Islamophobic incidents

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The following is a list of a number of recent incidents characterized as inspired by Islamophobia by commentators. Note that "Islamophobia" became a popular term in ideological debate in the 2000s, and it may have been applied retrospectively to earlier incidents.

Incidents and conditions by country[edit]

Albania[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Albania that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
7 August 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Albania Tirana, Albania A Muslim woman wearing a headscarf was beaten on a bus and called a "terrorist."[1] Unnamed woman

Australia[edit]

Below is a list of 3 incidents in Australia that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
19 March 2017 Stabbing 0 1 Australia Melbourne, Australia Rev. Tomy Kalathoor Mathew, a priest, was stabbed in the neck moments before he was about to say mass at a church because the perpetrator thought he was "Hindu" or "Muslim"[2] Unknown
9 February 2017 Verbal abuse 0 0 Australia Melbourne, Australia Islamophobia, and clearly stated praise for the murder of homosexuals was documented at the Thursday 9 February Q Society fundraising dinner, with controversial guest speaker Larry Pickering stating that "If they (Muslims) are in the same street as me, I start shaking."[3] and that "They are not all bad, they do chuck pillow-biters off buildings."[4][3] adding that "I can't stand Muslims".[3] The cartoonist also auctioned an overtly Islamophobic work depicting the rape of a woman in a niqab by her son-in-law, insinuating that Muslims are incestuous rapists.[3] Another Larry Pickering cartoon auctioned at the fundraiser depicted an Imam as a pig (in Islam the consumption of all pork products is considered haram or forbidden), being spit roasted, with a "halal certified" stamp on its rump. A case of wine called "72 Virgins" was also up for grabs, along with a signed photograph of Dame Joan Sutherland.[3] Kirralie Smith has denied supporting Pickerings statements, however Smith has reiterated parts of the speech stating that "there are Muslims that actually do throw gays off buildings!"[5]

In February 2017, Cory Bernardi and George Christensen (politician) attracted criticism for speaking at the Q Society of Australia. The event received protests who called the event racist.[6]

Q Society of Australia
26 May 2017 Discrimination 0 0 Australia Perth, Australia Muslim schoolgirls were told to leave a careers expo at the Perth Convention and Exhibition Centre after attendants stated their "Muslim attire" was threatening.[7] Unknown

Austria[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Austria that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
5 February 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Austria Graz, Austria Close to sixty tombstones of Muslims were desecrated. The police suspected the perpetrators were right-wing extremists.[8] Right-wing extremists (suspected)

Belgium[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Belgium that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
7 February 2008 Melee attack 0 2 Belgium Liège, Belgium Two young women of Maghreb origin were attacked by in the city center after being verbally assaulted with ethnic slurs. One of the perpetrators had right-wing extremist affiliations.[9] Three unnamed men

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Mass grave where events of the Srebrenica massacre of Bosnian Muslims unfolded

In the 1990s, the Bosnian Genocide and the Kosovo War, both of which involved the "mass murder of innocent Muslims," have been linked to Islamophobia.[10] In Bosnia, Christian Serb and Croat militias carried out genocidal attacks on the Muslim Bosniak community. According to the ICRC data on the Bosnian Genocide, "200,000 people were killed, 12,000 of them children, up to 50,000 women were raped, and 2.2 million were forced to flee their homes."[11] Many attacks on religious buildings and symbols took place in towns such as Foča, where all of the town's mosques were destroyed. On 22 April 1992, Serbs blew up the Aladža Mosque and eight more mosques dating from the 16th and 17th centuries were damaged or completely destroyed.[12]

Bulgaria[edit]

Below is a list of 2 incidents in Bulgaria that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
Early April 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Bulgaria Sofia, Bulgaria Anti-Muslim graffiti was smeared on the walls of the building of the Chief Mufti’s Office. Hussein Hafyzov, the Chief Secretary of the Chief Mufti’s Office in Bulgaria, stated that ur buildings—administrative ones and mosques in all twelve regional Mufti’s Offices—have been desecrated over fifty times in the last ten years." Vandalism of mosques and religious buildings in Bulgaria rarely results in arrests or prosecution. Hafyzov reported that vandals were caught in only two or three occasions, and "the very few perpetrators who were caught were not convicted."[8] Unknown
10 April 2010 Arson 0 0 Bulgaria Karlovo, Bulgaria A mosque was burned down. Members of the Muslim community in Karlovo and the Chief Mufti’s office in Bulgaria believe the incident was a hate crime.[13] Unknown

Canada[edit]

In recent years, other attacks have been reported against Muslims in Quebec, including vandalism and hate graffiti. This attacks provokes fear and anxiety of the escalation against Muslims and their religious rights.[14]

Below is a list of 15 incidents in Canada that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
16 March 2006 Melee attack 0 1 Ontario Toronto, Ontario A female student in headscarf assaulted at Hart House in the University of Toronto in what the Canadian Council on American-Islamic Relations called "an Islamophobic incident".[15] Unknown
22 November 2011 Melee attack 0 1 Ontario Mississauga, Ontario A Muslim woman was with her children when she was attacked at a mall by someone who yelled "Leave our country. Go back to your country." Authorities stated that it was hate crime,[16] and was deemed Islamophobic by the Ontario Human Rights Commission.[17] Unnamed man
17 September 2013 Melee attack 0 1 Ontario St. Catharines, Ontario A 17-year old Muslim girl was punched in the nose, that left her bleeding and her headscarf was pulled off.[18] Three unnamed women
19 November 2013 Melee attack 0 1 Quebec Montreal, Quebec A Muslim woman was beaten, called "dirty immigrant," and was told "go back to your country," despite the fact that she was born in Canada.[19] Two unnamed men
December 2013 Melee attack 0 1 Quebec Montreal, Quebec A woman wearing a hijab was physically assaulted. The perpetrator stated that "her hijab and herself do not belong in Quebec."[20] Unnamed woman
31 December 2013 Bomb threat 0 0 British Columbia Vancouver, British Columbia A bomb threat was made against a Vancouver mosque and the building was evacuated by the RCMP.[21][20] Unknown
26 November 2014 Bomb threat 0 0 Quebec Montreal, Quebec A bomb threat was made against a Montreal mosque and the police found a suspicious package. 12 buildings in the area were evacuated until the police neutralized the package.[22] Unknown
20 May 2014 Attempted arson 0 0 Quebec Montreal, Quebec A man tried to throw a Molotov cocktail through the window of a mosque in, but was stopped by the police. The police had been watching the mosque because it had already been the target of multiple attacks.[23][24] Unnamed man
26 September 2014 Melee attack 0 6 Ontario Kingston, Ontario Six Muslim students at Queen's University were attacked by four men, one of whom wielded a baseball bat and who yelled various racial epithet. One of the students suffered minor physical injuries. The police arrested two men in connection to the attack and charged them with assault.[25][24] Four unnamed men
4 October 2015 Melee attack 0 1 Quebec Montreal, Quebec A pregnant woman wearing the hijab was attacked by teenagers, when they tried to pull off her hearscarf, causing her to fall.[26] Two teenagers
14 November 2015 Arson 0 0 Ontario Peterborough, Ontario A day after the Paris attacks, the only mosque in Peterborough was set on fire.[27] Police deemed the arson a hate crime.[28] Unknown
29 May 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Ontario London, Ontario An Iranian student at University of Western Ontario suffered a concussion after being beaten and called an "Arab," despite the fact that he Iranian. Authorities stated it was a hate crime,[29] and the mayor of London said that "Islamophobia had no place in Canada".[30] Two unnamed men
24 October 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Ontario Hamilton, Ontario A Muslim teenager was beaten in a “race related” attack.[31] Two unnamed men
27 November 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Quebec Sept-Îles, Quebec The mosque of Sept-Îles was vandalized. The mosque had previously been vandalized in 2014. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[32] Unknown
29 January 2017 Shooting 6 19 Quebec Quebec City, Quebec Quebec City mosque shooting: A mass shooting occurred at the Islamic Cultural Centre of Quebec City. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Premier Philippe Couillard called the shooting a terrorist attack,[33][34] but the perpetrator was not charged with terrorism.[35] The incident was classified as a hate crime[36] and an Islamophobic attack.[37] Alexandre Bissonnette

Chad[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Chad that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
February 1979 Attacks 100–1000+ Unknown Chad Chad Hundreds or thousands of people were killed in anti-Muslim riots in the southern Chad.[38] Chadian mobs

China[edit]

