Statement of purpose". Almashriq.hiof.no. March 20, 1998. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Hizbullah: Views and Concepts". Almashriq.hiof.no. June 20, 1997. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Extremists hold Osama bin Laden 'funeral' at US Embassy in London". Metro.co.uk. May 7, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- ""The Book, "Is Salafiyyah a cause of Terrorism""
- ""The Mufti of Saudi Arabia on the New York Attacks"
- ""The Major Scholars on the Salafi Position Towards the Suicide Bombings by the Khawaarij in Riyadh"
- "Abdal-Hakim Murad, Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam". Islamfortoday.com. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "The terrorist attacks in London". Rumi Forum. 2005. Archived from the original on June 26, 2007. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- "A Real Muslim cannot be a Terrorist". Interview with Nuriye Akman of Zaman Daily. Fethullah Gülen's Website. 2004. Archived from the original on March 11, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- Zeki Saritoprak. "Fethullah Gulen's Thoughts on State, Democracy, Politics, Terrorism". Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- Power, Carla (March 12, 2010). "Eminent Pakistani Cleric Issues Fatwa Against Terrorism – TIME". Time.com. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "A Muslim cannot be a Terrorist and a Terrorist cannot be a Muslim". Fethulah Gulen's Website. 2002. Archived from the original on November 9, 2005. Retrieved August 1, 2006.
- "Islam Denounces Terrorism". Harun Yahya's Website. 2006. Retrieved August 1, 2006.[dead link]
- "Fatwa: Suicide Bombing and Terrorism". Islamicresearcher.com. July 7, 2005. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Man of faiths: Preeminent religion scholar Huston Smith reflects on Judaism and Chasing the Divine | j. the Jewish news weekly of Northern California". Jweekly.com. June 25, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Terrorism has no religion". Retrieved 2013-08-25.
- Hannah Stuart (2014). Marco Lombardi, ed. Countering Radicalization and Violent Extremism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism. IOS Press. pp. 74–76. ISBN 978-1-61499-469-5.
- Jerome Taylor (March 3, 2010). "Sheikh issues fatwa against all terrorists". The Independent. London. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
- "Top Islamic scholar issues 'absolute' fatwa against terror". Nationalpost.com. March 3, 2010. Retrieved April 25, 2010.[dead link]
- "Leading Iranian Cleric Calls on Regime to Avoid War With Israel". Haaretz. 2012. Retrieved Aug 3, 2016.
- "Interview Grand Ayatollah Yusef Saanei". PBS/Frontline. Retrieved Aug 3, 2016.
- "Top Pak clerics declare suicide attacks un-Islamic". The Times of India. May 17, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad (September 3, 2009). "The Permission for Jihad". Al-Mawrid. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011.
- Saleem, Shehzad (September 8, 2009). "No Jihad without the State: View of the Jurists". Al-Mawrid. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011.
- Ghamidi, Javed Ahmad (September 6, 2009). "Ethical Limits". Al-Mawrid. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011.
- Saleem, Shehzad (September 8, 2009). "Suicide Bombers". Al-Mawrid. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011.
- "Al-Qaida today: a movement at the crossroads". openDemocracy. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Views of Violence". Gallup. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "A Year After Iraq War – Mistrust of America in Europe Ever Higher, Muslim Anger Persists". Survey reports. The Pew Research Center. 2004. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "Bin Laden more popular with Nigerian Muslims than Bush". Daily Times of Pakistan. AFP. 2003. Archived from the original on August 15, 2003. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "Islamic Extremism: Common Concern for Muslim and Western Publics". Pew Global Attitudes Project. Pew Research Center. 2005. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- King, Anthony (23 July 2005). "One in four Muslims sympathises with motives of terrorists". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Arab polling, Al Arabiya
- Just Like Us! Really?, Washington Institute for Near East Policy
- 65% of Palestinians Applaud Terror Attacks on US and Europe IsraelNationalNews.com
- "The_MIPT_Terrorism_Annual" (PDF). tkb.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 29, 2007. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- Casciani, Dominic (2 March 2010). "Muslim scholar condemns terrorism". BBC News.
- Shay, Shaul (December 2013). Global Jihad and the Tactic of Terror Abduction: A Comprehensive Review of Islamic Terrorist Organizations. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1845196110.
- Rubin, Michael. "How to Deal with Kidnappings in Iraq". Middle East Quarterly (December 2005). Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Shay, Shaul (2007). Islamic Terror Abductions in the Middle East. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1845191676.