Below is a list of 3 incidents in China that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
February 2003 Attacks 0 100+ China Qinghai, China Tibetans rioted against Hui people, destroying Hui-owned shops and restaurants. Hundreds of people were injured.[39] Tibetan mobs
10-24 March 2008 Attacks 18 383 China Tibet, China 2008 Tibetan unrest: The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans and Chinese Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters.[40] Tibetan mobs
8 October 2012 Attacks 0 12+ China Mulang, China A mob of about 200 Tibetan monks beat a dozen Dungans (Hui Muslims) in Luqu County, Gansu province, in retaliation for the Chinese Muslim community's application to build a mosque in the county.[41] Tibetan monks

Central African Republic[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in the Central African Republic that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
24 June 2014 Shooting 17 0 Central African Republic Bambari, Central African Republic Gunmen killed 17 Muslim Fula people at a camp in the ongoing Central African Republic Civil War. Some of the bodies were mutilated and burnt by the assailants.[42] Anti-balaka

Denmark[edit]

Below is a list of 3 incidents in Denmark that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
30 September 2005 Unclear 0 0 Denmark Denmark Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy: Doudou Diène, in a report prepared by the UN Commission on Human Rights released on March 7, 2006, mentioned the publishing of the cartoons at the heart of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy regarding, "The development of Islamophobia or any racism and racial discrimination ..."[43] Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten
19 March 2008 Melee attack 1 0 Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark A 16-year-old teenager of Turkish origin was verbally assaulted with racial slurs by three Danish teenagers, and subsequently beaten to death with baseball bats and hammers.[9] Three unnamed teenagers
2 June 2008 Melee attack 0 1 Denmark Copenhagen, Denmark Kasem Said Ahmed, the former spokesperson of the Islamic Faith Society (IFS), was punched in the face after being asked if he was an imam.[44] Unknown

France[edit]

Two mosques and one Muslim-owned business were attacked in France in January 2015

In 2010 France banned face coverings including women wearing the niqab. The French Collective against Islamophobia reported "an explosion" in the number of physical attacks on women wearing the niqab. Kenza Drider, a protester against the law, said: "I'm insulted about three to four times a day. Most say, 'Go home'; some say, 'We'll kill you.' One said: 'We'll do to you what we did to the Jews.'... I feel that I now know what Jewish women went through before the Nazi roundups in France. When they went out in the street they were identified, singled out, they were vilified. Now that's happening to us."[45] After the Charlie Hebdo shooting in January 2015, there were reports of attacks on mosques and Muslim citizens throughout the country.[46]

Below is a list of 14 incidents in France that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
October 4, 1972 – December 19, 1988 Bombing 1 16 France Various cities, France Anti-Muslim bombings in Paris, Cannes and Nice: A series of three bombings killed one and injured 16 others in the French cities of Paris, Cannes, and Nice by neo-Nazi attackers.[47][48][49] Parti nationaliste français et européen
14 December 1973 Bombing 4 20 France Marseille, France Four people killed when terrorists detonated a bomb at the Algerian consulate office in Marseille.[50] Charles Martel Group
21 February 1995 Shooting 1 0 France Marseille, France Murder of Ibrahim Ali: Ibrahim Ali, a seventeen-year-old French-boy of Comorian origin, was shot by three far-right extremists.[51] Front National
1 May 1995 Forced drowning 1 0 France Paris, France Murder of Brahim Bouarram: Brahim Bouarram, a Moroccan immigrant, drowned after being pushed into the Seine river by three far-right extremists.[51] Front National
21 February 2005 Vandalism 0 0 France Paris, France Vandals scrawled swastikas and other Nazi references on the walls of the Grand mosque in south-east Paris. Dalil Boubakeur, the director of the mosque described the vandalism as Islamophobic.[52] Unknown
6 April 2008 Vandalism 0 0 France Arras, France 148 Muslim graves were desecrated at the Notre Dame de Lorette, France's largest WWI cemetery. President Nicolas Sarkozy condemned the attack as a "hateful act" and the "most inadmissible kind of racism"[53] Unknown
20 April 2008 Arson 0 1 France Toulouse, France The Al-Salam Mosque was destroyed after it was set alight. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[8] Eight unnamed men
24 July 2008 Melee attack 0 1 France Yvelines, France Nouredine Rachedi, a 30-year-old French-born statistician, was beaten after being asked if he was Muslim.[9] Two unnamed men
13 December 2009 Vandalism 0 0 France Castres, France The Mosque of Castres in southern France, was vandalized in the night.[54] Swastika in black paint, "Sieg Heil" in German, "France to the French" in French, and "White Power" in English were scrawled on the mosque.[55] Additionally, a pig's feet was hung on the mosque.[56] Unknown
23 September 2010 Vandalism 0 0 France Strasbourg, France More than 30 tombstones were knocked down or broken, and swastikas were drawn on the gravel paths at a Muslim cemetery. The local mayor denounced the vandalism as an "unbearable racist act."[13] Unknown
14 October 2010 Melee attack 0 1 France Paris, France A 26-year old Emirati woman wearing a niqab was attacked by someone who later said, "I find it unacceptable that someone should be wearing a niqab in this country of human rights."[57] Unnamed woman
14 January 2015 Stabbing 1 1 France Le Beaucet, France Mohamed El Makouli was stabbed to death at home by a 28-year-old neighbour shouting "I am your God, I am your Islam." His wife Nadia was suffered hands wounds while tried to save him.[58] Thomas Gambet
24-28 December 2015 Riots 0 0 France Ajaccio, France 2015 Corsican protests: A Muslim prayer hall was burned down and Qur'ans were set alight following marches by Corsican nationalists.[59] Corsican nationalists
13 March 2017 Kidnapping, melee attack, rape 0 1 France Marseille, France Zak Ostmane, a 35-year-old Algerian LGBT rights activist, was kidnapped and raped by two men, one of which stated, "You people... you hate Trump. And you listen to black and Arabic music."[60] One English man and one American man

Germany[edit]

Below is a list of 9 incidents in Germany that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
28 May 1993 Arson 5 14 North Rhine-Westphalia Solingen, North Rhine-Westphalia Solingen arson attack of 1993: The Solingen arson attack of 1993 was one of the most severe instances of xenophobic violence in modern Germany. On the night of May 28 to May 29, 1993, four young German men (ages 16–23) belonging to the far right skinhead scene, with neo-Nazi ties, set fire to the house of a large Turkish family in Solingen in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Three girls and two women died; fourteen other family members, including several children, were injured, some of them severely. The attack led to violent protests by Turks in several German cities and to large demonstrations of Germans expressing solidarity with the Turkish victims.[61] Four neo-Nazis
9 September 2000 – 25 April 2007 Shooting 10 1 Germany Various cities, Germany Bosphorus serial murders: A neo-Nazi group committed several murders of ethnic Turks and Kurds. The police discovered a hit list of 88 people that included "two prominent members of the Bundestag and representatives of Turkish and Islamic groups".[62] Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund
9 June 2004 Bombing 0 22 North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia 2004 Cologne bombing: 22 people were wounded when a pipe bomb detonated in a business area popular with Turkish immigrants in Cologne. A barber shop was completely destroyed and many other shops and numerous parked cars were seriously damaged by the explosion.[63][64] Nationalsozialistischer Untergrund
10 December 2007 Arson 0 0 Bavaria Lauingen, Bavaria A mosque was set on fire after someone threw an incendiary device at it.[8] Unknown
11 December 2007 Arson 0 0 Bavaria Lindau, Bavaria A mosque was defaced with neo-Nazi graffiti and swastikas.[8] Unknown
1 July 2009 Stabbing 1 1 Saxony Dresden, Saxony Murder of Marwa El-Sherbini: Marwa El-Sherbini was stabbed to death in a courtroom in Dresden, Germany. She had just given evidence against her attacker who had used insults against her because she wore an Islamic headscarf. El-Sherbini was called "Islamist", "terrorist" and (according to one report) "slut".[note 1] Her husband Elwy Ali Okaz was seriously injured during the incident, he received at least 16 stab wounds to the head, neck, upper body and arm.[65] Alex Wiens
January 2010 – 2011 Arson 0 0 Berlin Berlin Three different mosques were set on fire by the same man.[13] Unnamed man
22 July 2016 Shooting 9 (+1) 36 Bavaria Munich, Bavaria 2016 Munich shooting: A shooting occurred in the vicinity of the Olympia shopping mall in the Moosach district of Munich, Germany. Ten people, including the perpetrator, were killed and 36 others were injured. The motive for the shooting is under investigation, but the perpetrator had expressed admiration for Germany's right-wing AfD party,[66] and that he was "very nationalistic," repeatedly uttering anti-Turkish abuse.[67] The Local claimed that "those who knew him" said he considered himself part of the Aryan race,[68] while The Guardian cited accounts from Sonboly's acquaintances who said he boasted about sharing the same birthday as Adolf Hitler and called it an "accolade."[69] David Sonboly (born Ali Sonboly)
27 September 2016 Bombing 0 0 Saxony Dresden, Saxony Bomb attacks hit a mosque and a convention centre in the eastern German city of Dresden. Police said that the motive appeared to be xenophobia and nationalism.[70][71] Nino K.