- Caschetta, A.J. (Mar 1, 2008). "Review of Islamic Terror Abductions in the Middle East by Shaul Shay". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved Aug 4, 2016.
- Thomas, Andrea (September 24, 2014). "Germany Confirms Kidnapping of Two Citizens by Islamist Group in Philippines". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 7, 2014. (subscription required (. ))
- Willsher, Kim (September 23, 2014). "Algerian Islamists threaten to execute hostage unless France halts Isis attacks". The Guardian. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Johnlee, Varghese (6 October 2014). "ISIS Lists Out 5 Islamic Reasons to Justify Beheading Alan Henning and other Captives". International Business Times. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Mauro, Ryan. "UK's Anjem Choudary Justifies Beheading of James Foley". Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Callimachi, Rukmini Maria (July 29, 2014). "Paying Ransoms, Europe Bankrolls Qaeda Terror". New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Hill, J.N.C. "Boko Haram, the Chibok Abductions and Nigeria's Counterterrorism Strategy". Combating Terrorism Center - West Point Military Academy. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Kington, Tom (March 10, 2012). "Nigerian kidnappers 'received ransom downpayment'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 5, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- BBCnigeria (June 1, 2012). "Italian Abducted in Nigeria Freed". BBC. BBC. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Caulderwood, Kathleen (May 16, 2014). "Fake Charities, Drug Cartels, Ransom and Extortion: Where Islamist Group Boko Haram Gets Its Cash". International Business Times. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
- Dreazen, Yochi. "ISIS Uses Mafia Tactics to Fund Its Own Operations Without Help From Persian Gulf Donors". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on June 17, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Rosen, Armin (Aug 20, 2014). "ISIS Has Been Taking Foreign Hostages Since The Very Beginning — And Getting Paid For Them". Business Insider. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- BBCMarch (March 30, 2014). "Syria crisis: Spanish journalists freed after ISIS kidnapping". BC. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- CBSNews (Aug 21, 2014). "Multiple kidnappings for ransom funding ISIS, source says". CBS News. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- McTague, Tom (Sep 3, 2014). "Cameron tells European leaders to 'be good to their word' and stop funding ISIS with ransom payments". London: Mail. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Malas, Nour (Aug 22, 2014). "Hostage-Taking Central to Islamic State Strategy in Syria". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Chulov, Martin (June 16, 2014). "Iraq arrest that exposed wealth and power of Isis jihadists". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 16, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Moore, Jack (11 June 2014). "Mosul Seized: Jihadis Loot $429m from City's Central Bank to Make Isis World's Richest Terror Force". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
- Hill, Jonathan N.C. (July 30, 2014). "Boko Haram, the Chibok Abductions and Nigeria's Counterterrorism Strategy". Combatting Terrorism Center at West Point. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
- Marina Lazreg, "Consequences of Political Liberalisation and Sociocultural Mobilisation for Women in Algeria, Egypt and Jordan," in Anne-Marie Goetz, Governing Women: Women’s Political Effectiveness in Contexts of Democratisation and Governance Reform (New York: Routledge/UNRISD, 2009), p. 47.
- Brekke, Kira (8 September 2014). "ISIS Is Attacking Women, And Nobody Is Talking About It". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
- Ivan Watson, "'Treated like cattle': Yazidi women sold, raped, enslaved by ISIS," CNN,October 30, 2014
- Steve Hopkins, "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn’t escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves," Mail Online, 14 October 2014
- Spencer, Richard (14 October 2014). "Isil carried out massacres and mass sexual enslavement of Yazidis, UN confirms". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
- Abdelaziz, Salma (13 October 2014). "ISIS states its justification for the enslavement of women". CNN. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- Lister, Tim (June 5, 2015). "Boko Haram: The essence of terror". CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
- Gorzewski, Andreas (July 22, 2014). "Hamas uses kidnapping as a strategic tool". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Kershner, Isabel; Jodi Rudoren (July 22, 2014). "A Blast, a Fire and an Israeli Soldier Goes Missing". New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Friedman, Thomas L. (December 15, 2009). "www.jihad.com". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 17, 2009.
- "2006 9/11 Death Toll". CNN. April 2006. Retrieved September 7, 2006.
- "Akshardham attack was planned in Riyadh". Times Internet Limited. August 29, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Akshardham attack "plotted in Riyadh"". India news. Indian Express Newspapers (Bombay) Ltd. 2005. Archived from the original on January 14, 2006. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "Bali bombings 2002". International Activities. Australian Federal Police. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2007.