Greece[edit]

Below is a list of 3 incidents in Greece that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
February 1897 Melee attack 850–1000 0 (4000 deported to Heraklion) Ottoman Empire Lasithi, Ottoman Crete Lasithi massacres: Cretan Muslim civilians were murdered by local Christians in the prelude to the Greco-Turkish War of 1897.[72][73] Cretan Christians
8 October 2010 Vandalism 0 0 Greece Komotini, Greece A Muslim cemetery was desecrated with about ten gravestones smashed, spurring a spontaneous demonstration by around 30 members of the Turkish minority living in the city. A government spokesperson had quickly condemned the act, attributing the vandalism to a marginal hate group.[13] Unknown
3 September 2015 Melee attack 0 Several Greece Kos, Greece A group of people brandishing bats physically attack Muslim refugees on Kos, while shouting "go back to your countries" and other slurs. They also threatened activists.[74] 15-25 unnamed people

Iraq[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Iraq that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
7 April 2007 Melee attack 1 0 Iraq Bashiqa, Iraq Murder of Du'a Khalil Aswad: 17-year-old Du'a Khalil Aswad, an Iraqi Kurdish girl of the Yazidi faith, was stoned to death in front of a mob of about 2000 men in 2007, because she had a Muslim boyfriend was planning to convert to Islam.[75][76][77] Eight or nine unnamed men

Israel and Palestine[edit]

Below is a list of 6 incidents in Israel and Palestine that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
25 February 1994 Shooting 29 (+1) 125 State of Palestine Hebron, Palestine Cave of the Patriarchs massacre: A gunman opened fire on a large number of Palestinian Muslims who had gathered to pray inside the Cave of the Patriarchs compound in Hebron. The perpetrator was subsequently overpowered and beaten to death by survivors of the massacre.[78] Baruch Goldstein
3 May 2010 Arson 0 0 State of Palestine Nablus, Palestine A mosque in the West Bank was destroyed in an arson attack. In previous months, other mosques had been attacked; some were vandalised with Hebrew graffiti and other mosques have been destroyed or damaged by arson in the past.[79] Israeli settlers (suspected)
10 June 2010 Vandalism 0 0 Israel Kiryat Tiv'on, Israel In northern Israel the walls of mosques were spray painted with the Star of David as well as messages such as "There will be war over Judea and Samaria" and "This structure is marked for demolition."[80] Four Kfar Hasidim yeshiva students
16–17 August 2012 Melee attack 0 3 Israel West Jerusalem, Israel Zion Square assault: Four Palestinian teenagers were beaten by dozens of Israeli teenagers, who chanted "Death to Arabs."[81] 10-15 Israeli teenagers
2 July 2014 Kidnapping, Melee attack 1 0 Israel Shuafat, Israel Kidnapping and murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir: 16-year-old Mohammed Abu Khdeir was kidnapped near a mosque, and later found murdered in Givat Shaul.[82] Yosef Ben David and 2 other teenage settlers
31 July 2015 Arson 3 1 State of Palestine Duma, Palestine Duma arson attack: Members of the Dawabsheh family were killed when their house was firebombed by masked attackers.[83] Amiram Ben-Uliel and 3 other Israeli settlers

India[edit]

Religious clashes have been intermittent in modern India, which saw its own birth being marred by the religious riots that took place during the Direct Action Day and during its partition. Since then, India has seen violent incidents involving both the majority Hindu population and the minority Muslim population in a series of communal riots, one of which was the Bhagalpur riots of 1989, which has led to the death of 900-1000 Muslims and leaving 50,000 displaced.[84] Recently, India has also seen tensions between Hindus and Muslims in the 2002 Gujarat violence; In response to the Godhra train burning, the nationalist party Vishva Hindu Parishad had organized protests that had immediately turned violent.[85] After days of rioting and violence, it was estimated that 790 Muslims and 254 Hindus were killed, 2500 injured and 223 missing.[86]

Below is a list of 13 incidents in India that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
27 August 2004 Bombing 0 18 India Jalna, India 2004 Jalna Mosque bomb attack:Two separate bombs detonated at local mosques injuries 18. Hindu nationalists
8 September 2006 Bombing 37 125+ India Malegaon, India 2006 Malegaon bombings: A series of bomb were detonated in a Muslim cemetery. The attack was took place on the holy day of Shab-e-Baraat and most of the victims were Muslim pilgrims.[87] Abhinav Bharat
11 October 2007 Bombing 3 17 India Ajmer, India Ajmer Dargah bombing: Bomb exploded at the Dargah of Sufi saint Moinuddin Chishti.[88][89] Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
29 September 2008 Motorcycle bombing 8 80 India Malegaon and Modasa, India 29 September 2008 western India bombings: Eight people were killed and 80 others wounded when two bombs detonated by Hindu extremists during Ramadan.[90] Abhinav Bharat and other Hindu groups
27 August 2013 – 17 September 2013 Attacks 62 93 India Muzaffarnagar district, India 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots: Clashes between the Hindu and Muslim communities led to deaths and injuries of many people.[91][92][93][94] Abhinav Bharat and other Hindu groups
1–3 May 2014 Shooting 33 (+3) 2+ India Assam, India May 2014 Assam violence : Suspected NDFB militants kills 33 Bengali Muslim villagers in Assam. The motive of the attack is speculated to be revenge for not voting for Bodos in the Lok Sabha elections.[95] National Democratic Front of Bodoland (suspected)
2 June 2014 Melee attack 1 0 India Pune, India Pune techie murder case: A 24 years old Muslim youth named Mohsin Shaikh was killed by Hindu nationalists.[96][97] Hindutva
28 September 2015 Melee attack 1 1 India Dadri, India 2015 Dadri mob lynching: Mohammad Akhlaq, a Muslim resident, was beaten to death by a mob of villagers after a neighbor accused him of stealing and slaughtering a missing cow calf. His 22-year-old son Danish was seriously injured during the incident.[98][99][100][101] Hindu nationalists
18 March 2016 Melee attack 2 0 India Latehar district, India 2016 Jharkhand mob lynching: Two Muslim cattle traders was beaten to death by cow protection vigilantes in Jharkhand.[102][103][104] Cow protection vigilantes
26 March 2017 Melee attack 2 10 India Patan district, India 2017 Patan riots: Muslims were attacked by Hindu mobs in the Vadavali village in Gujarat’s Patan district.[105] Hindu mobs
5 April 2017 Melee attack 1 6 India Alwar, India 2017 Alwar mob lynching: A mob of about 200 cow protection vigilantes assaulted a group of Muslims transporting cattle in northern India. Eleven men transporting the cattle were arrested and accused of smuggling the animals. None of the assailants in the cow protection group were arrested, but a criminal case has been opened.[106] 200 cow protection vigilantes
7 April 2017 Melee attack 1 0 India Gumla, India Mohammad Shalik, a 20-year-old Muslim man, was tied to a tree and whipped to death for being in love with a Hindu woman.[107] Three unnamed men
2 May 2017 Melee attack 2 0 India Gumla, India A mob in India beat to death two Muslims who were suspected of to slaughter cows.[108] 20 cow protection vigilantes

Indonesia[edit]

Under the reign of President Suharto during the New Order (Indonesia), Islamists were suppressed, and religious Muslims were actively persecuted by the Indonesian government. Several Christian Generals who served under Suharto like Leonardus Benjamin Moerdani actively persecuted religious Muslims in the Indonesian military, which was described as being "anti-Islamic", denying religious Muslims promotions, and preventing them from praying in the barracks and banning them from even using the Islamic greeting "Salaam Aleikum", and these anti-Islamic polices were entirely supported by Suharto, despite Suharto being a Muslim himself, since he considered political Islam a threat to his power.[109][110][111][112] The Christian General Theo Syafei, who also served under Suharto, spoke out against political Islam coming to power in Indonesia, and insulted the Qur'an and Islam in remarks which were described as Islamophobic.[113][114][115][116][117][118]

Italy[edit]

Below is a list of 3 incidents in Italy that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
25 July-24 October 2007 Arson 0 0 Italy Abbiategrasso, Italy The Alif Baa Islamic Centre was firebombed on three different accounts: once in July, once in August, and once in October.[8] Unknown
5 August 2007 Arson 0 0 Italy Segrate, Italy A mosque was attacked and an imam’s car was destroyed.[8] Unknown
June 2008 Bombing 0 0 Italy Milan, Italy Two handmade bombs were thrown at the Islamic Center, destroying the main gate. Another similar attack took place two weeks later.[8] Unknown

Kosovo[edit]

Below is a list of 2 incidents in Kosovo that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
5 August 2007 Vandalism 0 0 Kosovo Gazimestan, Kosovo Two graves at a cemetery were desecrated.[119] Unknown
7 August 2007 Arson 0 0 Kosovo Shkabaj, Kosovo The Alif Baa Islamic Centre was firebombed on three different accounts: once in July, once in August, and once in October.[119] Unknown

Myanmar[edit]

Below is a list of 9 incidents in Myanmar that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
26 May 1930 Attacks 120–200+ 900–2,000 British rule in Burma Rangoon, British Burma 1930 Rangoon riots: Several anti-Indian and anti-Muslim riots exploded in Rangoon and various Burmese cities and ports following a massive Indian labors' strike which began at Rangoon’s harbor.[120] Bamar people
26 July 1938 Attacks 204 1,000 British rule in Burma Rangoon, British Burma Multiple anti-Muslim riots again broke out in Burma. The agitation against Muslims and the British was led by Burmese newspapers.[121][122][120] Bamar people
16 March 1997 Attacks 3 Unknown Myanmar Mandalay, Union of Myanmar 1997 Mandalay riots: A mob of 1,000–1,500 Buddhist monks targeted the mosques, Muslim shop-houses, and transportation vehicles for attack. Damaging, destroying, looting, and trampling, burning religious books, committing acts of sacrilege were also common.[123] Bhikkhu
May 2001 – May 2002 Attacks 88 Unknown Myanmar Taungoo, Union of Myanmar Anti-Muslim riots broke out in Taungoo, Pegu division, resulting in the deaths of about 200 Muslims, in the destruction of 11 mosques and the setting ablaze of over 400 houses. On 15 May, the first day of the anti-Muslim uprisings, about 20 Muslims who were praying in the Han Tha mosque were killed and some were beaten to death by the pro-junta forces. The mosques in Taungoo remained closed as of May 2002. Muslims have been forced to worship in their homes. Local Muslim leaders complain that they are still harassed. After the violence, many local Muslims moved away from Taungoo to nearby towns and to as far away as Yangon. After two days of violence the military stepped in and the violence immediately ended.[123] Bhikkhu
8 June 2012 Attacks 200+ Unknown (100,000 displaced) Myanmar Rakhine, Myanmar 2012 Rakhine State riots: Many Muslims and Rakhine have been killed in sectarian violence in the state.[124][125][126] Bhikkhu
20 March 2013 – 2 October 2013 Attacks 50 80+ Myanmar Various cities, Myanmar 2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots: A series of violent acts and riots took place throughout the country targeting Muslims.[127] Bhikkhu
2 July 2014 Attacks 2 12+ Myanmar Mandalay, Myanmar A vengeful mob of 300 people started throwing stones and bricks at a tea stall. The mob went on to attack Muslim shops and vehicles and shouting slogans in Muslim residential areas.[128] Two men — one Buddhist and one Muslim — were killed. A curfew was imposed on 3 July.[129][130] Unnamed mob
23 June 2016 Arson 0 0 Myanmar Bago, Myanmar A mob demolished a mosque in Bago Region, about 60 km northeast of the capital Yangon.[131] Unnamed mob
2 July 2016 Arson 0 0 Myanmar Hpakant, Myanmar A mob burned down a mosque in northern Myanmar.[131] Unnamed mob

Netherlands[edit]

Below is a list of 3 incidents in the Netherlands that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
March–August 2010 Vandalism, attempted arson 0 0 Groningen (province) Groningen, Groningen A mosque was vandalized in March. In August, arson was attempted on the same mosque and offensive graffiti was sprayed on the walls.[13] Unknown
27 February 2016 Arson 0 0 Overijssel Enschede, Overijssel Five men threw two Molotov cocktails at a mosque. Some 30 people, including children, were inside the mosque at the time but no one was injured. Dutch courts called it a "terrorist act."[132][133][134] Five unnamed men
28 December 2016 Arson 0 0 Utrecht (province) Culemborg, Utrecht A building linked to the Association of Islamic Communities was set on fire. Police suspected it was a hate crime.[135][136] Unknown

Norway[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Norway that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
22 July 2011 Car bombing, shooting 77 319 Norway Utøya and Oslo, Norway 2011 Norway attacks: A man named Anders Behring Breivik committed two attacks in Norway. The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST).[137] The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve of them seriously.[138][139][140] The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification,[141][142] took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 68 of them outright,[143][144] and injuring at least 110 people, 55 of them seriously;[139][140] the 69th victim died in a hospital two days after the massacre.[145] Analysts described him as having Islamophobic views and a hatred of Islam,[146][147] and as someone who considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.[148][149] In a manifesto, he describes opposition to what he saw as the Islamisation of Europe as his motive for carrying out the attacks.[150] Anders Behring Breivik

Philippines[edit]

Below is a list of 5 incidents in the Philippines that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
March 1970–January 1972 Shooting, stabbings, arson 300+ Unknown Philippines Mindanao, Philippines The Ilaga committed 22 massacres resulting in the deaths of hundreds of Muslim civilians. The group is guilty of "mutilat[ing] bodies of victims" and "marking bodies with a cross." The group also burned down and looted many houses and properties.[151] Ilaga
19 June 1971 Shooting 70-79 17 Philippines Carmen, Philippines Manili massacre: Moro Muslims were massacred inside a mosque in Manili. The Muslim residents of the town had gathered in their mosque to participate in a supposed peace talk with Christian groups when a group of armed men dressed in uniforms similar to those worn by members of the Philippine Constabulary opened fire on them.[152] Ilaga
24 October 1971 Shooting 40-66 0 Philippines Magsaysay, Philippines Tacub massacre: Maranao Muslims were summarily executed at a military checkpoint in Tacub.[153] Philippine Army
24 September 1974 Shooting 1,000–1,500 Unknown Philippines Palimbang, Philippines Malisbong massacre: The Malisbong massacre was the mass murder of Muslim Moros on September 24, 1974 in the coastal village of Malisbong in Palimbang, Sultan Kudarat, Mindanao where units of the Philippine Army killed more than 1000.[154][155] Accounts compiled by the Moro Women's Center in General Santos City state that 1500 male Moros aged 11–70 were killed inside a mosque, 3000 women and children aged 9–60 were detained - with the women being raped and that 300 houses were razed by the government forces.[154] The massacre occurred two years after Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in September 1972. Philippine Army
3 November 2008 Shooting 5 0 Philippines Lanao del Norte, Philippines Muslim civilians were killed in an ambush by the Ilaga.[156] Ilaga

Russia[edit]

Due to activity of the Muslim Chechens in organised crime and terrorism many Russians (including authorities) have associated Islam and Muslims with terrorism and domestic crimes.[157][158][159][160]

Below is a list of 6 incidents in Russia that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
21 August 2006 Bombing 13 47 Russia Moscow, Russia 2006 Moscow market bombing: A self-made bomb detonated in Cherkizovsky Market, with was targeted due to the market's high volume of Central Asian and Caucasian clientele. The perpetrators were charged with racially motivated murder.[161][162] The Saviour
26 April 2007 Melee attack 0 2 Russia Kostroma, Russia Imam Ulugbek Abdullaev and his wife, both of whom were dressed in distinctive Islamic clothing, were beaten by people who yelled "go back to your Muslim country."[163] Two Russian youth
15 August 2007 Execution, shooting 2 0 Russia Maykop, Russia Russian National Socialist Party beheading video: A video was released on the Internet of a Tajik immigrant and a Dagestan man being beheaded by Russian neo-Nazis.[164] Russian National Socialist Party
28 November 2007 Vandalism 0 0 Russia Vladimir, Russia Men threw stones at and broke windows of a mosque.[119] Four unidentified men
1 January 2008 Vandalism 0 0 Russia Sergiyev Posad, Russia A Muslim prayer house was attacked with Molotov cocktails, marking the second attack in two months.[119] Four unidentified men
June 2010 Vandalism 0 0 Russia Zlatoust, Russia 15 head stones at a Muslim cemetery where desecrated.[13] Unknown

Sri Lanka[edit]