- "Woman injured in 2004 Russian siege dies". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. December 8, 2006. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2007.
- "Standoff". BBC News. September 3, 2004. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Gunman kills Dutch film director". BBC News. November 2, 2004. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- "Delhi blasts toll is 59, 200 injured". rediff.com. 30 October 2005.
- "Deadly Bombings Hit Jordan". TheStreet.com. November 9, 2005. Archived from the original on November 16, 2006.
- "Britain closes Amman embassy". Al Jazeera. AFP. January 7, 2006. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Bomber's wife arrested in Jordan". BBC. November 13, 2005. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "South Asia". Asia Times. May 15, 2008. Retrieved June 12, 2010.
- Bedi, Rahul (July 27, 2008). "India on high alert as bombers sought – Telegraph". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- (AFP) – Aug 16, 2008 (August 16, 2008). "AFP: Indian police arrest 10 for serial blasts – August 16, 2008". Afp.google.com. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Lakshmi, Rama (2008-11-27). "Washington Post – *26 November 2008 – Dozens Die in Mumbai Attacks". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Lakshmi, Rama (2008-12-01). "Washington Post – 1 December 2008: More Indian Officials Quit in Aftermath of Attacks". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Somalia ministers killed by hotel suicide bomb". BBC News. December 3, 2009. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Pakistan volleyball crowd hit by suicide bomber". BBC News. January 1, 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Walsh, Declan (May 13, 2011). "Suicide Bombing Revenge Osama". The Guardian. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- Collins, Susan (January 15, 2014). "SSCI Review of the Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Facilities in Benghazi, Libya, September 11-12, 2012" (PDF). U.S. Select Senate Committee on Intelligence. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 16, 2014.
- "Woolwich attack: Lee Rigby named as victim". BBC News.
- "BBC One - Sunday Politics, 28/06/2015, Tunisia attack: IS see Ramadan as 'a month of war'". BBC.
- "Quick Links". CNN.
- "Quick Links". CNN.
- "Islamic State claims responsibility for deadly blast at Kuwait City mosque". Kuwait City: The Guardian. Associated Press. June 26, 2015. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015.
- Quilty-Harper, Conrad (23 May 2013). "Graphic: terrorist attacks by al-Qaeda, Islamist and Islamic terrorist groups, 2001 - 2011". Telegraph.co.uk. London. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "Interviews - Robert Baer - Terror And Tehran - FRONTLINE - PBS". Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- "AMIA Bombing Commemorated", Dateline World Jewry, World Jewish Congress, September 2007
- "AMIA Attack in Argentina". ADL.
- "Discursos". OAS. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
- "Iran, Hezbollah charged in 1994 Argentine bombing". Daily Jang. October 25, 2006. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved October 25, 2006.
- "Iran charged over Argentina bomb". BBC News. October 25, 2006. Archived from the original on 7 November 2006. Retrieved October 25, 2006.
- Acusan a Irán por el ataque a la AMIA, La Nación, October 26, 2006
- The Consequences of Insurgent Attacks in Afghanistan April 2007 Volume 19, No. 6(C)
- "Car Bomber Kills 2 in Tajikistan". The Moscow Times. September 6, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Polat, Abdumannob; Butkevich, Nickolai (November 28, 2000). "Unraveling the Mystery of the Tashkent Bombings: Theories and Implications". Archived from the original on June 11, 2003. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
- "Central Asia Report: April 7, 2004". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- Peimani, Hooman (April 21, 2004). "Uzbekistan's reaction to Tashkent bombings generate doubts on efficacy". cacianalyst.org. Archived from the original on June 17, 2004.
- Saidazimova, Gulnoza (September 6, 2007). "Germany: Authorities Say Uzbekistan-Based Group Behind Terrorist Plot". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Archived from the original on September 11, 2007.
- Pannier, Bruce (July 27, 2004). "Uzbekistan: 'Terror' Trial Likely To Hold Few Surprises". Radio Free Europe. Archived from the original on December 13, 2008.
- "US FBI joins Uzbek blast inquiry". BBC News. August 3, 2004. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Rotar, Igor (May 19, 2005). "Terrorism in Uzbekistan: A self-made crisis". Terrorism Monitor, Jamestown Foundation. 2 (8). Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Knox, Kathleen (2004). "Uzbekistan: Who's Behind The Violence?" (18 - JRL 8147). Johnson's Russia List. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on April 4, 2004.
- Dearden, Lizzie (15 November 2015). "Paris attack: Isis warns 'This is just the beginning' after killing at least 127 people in French capital". The Independent. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
- Milne, Seumas (February 25, 2010). "This tide of anti-Muslim hatred is a threat to us all". London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on February 26, 2010. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE-SAT". Europol. 2007–2009. Retrieved April 8, 2010.
- Mehdi Hasan (July 9, 2009). "Know your enemy". New Statesman. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
- "EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report TE-SAT 2009" (PDF). Europol. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2015.
- "Islamists caused overwhelming majority of terrorist deaths in Europe during last decade". Tino Sanandaji blog. 20 February 2011.
- "Daily chart: Terror attacks". The Economist. 15 January 2015.
- "Le terrorisme islamiste a fait 236 morts en France en 18 mois". Le Monde (in French). 26 July 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
De l’attaque de « Charlie Hebdo » et de l’« Hyper casher » en janvier 2015 à la mort du père Jacques Hamel à Saint-Etienne-de-Rouvray, mardi 26 juillet, ce sont 236 personnes qui ont perdu la vie dans des attentats et attaques terroristes
- Foreign Affairs, January/February 2008, p.74, "The Myth of the Authoritarian Model"
- "Changing face of terror in Russia". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Darion Rhodes, Salafist-Takfiri Jihadism: the Ideology of the Caucasus Emirate, International Institute for Counter-terrorism, March 2014
- "Designation of Caucasus Emirate". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- John Pike. "Turkish Hizbullah". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Kohlmann, Evan (November 25, 2003). "Terrorized Turkey: Pointing fingers at al Qaeda". nationalreview.com. Archived from the original on February 17, 2004.
- "TÜRKİYE'DE HALEN FAALİYETLERİNE DEVAM EDEN - BAŞLICA TERÖR ÖRGÜTLERİ" [CURRENT OPERATIONS CONTINUING IN TURKEY - MAJOR TERRORIST ORGANIZATIONS]. egm.gov.tr (in Turkish). Archived from the original on August 27, 2002.
- Atran, Scott (2006). "The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism" (PDF). The Washington Quarterly. twq.elliott.gwu.edu. 29 (2): 131. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 23, 2015.
- Report on Terrorist Incidents – 2006 6600 out of 14000
- Iraqi Insurgency Groups the London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies estimates roughly 1,000 foreign Islamic jihadists
- p.154, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam by Gilles Kepel (2002)
- "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)". Mideastweb.org. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "About us" Al-Qassam Brigades Information Office. Retrieved 15 July 2016
- Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam by Gilles Kepel, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, (2002), p.331
- Waked, Ali; Roee Nahmias (February 9, 2006). "Putin: Hamas not a terror organization". Israel: YnetNews.com. Retrieved May 22, 2015.
- Benmelech, Efraim; Berrebi, Claude (Summer 2007). "Human Capital and the Productivity of Suicide Bombers" (PDF). Journal of Economic Perspectives. 21 (3): 223–238. doi:10.1257/jep.21.3.223. ISSN 0895-3309. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2010.
- Katz, Samuel (2002). The Hunt for the Engineer. Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-58574-749-8. p.74
- p.122, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam by Gilles Kepe)
- Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict (September 15, 2009). "HUMAN RIGHTS IN PALESTINE AND OTHER OCCUPIED ARAB TERRITORIES" (PDF). London: The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "The Popular Resistance Committees: Hamas' New Partners? - Lt. Col. (res.) Jonathan D. Halevi". Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Jamail, Dahr (2006-07-20). "Hezbollah's transformation". Asia Times. Retrieved 2007-10-23.
- "Who are Hezbollah". BBC News. 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
- Shatz, Adam (April 29, 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on May 3, 2004. Retrieved August 14, 2006.
- author unknown. "The Hizballah Program" (PDF). provided by standwithus. com (StandWithUs). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 29, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-29.
- Stalinsky, Steven. "An Islamic Republic Is Hezbollah's Aim." The New York Sun. 2 August 2006. 1 November 2007.
- Deeb, Lara (2006-07-31). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Retrieved 2006-07-31.
- "Briefing: Lebanese Public Opinion". September–October 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- "Huge Beirut protest backs Syria." BBC News. 8 March 2005. 7 February 2007.
- Ghattas, Kim (2006-12-01). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-08-15.