Below is a list of 8 incidents in Sri Lanka that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
28 May–8 August 1915 Shooting, bombing, arson 116 Unknown British Ceylon Various cities, British Ceylon 1915 Ceylonese riots: A widespread and prolonged ethnic riot took place in the island of Ceylon between Sinhalese Buddhists and the Ceylon Moors ending in brutal suppression by the British colonial authorities.[165] According to some official estimates, which must be taken as approximate, there were 25 murdered, 189 wounded, 4 incidents of rape associated with the riots. 4075 houses and boutiques looted, 250 houses and boutiques burned down, 17 mosques burnt and 86 mosques otherwise damaged.[166][167] Other official figures place total of 116 people were killed, 63 by military and Police forces.[168] Sinhalese Buddhists and British authorities
3 August 1990 Shooting, bombing 30–100+ Unknown Eastern Province, Sri Lanka Muttur, Eastern Province 1985 Muttur massacre: The 1985 massacre in Muttur was a slaughter of Tamil civilians in the town of Muttur in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. The massacre occurred when all three divisions of the Sri Lankan military attacked the town by land, air and sea. The motive of the attacks was deliberately aimed at slaughtering ethnic Tamils, who formed the local population in the region. The killings lasted for 3 days from 8 November to 11 November. Civilians were shot and killed and burnt with their houses. Over 30 people were confirmed to have been killed. And over 70 others who have been arrested or have been forcibly disappeared were not accounted for. Several others who attempted to escape and those who sought refuge at temples were also killed.[169] Sri Lankan military
3 August 1990 Shooting, bombing 147 Unknown Eastern Province, Sri Lanka Kattankudy, Eastern Province Kattankudy mosque massacre: Tamil militants massacred over 147 Muslims in a mosque in Kattankudi.[170][171][172][173] The act took place when around 30 Tamil rebels raided four mosques in the town of Kattankudi, where over 300 people were prostrating during prayers. The LTTE later apologized (during the 2000 peace talks) for this act and asked the Muslims to return, but very few Muslims have taken up the offer.[174] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
29 April 1992 Shooting 157 Unknown North Central Province, Sri Lanka Polonnaruwa, North Central Province Polonnaruwa massacre: A series of attacks on civilians in the villages of Alanchipothana, Karapola, Madurangala and Muthugal in eastern Polonnaruwa District.[175] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
15 October 1992 Shooting, stabbing, melee attacks 166–285 Unknown North Central Province, Sri Lanka Palliyagodella, North Central Province Palliyagodella massacre: The Palliyagodella massacre was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against the mostly Muslim population of the Palliyagodella village located on border region of the northern part of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the Tigers at the time. This was the largest massacre of Muslim civilians by the LTTE to date. Village eyewitnesses claim that some 285 men, women and children, around a third of the population, were killed by a 1,000 strong force of the Tamil Tigers;[176] however, the Sri Lankan government states that cadres massacred 166 to 171 people by a force of 150 attackers.[177][178] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
30 April 2001 Shooting, melee attack 2 15+ Central Province, Sri Lanka Mawanella, Central Province Mawanella riots: The Mawanella riots was a series of planned attacks on the Sri Lankan Muslim minority by the majority Sinhalese in the town of Mawanella, that resulted in the deaths of two people and left more than 15 injured in the clashes and also leading to destruction of millions of rupees worth property in the region.[179][180][181][182] Sri Lankan police, local thugs
18 September 2006 Shooting, stabbing, melee attack 10 0 Eastern Province, Sri Lanka Pottuvil, Eastern Province Pottuvil massacre: The Pottuvil massacre is a disputed event in the Sri Lankan civil war where 10 unarmed minority Muslim civilians who were engaged in clearing a reservoir at Rattal Kulam in Pottuvil in the southern part of the Ampara District in the Eastern Province, were attacked and killed. All the men were aged between 19–35 years of age; three of the men were decapitated and the others were shot or hacked to death by the unknown gunmen.[183] Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
15–17 June 2014 Shooting, stabbing, melee attack, arson 4 80 Western Province, Sri Lanka Kalutara District, Western Province 2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka: The 2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka were religious and ethnic riots in June 2014 in south-western Sri Lanka. Muslims and their property were attacked by Sinhalese Buddhists in the towns of Aluthgama, Beruwala and Dharga Town in Kalutara District. At least four people were killed and 80 injured.[184] Hundreds were made homeless following attacks on homes, shops, factories, mosques and a nursery.[185] 10,000 people (8,000 Muslims and 2,000 Sinhalese) were displaced by the riots.[186] The riots followed rallies by Bodu Bala Sena (BBS), a hard line Buddhist group.[187] The BBS was widely blamed for inciting the riots but it has denied responsibility.[188][189][190] The mainstream media in Sri Lanka censored news about the riots following orders from the Sri Lankan government.[191] Bodu Bala Sena and followers

Sweden[edit]

Below is a list of 5 incidents in Sweden that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
10 October 2009 – 21 October 2010 Shooting 1 13 Sweden Malmö, Sweden 2009–10 Malmö shootings: Serial shooting kills one and injures 13 others in Malmö. The perpetrator had "strong anti-immigrant sentiments" and all but one of the victims were not ethnically Swedish.[192] Peter Mangs
25 December 2014 – 1 January 2015 Arson, vandalism 0 5 Sweden Eslöv, Uppsala and Eskilstuna, Sweden 2014 mosque arson attacks in Sweden: A series of arson attacks on three mosques in Sweden that took place during one week at the end of 2014.[193] In addition to being struck by Molotov cocktails, some mosques were vandalized with racist graffiti.[193][194] Right wing extremists
22 October 2015 Stabbing 3 (+1) 1 Sweden Trollhättan, Sweden Trollhättan school attack: A masked swordsman killed two and wounded another at the Kronan School in Trollhättan. The perpetrator choose the school as his target due to its high immigrant population.He was later shot and killed by police. It is the deadliest attack on a school in Swedish history.[195][196] A teacher who was stabbed during the incident succumbed to his wound on 3 December, rising the death toll to 3.[197] Anton Lundin Pettersson
21 February 2017 Arson 0 0 Sweden Gothenburg, Sweden An Islamic center was set on fire. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[198] Unknown
14 June 2017 Vehicular attack 0 0 Sweden Malmö, Sweden A 22-year-old man with ties to the Nordic Resistance Movement confessed to driving his Volvo into an Iraqi demonstration outside the Migration Agency in Malmö. Police are investigating it as hate crime.[199] Unnamed man

Switzerland[edit]

Below is a list of 1 incidents in Switzerland that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
19 December 2016 Shooting 1 (+1) 3 Switzerland Zürich, Switzerland Zürich Islamic center shooting: A man yelled "Raus aus unserem Land [Get out of our country]"[200] before opening fire on people at an Islamic center in Central Zürich.[201][202] The motive is still being investigated but the Islamic Central Council of Switzerland issued a statement suggesting it should serve as an "alarm" regarding the threat posed by increasing Islamophobia in Swiss society.[203] Unnamed man

Ukraine[edit]

Below is a list of 2 incidents in Ukraine that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
23 August 2010 Vandalism, attempted arson 0 0 Ukraine Simferopol, Ukraine Someone drew a swastika on the Seit-Settar mosque and attempted to set it on fire.[13] Unknown
25 December 2010 Attempted arson 0 0 Ukraine Simferopol, Ukraine Arson on the Seit-Settar mosque was attempted for a second time. One local Muslim leader said that vandalism on Muslim holy sites in the Crimea are not properly investigated.[13] Unknown

United Kingdom[edit]