- "Lebanese army moves into W. Beirut after Hezbollah takeover". Haaretz. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-10.
- "Hezbollah (a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Council on Foreign Relations. 2008-09-13. Retrieved 2008-09-15.
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (2006-03-29). "LEBANON: The many hands and faces of Hezbollah". Retrieved 2006-08-17.
- "Iranian official admits Tehran supplied missiles to Hezbollah". Haaretz.com. 4 August 2006. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
- Frykberg, MelL (2008-08-29). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Archived from the original on September 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-29.
And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah and Israel agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.
- "Security council endorses secretary-general's conclusion on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon as of 16 June". United Nations Security Council. 2000-06-18. Retrieved 2006-09-29.
- "Bahrain's parliament declares Hezbollah a terrorist group". Jerusalem Post. March 26, 2013.
- Spangler, Timothy (25 March 2011). "Bahrain complains over Hezbollah comments on protests". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 22 November 2011.
- "Bahrain arrests bombing suspects and blames Hezbollah". Reuters. November 6, 2012.
- "Jewish Leaders Applaud Hezbollah Terror Designation by France | Jewish & Israel News". Algemeiner.com. 2013-04-04. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
- "GCC: Hezbollah terror group". Arab News. June 3, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- Kanter, James; Rudoren, Jodi (22 July 2013). "European Union Adds Military Wing of Hezbollah to List of Terrorist Organizations". The New York Times.
- Roy, Olivier, The Failure of Political Islam, Harvard University Press, (1994), p.115
- Pape, Robert, Dying to Win, Random House, 2005, p.129
- Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, St. Martins Press, 1997 p.89-90
- Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, St. Martins Press, 1997, p.54
- Kepel, Gilles, Jihad, (2002), p.129
- Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon, St. Martins Press, 1997, p.127
- Ranstorp, Magnus, Hizb'allah in Lebanon : The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis, p.60
- Jul 20, 2006 (July 20, 2006). "Asia Times Online :: Middle East News – Hezbollah's transformation". Atimes.com. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Hezbollah disarmament unclear". CNN. May 7, 2005. Retrieved August 5, 2006.
- International Herald Tribune (15 March 2007).  Archived May 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Le Figaro (16 April 2007). "Fatah Al-Islam: the new terrorist threat hanging over Lebanon". Retrieved 20 May 2007.
- [dead link]
- Reuters (20 May 2007). "Facts about militant group Fatah al-Islam". Retrieved 20 May 2007.
- John Pike (June 27, 2008). "Backgrounder: Armed Islamic Group (Algeria, Islamists) (a.k.a. GIA, Groupe Islamique Armé, or al-Jama'ah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha)". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- Kepel, Gilles, Jihad, (2003)
- Sep 6, 2011 9:02 PM ET (2011-09-06). "Harper says 'Islamicism' biggest threat to Canada - Canada - CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Macleod, Ian (March 14, 2008). "CSIS focuses on homegrown terrorism threat". The Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on March 17, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
- Seymour, Andrew (2010-08-26). "RCMP say homegrown terror suspects were preparing to build IEDs". Ottawacitizen.com. Retrieved 2011-10-16.
- United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation; Terrorist Research and Analytical Center (U.S.) (2007). Terrorism in the United States 2002-2005 (PDF) (2 ed.). U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation. p. 43.
- Yager, Jordy (July 25, 2010). "Former intel chief: Homegrown terrorism is a 'devil of a problem'". The Hill.
- Saslow, Eli (July 12, 2011). "A one-man mission to stop homegrown Somali terrorism in U.S.". The Seattle Times. The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 22, 2011. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- Ellis, Ralph; Ashley Fantz; Faith Karimi; Eliott C. McLaughlin (June 13, 2016). "Orlando shooting: 49 killed, shooter pledged ISIS allegiance". CNN.com. Retrieved August 3, 2016.
- Jama'atul Mujahideen Bangladesh (JMB), from South Asia Terrorism Portal
- Hossain, Maneeza (February 16, 2006). "The Rising Tide of Islamism in Bangladesh". defenddemocracy.org. Archived from the original on April 5, 2006.
- The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism, Columbia University Press (2007), p.69-70
- "Ansarullah Bangla Team banned". dhakatribune.com. May 25, 2015. Archived from the original on May 27, 2015.
- "Lashkar-e-Toiba". dictionary.com. 2003. Archived from the original on August 11, 2004. Retrieved August 27, 2006.