Below is a list of 19 incidents in the United Kingdom that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
12 July 2005 Melee attack 1 0 England Nottingham, England A Muslim man, Kamal Raza Butt, was beaten to death outside a corner shop in by a gang of youths who shouted anti-Islamic abuse at him and called him "Taliban."[204] Unnamed gang
10 March 2006 Stabbing, vandalism 0 1 England Preston, England The Jamia Masjid mosque was attacked by gangs of white youths using brick and concrete blocks. The youths damaged a number of cars outside the mosque and stabbed a 16-year-old Muslim teenager. The local police described the attack as "racially motivated"[205] Unnamed gang
30 June 2007 Stabbing, melee attack 0 1 England Blackley, England Ghulam Mustafa Naz, a Muslim religious teacher, was stabbed and beaten by four men. Police suggest that it was a hate crime.[206] Four unnamed men
3 July 2007 Vehicular attack 0 0 Scotland Glasgow, Scotland A vehicle was driven into a store owned by a Muslim man named Ashfaq Ahmed. The driver attempted to set fire to the vehicle and threw a gas canister into the shop. The massive blast destroyed the store.[206] Unnamed men
3 August 2007 Arson 0 0 England Bradford, England A mosque in Bradford was seriously damaged in an arson attack.[206] Unknown
9 August 2007 Arson 0 0 England London, England Assailants attacked the 58-year-old imam of the Central Mosque in Regent's Park. The victim required emergency surgery on both eyes as a result.[206] Two unnamed men
22 August 2008 Melee attack 1 2+ England Hastings, England Mohammed al-Majed, a 16-year-old student from Qatar, was beaten up outside a kebab shop. He succumbed to his wound 2 days later in hospital. At least 2 of his friends were also injured during the incident. The perpetrator was convicted of "racially aggravated common assault."[207] Paul Rockett
6 July 2009 Arson 0 0 Scotland Glasgow, Scotland The branch of Islamic Relief was badly damaged by a fire which police said was started deliberately, and which members of the Muslim community of Scotland allege was Islamophobic.[208] Two unnamed men
8 April 2010 Melee attack 0 1 England Nottingham, England Abida Malik and Asif Ahmed were targeted by up to 20 men on a train. The attackers called the couple terrorists.[57] 20 unnamed men
10 May 2010 Bombing 0 0 England Babworth, England Inmates at Ranby Prison made a bomb intending to kill fellow Muslim prisoners. The inmates threw the bomb in the room where worshippers were in but a prison officer removed it from the facility, and disabled it before it went off.[57] 20 unnamed men
9 June 2010 Melee attack 0 1 England London, England A 13-year-old girl was burned and robbed in Grangewood Park by three teenagers who yelled anti-Muslim slurs.[57] Three unnamed teenagers
3 December 2010 Attempted arson 0 0 England Stoke-on-Trent, England A mosque was filled with flammable gas in attempt to light it on fire. The police classified it as a "deliberate racist attack."[13] Four unnamed teenagers
29 April 2013 Stabbing 1 0 England Birmingham, England Murder of Mohammed Saleem: 82-year-old Mohammed Saleem was stabbed to death while on his way home from Green Lane Masjid in Small Heath, Birmingham. The perpetrator later stated that he killed Salem because he "was a Muslim and there were no witnesses."[209] Pavlo Lapshyn
3 July 2016 Melee attack 0 1 England Sunderland, England A man was charged with racially/religiously aggravated assault after yelling ‘you’re in our country now’ and physically assaulting a Muslim woman at a mall.[210][211] Peter Scotter
6 August 2016 Melee attack 0 1 England Bletchley, England A man was charged with racially/religiously aggravated assault after he kicked a pregnant Muslim woman in the stomach and caused her to lose her unborn twins.[212] He was convected in May 2017. Rallies were held in Bletchley in support of the victims.[213] David Gallacher
12 December 2016 Stabbing 0 1 England London, England A knifeman stabbed a passenger on a train at Forest Hill station before chasing people outside shouting "Who is a Muslim? I want to kill a Muslim." Authorities called the incident a "serious hate crime."[214] Unnamed man
16 December 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Scotland Cumbernauld, Scotland A mosque was vandalized with graffiti reading "Saracen go home" and "Deus Vult," a Latin term meaning "God wills it." Authorities stated the incident was "a hate crime."[215] Unknown
16 December 2016 Melee attack 0 1 England London, England A Muslim woman was dragged along the pavement by her hijab. Authorities allege it was a "hate crime."[216] Two unnamed men
19 June 2017 Vehicular attack 1 11 England London, England 2017 Finsbury Park attack: A man drove into a crowd of Muslim worshippers leaving a mosque after prayer. The incident was deemed terrorism and, while the motive is still under investigation,[217] several civil rights groups and politicians claim the perpetrator was motivated by Islamophobia.[218] Darren Osborne

United States[edit]

A protester at a counter-demonstration against the September 15, 2007 anti-war protest in Washington, D.C.

In the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing, many residents of Middle Eastern descent and African-American Muslims became victims of the initial rage at "Muslim terrorists" as the initial news stories hypothesized. KFOR-TV's coverage of the bombing informed viewers that a member of the Nation of Islam had taken credit for the bombing. Even though the network cautioned that it might be a crank call, it repeated the claim throughout the day's coverage.[219] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the bombings, "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[220] There were also suggestions on the radio that all Arab Americans should "be put in internment camps".[219]

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, hate crimes against people of Middle-Eastern descent increased from 354 attacks in 2000 to 1,501 attacks in 2001.[221] Among the victims of the backlash was a Middle-Eastern man in Houston, Texas who was shot and wounded after an assailant accused him of "blowing up the country"[220] and four immigrants were shot and killed by a man named Larme Price who confessed to killing them as "revenge" for the September 11 attacks.[222] Although Price described his victims as Arabs, only one was from an Arab country. This appears to be a trend; on account of stereotypes of Arabs, several non-Arab, non-Muslim groups were subjected to attacks in the wake of 9/11, including several Sikh men who were attacked for wearing their religiously mandated turban.[223] According to a report prepared by the Arab American Institute, three days after the Oklahoma City bombing (which was committed by anti-government white American Timothy McVeigh), "more than 200 serious hate crimes were committed against Arab Americans and American Muslims. The same was true in the days following September 11."[220]

While en route to Chicago, Shahrukh Khan, a well-known Bollywood actor, was held for what he described as "humiliating" questioning for several hours in Newark Airport, New Jersey because of his common Muslim surname Khan. He was released only following the intervention of the Indian embassy.[224][225]

In April 2012, various media sources reported that the Joint Forces Staff College taught an anti-Islam course. The course taught that "they [Muslims] hate everything you stand for and will never coexist with you." It also proposed justified the destruction of the cities of Mecca and Medina "without regard for civilian deaths". The course was suspended after a student objected to the material.[226][227]

In early August 2012 U.S. Representative Joe Walsh (R-IL) said at a town hall that radical Muslims were “trying to kill Americans every week.” Soon after his remarks several attacks against Muslims took place in his district, including an August 12 acid bomb attack on a Muslim school in Lombard, Illinois during evening Ramadan prayers and hate graffiti found on August 16 in a Muslim Cemetery.[228] There also were several other attacks of mosques with pellet guns, acid bombs, eggs, or unclean animal parts. Some incidents are being investigated as hate crimes.[229]

Research suggests that hate crimes and discrimination against Muslims in the United States leads to lower assimilation rates.[230]

Below is a list of 43 incidents in the United States that could be considered Islamophobic:

Date Type Dead Injured Location Details Perpetrator
September 15, 2001 Shooting 1 0 Arizona Mesa, Arizona Murder of Balbir Singh Sodhi: Balbir Singh Sodhi, who wore a beard and a turban in accordance with his Sikh faith, was mistaken for an Arab Muslim.[231] Roque had reportedly told friends that he was "going to go out and shoot some towel-heads" the day of the attacks.[232] Frank Silva Roque
September 15–October 4, 2001 Shooting 2 1 Texas Dallas, Texas Waqar Hasan, a 46-year-old Pakistani immigrant, was shot and killed inside of a grocery store in Dallas. Another victim, 28-year-old Raisuddin Bhuiyan was shot in the face while working on a convenience store. He was saved from brain damage, but lost sight of one of his eyes. The third victim, Vasudev Patel, 49, was gunned down in Mesquite, Texas on October 4, 2001. The perpetrator said his motive is "to avenge the United States on 9/11"[233] Mark Anthony Stroman
January 14, 2007 Melee attack 0 1 New York (state) Lackawanna, New York A 26-year-old man of Yemeni ethnicity was physically assaulted by attackers who used a racist and anti-Muslim epithet during the incident. The victim was thrown to the ground, sustaining a fracture under one eye, a broken nose, and cuts requiring six stitches on his face and staples to the back of his head.[163] Unknown
September 16, 2007 Melee attack 0 1 New York (state) Locust Valley, New York Zohreh Assemi, an Iranian American Muslim owner of a nail salon in Locust Valley, New York, was robbed, beaten, and called a "terrorist" in what authorities called a bias crime.[234] Assemi was kicked, sliced with a boxcutter, and had her hand smashed with a hammer. The perpetrators, who forcibly removed $2,000 from the salon and scrawled anti-Muslim slurs on the mirrors, also told Assemi to "get out of town" and that her kind were not "welcomed" in the area. The attack followed two weeks of phone calls in which she was called a "terrorist" and told to "get out of town," friends and family said.[234] Unknown
February 9, 2008 Arson 0 0 Tennessee Columbia, Tennessee The Islamic Center in Columbia was firebombed with Molotov cocktails by members of the right-wing extremist Christian Identity Movement.[119] Christian Identity Movement
July 2010–March 2011 Burning Qur'ans 0 0 Florida Gainesville, Florida Dove World Outreach Center Quran-burning controversy: The Dove World Outreach Center church planned to burn Qur'ans on the ninth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks. Despite warning from the military leadership in the Afghan War, Terry Jones, the pastor of the centre, said it would be "tragic" if anybody's life was lost as a result of the planned Quran burning. While he added "Still, I must say that we feel that we must sooner or later stand up to Islam, and if we don't, it's not going to go away." His church's website claims to "expose Islam" as a "violent and oppressive religion;" it also displays a sign reading "Islam is of the Devil."[235] In early September 2010, Jones cancelled and pledged never to burn a Quran,[236] but on March 20, 2011, Jones held a "trial of the Quran" in his Gainesville church. Finding the scriptures guilty of "crimes against humanity," the Quran was burned in the church sanctuary.[237] Terry Jones
August 25, 2010 Stabbing 0 1 New York (state) New York City, New York A New York taxi driver was stabbed after a passenger asked if he was Muslim. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.[238] Michael Enright
January 24, 2011 Attempted car bombing 0 0 California Imperial Beach, California 2011 Dearborn mosque bombing plot: A man was arrested and charged with terrorism after attempting to blow up the Islamic Center of America in Dearborn, Michigan, which has large Arab-American and Muslim populations.[239] The man later said he opposed the Iraq war and targeted the mosque to "grab people's attention."[240] He was arrested in the parking lot outside the mosque with a car filled with high-end, class C fireworks[241] including M-80s.[240][242] Roger Stockham
August 5, 2012 Shooting 6 (+1) 4 Wisconsin Oak Creek, Wisconsin Wisconsin Sikh temple shooting: A massacre took place at the gurdwara (Sikh temple) where 40-year-old fatally shot six people and wounded four others.[243][244] Authorities say the violence had racial motivations.[245][246][247][248] Wade Michael Page
December 27, 2012 Melee attack 1 0 New York (state) New York City, New York Sunando Sen, a 46-year-old Indian immigrant, was hit and killed by a subway train when a woman pushed him onto the track. The woman later told authorities that she hates Muslims and "ever since 2001 when they put down the twin towers I’ve been beating them up."[249] Erika Menendez
March 16, 2014 Shooting 1 0 California Sacramento, California A man gunned down Iraqi artist Hassan Alawsi in the parking lot of a Home Depot. Police suspect the shooter was motivated by "his dislike of people of Middle Eastern descent."[250][251] Jeffrey Caylor
December 4, 2014 Vehicular attack 1 0 Missouri Kansas City, Missouri Killing of Abdisamad Sheikh-Hussein: A Muslim Somali-American student at Staley High School was killed near the Kansas City Somali Center, a man intentionally rammed his car into him, knocking him into the air, and then ran over him, nearly severing his legs.[252] The driver of the car made rants against Islam and threats against Muslim worshippers outside a mosque. The SUV used in the attack had an anti-Muslim bumper sticker which compared the Quran with Ebola, while another stated that "Islam is worse than Ebola".[253][254] The FBI classified it as a hate crime. Ahmed H. Aden
April 10, 2015 Attempted attack 0 0 New York (state) Tompkins, New York A man spent months gathering weapons and plotting an assault on a Muslim hamlet in northern New York City.[255][256] Robert Doggart
December 26, 2015 Melee attack 0 1 California Fresno, California Amrik Singh Bal, a 68-year-old Sikh man, was beaten by someone who called him a "terrorist."[257] Daniel Coronel Wilson Jr
June 29, 2016 Shooting 0 2 Minnesota Minneapolis, Minnesota 2016 Minneapolis shooting: A man shot at five Somali-Americans, wounding two of them. Witnesses later recounted that Sawina shouted Anti-Muslim expletives and stated he was going to "going to kill you all."[258] Anthony Sawina
July 19, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Nebraska Omaha, Nebraska Suthahar Subburaj, an Indian immigrant, was knocked unconscious outside an Indian restaurant by an assailant who shouted “ISIS... Get out of my country” as he beat him. Subbaraj is neither Arab nor Muslim.[259] Unnamed man
August 13, 2016 Shooting 2 0 New York (state) New York City, New York Maulama Akonjee, a 55-year-old imam, and his assistant, 64-year-old Thara Uddin, was shot and killed while on their way home from Al-Furqan Jame Mosque in Ozone Park, Queens. Police suspect it was a hate crime.[260] Oscar Morel
August 18, 2016 Shooting 1 0 Oklahoma Tulsa, Oklahoma A Lebanese-American man was shot and killed on his porch in by an neighbor who regularly called him a "dirty muslim" and "Arab" despite him being Christian.[261] Stanley Majors
August 31, 2016 Stabbing 1 0 New York (state) New York City, New York Nazma Khanam, a Bangladeshi woman was fatally stabbed on a Queens sidewalk. The NYPD investigated it as a hate crime.[262][263] Yonatan Galvez Marin
September 12, 2016 Arson 0 0 Florida Fort Pierce, Florida A man set a mosque on fire in fear of another "Manhattan World Trade Center attack or Boston Bombing."[264] Joseph Schreiber
October 11, 2016 Attempted car bombing 0 0 Kansas Garden City, Kansas 2016 Garden City bombing plot: Three men monitored apartment blocks which were known to house Muslim refugees, stockpiled an arsenal of weapons, and planned to kill by detonating explosives in four trucks laden with ammonium nitrate.[265] Kansas Security Force (Crusaders)
October 20, 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Arkansas Fort Smith, Arkansas Two mosques were damaged with graffiti swastikas and xenophobic slurs.[266] Craig Wigginton
Abraham Davis
November 10, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 New York (state) New York City, New York Two Muslim women in Brooklyn were attacked while they were walking and pushing their children in strollers. The perpetrator, stated “This is the United States of America, you’re not supposed to be different from us" and to demanded they leave the country.[267] Unnamed woman
November 14, 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Kentucky Owensboro, Kentucky The Islamic Center of Owensboro has been vandalized for the second time in less than a year.[268] Unknown
November 16, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 North Carolina Charlotte, North Carolina A student was beaten and choked by a teacher, ostensibly due to his religion.[269] Unnamed teacher
November 25, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Pennsylvania Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania A man attacked an Indian man sitting next to him at a bar after mistaking him for a Muslim. He was charged with "ethnic intimidation."[270] Jeffrey Burgess
November 27, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 Virginia Fairfax County, Virginia A man was beaten in a parking lot after someone yelled anti-Muslim slurs at him. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.[271] Robin McGreer
December 5, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 New York (state) New York City, New York A Muslim New York City transit worker was pushed down the stairs at Grand Central Terminal by a man who called her a terrorist.[272] Unknown
December 10, 2016 Stabbing 0 1 California Simi Valley, California A Muslim worshipper was stabbed outside of a mosque. The perpetrator was charged with a hate crime.[273] John Matteson
December 17, 2016 Vandalism 0 0 Washington (state) Redmond, Washington The sign outside a Redmond mosque was vandalized for a second time in a month. The sign was first vandalized November 21. Police said they are investigating both incidents as possible hate crimes.[274] Nathan Gray
December 18, 2016 Melee attack 0 1 New York (state) New York City, New York A man chucked hot coffee at a Muslim woman, hit her and accused her of being a “terrorist” in a Midtown Dunkin Donuts. He was charged with a hate crime.[275] Nathan Gray
January 22, 2017 Vandalism 0 0 California Davis, California The windows of the Islamic Center of Davis were smashed. Police called it a hate crime.[276] Unknown
January 22, 2017 Vandalism, attempted arson 0 0 California Sacramento, California Burglary and attempted arson took place at a restaurant. Racist and derogatory comments, including the word “terrorist,” were written on the walls directed at the owners, who are Sikh. Police called it a hate crime.[277] Unknown
January 26, 2017 Melee attack 0 1 New York (state) New York City, New York A man kicked a Muslim airline worker and told her “Trump is here now” and “he will get rid of all of you.”[278] Robin Rhodes
February 1, 2017 Vandalism 0 0 California Roseville, California Members of Roseville’s Tarbiya Institute arrived Wednesday morning to find a dozen different racial epithets spray painted on the building’s front and back.[279] Unknown
February 11, 2017 Vandalism 0 0 Ohio Columbus, Ohio An Islamic Center was vandalized with graffiti that read “Allah is a fraud.”[280] Unknown
February 23, 2017 Shooting 1 2 Kansas Olathe, Kansas 2017 Kansas shooting: A man shot and killed an Indian immigrant engineer he thought was Middle Eastern and wounded two others after shouting "get out of my country" and opening fire.[281] Adam Puritan
March 4, 2017 Shooting 0 1 Washington (state) Kent, Washington A man shot and injured a Sikh after shouting "get out of my country."[282] Unknown
March 10, 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Oregon Salem, Oregon A man beat an Arab employee of Al Aqsa Restaurant with a pipe, yelling "go back to your country terrorist" and "get out of America."[283] Jason Kendall
March 12, 2017 Attempted arson 0 0 Florida Port St. Lucie, Florida A Florida man who attempted to set fire to a convenience store told deputies that he assumed the owner was Muslim and that he wanted to “run the Arabs out of our country.” The sheriff later said the store owners are actually Indian.[284][285] Richard Lloyd
March 26, 2017 Melee attack 0 1 Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C. Yosef Steynovitz was charged with assault with significant bodily injury, which is a felony, in connection with the beating of Kamal Nayfeh, a 55-year old Palestinian-American instructor at a community college in Charlotte, North Carolina. Steynovitz was also charged with a "suspected hate crime" based on "anti-Arab" bias.[286] Yosef Steynovitz
April 11, 2017 Melee attack, stabbing 0 1 Wisconsin Milwaukee, Wisconsin A woman was beaten and stabbed by a man. Munjed Ahmad of the Islamic Society of Milwaukee concluded that "Nothing was stolen. There was no robbery. Her valuables remain with her. The only motive we can think of—because everything stayed with her and this individual went straight for her scarf is a hate crime."[287] Unnamed man
May 26, 2017 Melee attack, stabbing 2 1 Oregon Portland, Oregon 2017 Portland train attack: A man fatally stabbed two people and injured a third on a MAX Light Rail train,[288] after he was confronted for reportedly "yelling a gamut of anti-Muslim and anti-everything slurs."[289] The Portland Police Bureau's report said Christian was shouting "hate speech toward a variety of ethnicities and religions", and directed his inflammatory remarks at two young Muslim women, one of whom was wearing a hijab.[290] Jeremy Joseph Christian