- Mir, Amir (2005). "The jihad lives on". Asia Times Online Ltd. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
- "Speech by the Prime Minister the Rt Hon Tony Blair MP to the Confederation of Indian Industry Bangalore, India 5 January 2002". britishhighcommission.gov. January 2002. Archived from the original on November 23, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
- Thompson, Geoff (May 13, 2004). "Is Lashkar-e-Toiba still operating in Pakistan?". PM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved August 5, 2016.
- "Wars and Armed Conflicts: Current Situation". Peace Pledge Union. July 27, 2002. Archived from the original on December 19, 2005. Retrieved June 25, 2006.
- "SOUTH ASIA | Jaish-e-Mohammad: A profile". BBC News. February 6, 2002. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Attack May Spoil Kashmir Summit". Spacewar.com. Retrieved April 25, 2010.
- "Foreign Terrorist Organizations" (PDF). fas.org. Retrieved February 6, 2008.
- "FBI updates most wanted terrorists and seeking information – War on Terrorism Lists" (Press release). FBI National Press Office. February 24, 2006. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009.
- "Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG)". MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Archived from the original on August 27, 2006. Retrieved September 20, 2006.
- "Full transcript of bin Ladin's speech". Al Jazeera. November 1, 2004. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006.
- Michael, Maggie (October 29, 2004). "Bin Laden, in statement to U.S. people, says he ordered Sept. 11 attacks". sandiegouniontribune.com. Associated Press. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- "Excerpts: Bin Laden video". BBC News. October 29, 2004. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
- Langhorne, R. (2006), "The Essentials of Global Politics", Hodder Arnold
- "Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions". Answers.com.
- Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press.
- Bin Laden, Osama; Lawrence, Bruce (2005). Messages to the world: the statements of Osama Bin Laden. Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-045-1.
- Cooper, William Wager; Yue, Piyu (2008). Challenges of the muslim world: present, future and past. Emerald Group Publishing.
- Dreyfuss, Robert (2006). Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam. Macmillan.
- Sageman, Marc (2004). Understanding terror networks. ISBN 978-0-8122-3808-2.
- Scheuer, Michael; Anonymous (2004). Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books (formerly Brassey's, Inc.). ISBN 978-0-9655139-4-4.
- Amir, Taheri (1987). Holy Terror: Inside the World of Islamic Terrorism. Adler & Adler. ISBN 0-917561-45-7.
- Atran, Scott (2010). Talking to the Enemy. Ecco Press / HarperCollins, USA; Allen Lane / Penguin, UK. ISBN 978-0-06-134490-9.
- Bostom, Andrew (2005). The Legacy of Jihad. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-59102-307-6.
- Dennis, Anthony J. (1996). The Rise of the Islamic Empire and the Threat to the West. Wyndham Hall Press, Ohio, USA. ISBN 1-55605-268-5.
- Dennis, Anthony J. (2002). Osama Bin Laden: A Psychological and Political Portrait. Wyndham Hall Press, Ohio, USA. ISBN 1-55605-341-X.
- Durie, Mark (2010). The Third Choice: Islam, Dhimmitude and Freedom. Deror Books. ISBN 978-0-9807223-0-7.
- Esposito, John L. (1995). The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-510298-7.
- Esposito, John L. (2003). Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-516886-0.
- Falk, Avner (2008). Islamic Terror: Conscious and Unconscious Motives. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International. ISBN 978-0-313-35764-0.
- Fregosi, Paul (1998). Jihad in the West: Muslim Conquests from the 7th to the 21st Centuries. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-247-1.
- Gabriel, Brigitte. (2006). Because They Hate: A Survivor of Islamic Terror Warns America. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-35837-7.
- Halliday, Fred (2003). Islam and the Myth of Confrontation: Religion and Politics of the Middle East. I.B. Tauris, New York. ISBN 978-1-86064-868-7.
- Hirsi Ali, Ayaan (2007). Infidel. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-9503-X.
- Ibrahim, Raymond (2007). The Al Qaeda Reader. Broadway, USA. ISBN 978-0-7679-2262-3.
- Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam.
- Kepel, Gilles. The War for Muslim Minds.
- Swarup, Ram (1982). Understanding Islam through Hadis. Arvind Ghosh. ISBN 0-682-49948-X.
- Tahir-ul-Qadri, Muhammad (2011). Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings. London: Minhaj-ul-Quran. ISBN 978-0-9551888-9-3.
- Warraq, Ibn (1995). Why I Am Not a Muslim. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-984-4.