Vietnam[edit]

The Cham Muslims in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. Muslim Chams have experienced violent religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on practicing their faith under the current Vietnamese government, with the Vietnamese state confiscating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing their religious beliefs. In 2010 and 2013 several incidents occurred in Thành Tín and Phươc Nhơn villages where Cham were murdered by Vietnamese. In 2012, Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham girls.[291] Cham Muslims in the Mekong Delta have also been economically marginalized and pushed into poverty by Vietnamese policies, with ethnic Vietnamese Kinh settling on majority Cham land with state support, and religious practices of minorities have been targeted for elimination by the Vietnamese government.[292]

Incidents on aircraft[edit]

Some incidents with Muslim passengers on aircraft have given rise to the expression "Flying while Muslim".[293]

  • On 16 August 2006 British passengers on board a flight from Malaga to Manchester requested the removal of two men of Asian descent from a plane. According to a spokesman for the Civil Guard in Malaga, "These men had aroused suspicion because of their appearance and the fact that they were speaking in a foreign language thought to be an Arabic language, and the pilot was refusing to take off until they were escorted off the plane." A security sweep of the plane found no explosives or any item of a terrorist nature. Monarch Airlines booked the men, who were Urdu speakers, into a hotel room, gave them a free meal and sent them home on a later plane. The men later responded, "Just because we're Muslim, does not mean we are suicide bombers." The Islamic Human Rights Commission blamed "ever-increasing Islamophobia" related to the "war on terror" for the incident.[294][295][296]
  • A passenger traveling to the British Virgin Islands on a plane bound for the United States from Manchester in the UK was forced off the plane prior to takeoff. The man, a British-born Muslim residing in the United States, said he was singled out because he was a Muslim pilot and was left feeling "demoralized and humiliated. I must have met the profile on the day. I have an Arabic name, I am a Muslim, I'm from Britain and I know how to fly."[297][298]
  • On 21 November 2006, six imams were forcefully removed from a US Airways flight at Minneapolis St. Paul International Airport for security reasons. The event led to an outcry from Muslim organizations in America saying that what happened showed the growing prejudice against Muslims in America.[299] Investigations by the airline and police so far have reported that the airline and ground crews responded to security concerns properly in removing the men from the plane.[300] See Flying Imams controversy for more details regarding this incident.
  • In 2009 AirTran Airways removed nine Muslim passengers, including three children, from a flight and turned them over to the FBI after one of the men commented to another that they were sitting right next to the engines and wondered aloud where the safest place to sit on the plane was. Although the FBI subsequently cleared the passengers and called the incident a "misunderstanding," AirTran refused to seat the passengers on another flight, forcing them to purchase last minute tickets on another airline that had been secured with the FBI's assistance. A spokesman for AirTran initially defended the airline's actions and said they would not reimburse the passengers for the cost of the new tickets. Although the men had traditional beards and the women headscarves, AirTran denied that their actions were based on the passengers' appearance.[301] The following day, after the incident received widespread media coverage, AirTran reversed its position and issued a public apology, adding that it would in fact reimburse the passengers for the cost of their rebooked tickets.[302]
  • On 18 November 2015, in two separate incidents, passengers at Midway Airport were allegedly not permitted to fly aboard Southwest Airlines flights when other passengers claimed to be afraid to fly with them because they were speaking Arabic, or appeared to be Muslim. The refusal sparked widespread condemnation on the airline's social media pages and received prominent coverage, in the US and internationally, accompanied by calls for a boycott of the airline.[303] According to The Economist, "in the two Southwest cases, it was the passengers themselves conducting their own vigilante profiling; the airline was merely bowing to their demands."[304]

Politician-related incidents[edit]

  • CAIR and the Associated Press called United States Rep. Virgil Goode (R-VA) Islamophobic for his December 2006 letter stating that Rep-elect Keith Ellison's desire to use the Qur'an during the swearing in ceremonies was a threat to "the values and beliefs traditional to the United States of America" and for saying "I fear that in the next century we will have many more Muslims in the United States if we do not adopt the strict immigration policies."[305][306]
  • Concerning the US state of North Carolina’s position (as expressed by their attorney general’s office) in the ongoing case of ACLU of N.C. & Syidah Matteen v. State of North Carolina that the only swearing-in for testimony in court that was valid had to be on a Christian Bible (and that all others must choose to affirm), CAIR's Legal Director in Washington D.C, Arsalan Iftikhar, said “This shows there's a lot of anti-Muslim sentiment, especially here in the United States.”[307]
  • British cabinet ministers had been criticized in October 2006 for helping to "unleash a public anti-Muslim backlash" in the United Kingdom by blaming the Muslim community over issues of integration despite a study commissioned by the Home Office on white and Asian-Muslim youths demonstrating otherwise: that Asian-Muslim youths "are in fact the most tolerant of all" and that white British youths "have far more intolerant attitudes," concluding that intolerance from the white British community was a greater "barrier to integration" in the United Kingdom.[308][309]

Media-related incidents[edit]

  • A 2008 amateur shoot 'em up computer game called Muslim Massacre: The Game of Modern Religious Genocide had as its aim killing all Muslims that appear on the screen. The game's creator took down the game's download site with a statement of apology on his personal website, stating his original intention in releasing the game, to "mock the foreign policy of the United States and the commonly held belief in the United States that Muslims are a hostile people to be held with suspicion." He said this had not been understood by the wider public and that its release "did not achieve its intended effect and instead only caused hurt to hospitable, innocent people."[310] However, it later emerged that the apology was indeed fake and the original game was an act of a political statement and not of anti-Muslim sentiment.[311]
  • In September 2012 the group Stop Islamization of America, which has been labeled a "hate group" by the Southern Poverty Law Center[312][313] and the Anti-Defamation League,[314] ran advertisements in the New York City subway reading "In any war between the civilized man and the savage, support the civilized man. Support Israel. Defeat Jihad." Several groups condemned the advertisements as "hate speech."[315] In early January 2013 a related group put up advertisements next to 228 clocks in 39 New York subway stations showing the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center with a quote attributed to the Koran: “Soon shall we cast terror into the hearts of the unbelievers.”[316] The New York City Transit Authority, which said it would have to carry the advertisements on First Amendment grounds, insisted that 25% of the ad contain a Transit Authority disclaimer.[317][318] These advertisements also were criticized.[319][320]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The police report stated that Wiens called El-Sherbini Terroristin, Islamistin and Schlampe. (Der Spiegel, 31 August 2009, p. 65).

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Sources[edit]

External links[edit]