Island gigantism

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The large Haast's eagle and moa from New Zealand (both extinct)

Island gigantism or insular gigantism is a biological phenomenon in which the size of an animal isolated on an island increases dramatically in comparison to its mainland relatives. Island gigantism is one aspect of the more general "island effect" or "Foster's rule", which posits that when mainland animals colonize islands, small species tend to evolve larger bodies, and large species tend to evolve smaller bodies. With the arrival of humans and associated predators (dogs, cats, rats, pigs), many giant as well as other island endemics have become extinct.

Possible causes[edit]

Diagram displaying the change in size of weta species in two ecosystems. The size and population of wetas are affected by predation. Rats introduced on the mainland began to prey on wetas, reducing their population; wetas shrank in response. On an island isolated from predation, such as Little Barrier Island, wetas have a dense population and have grown to a massive size. Insular species of giant wetas are the only ones not facing extinction. As wetas grow over time, bird predation declines.[citation needed]

Large mammalian carnivores are often absent on islands because of insufficient range or difficulties in over-water dispersal. In their absence, the ecological niches for large predators may be occupied by birds, reptiles or smaller carnivorans, which can then grow to larger-than-normal size. For example, on prehistoric Gargano Island in the Miocene-Pliocene Mediterranean, on islands in the Caribbean like Cuba, and on Madagascar and New Zealand, some or all apex predators were birds like eagles, falcons and owls, including some of the largest known examples of these groups. However, birds and reptiles generally make less efficient large predators than advanced carnivorans.

Since small size usually makes it easier for herbivores to escape or hide from predators, the decreased predation pressure on islands can allow them to grow larger.[1][a] Small herbivores may also benefit from the absence of competition from missing types of large herbivores.

Benefits of large size that have been suggested for island tortoises include decreased vulnerability to scarcity of food and/or water, through ability to survive for longer intervals without them, or ability to travel longer distances to obtain them. Periods of such scarcity may be a greater threat on oceanic islands than on the mainland.[4]

Thus, island gigantism is usually an evolutionary trend resulting from the removal of constraints on the size of small animals related to predation and/or competition.[5] Such constraints can operate differently depending on the size of the animal, however; for example, while small herbivores may escape predation by hiding, large herbivores may deter predators by intimidation. As a result, the complementary phenomenon of island dwarfism can also result from the removal of constraints related to predation and/or competition on the size of large herbivores.[6] In contrast, insular dwarfism among predators more commonly results from the imposition of constraints associated with the limited prey resources available on islands.[6] As opposed to island dwarfism, island gigantism is found in most major vertebrate groups and in invertebrates.

Territorialism may favor the evolution of island gigantism. A study on Anaho Island in Nevada determined that reptile species that were territorial tended to be larger on the island compared to the mainland, particularly in the smaller species. In territorial species, larger size makes individuals better able to compete to defend their territory. This gives additional impetus to evolution toward larger size in an insular population.[7]

A further means of establishing island gigantism may be a founder effect operative when larger members of a mainland population are superior in their ability to colonize islands.[8]

Island size plays a role in determining the extent of gigantism. Smaller islands generally accelerate the rate of evolution of changes in organism size, and organisms there evolve greater extremes in size.[9]

Examples[edit]

Examples of island gigantism include:

Mammals[edit]

Many rodents grow larger on islands, whereas carnivores, proboscideans and artiodactyls usually become smaller.

Eulipotyphlans[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Corsican giant shrew Asoriculus corsicanus Corsica Extinct (before 500 BC) Red-toothed shrews
Balearic giant shrew Asoriculus hidalgo Majorca and Menorca Extinct
Sardinian giant shrew Asoriculus similis Sardinia Extinct
Deinogalerix koenigswaldi-Naturalis-PeterMaas.JPG
Deinogalerix
Deinogalerix spp. Gargano Island Extinct (Late Miocene) Moon rats

Rodents[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Blunt-toothed giant hutia Amblyrhiza inundata Anguilla and Saint Martin Extinct (Pleistocene) Neotropical spiny rats
St Kilda field mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus hirtensis).png
St Kilda field mouse
Apodemus sylvaticus hirtensis St Kilda Least Concern Old World field mouse
Canariomys bravoi.jpg
Tenerife giant rat
Canariomys bravoi Tenerife Extinct (Late Pleistocene) African rufous-nosed rats
Canariomys tamarani fossils.JPG
Gran Canaria giant rat
Canariomys tamarani Gran Canaria Extinct (before AD 1500)
Larger Jamaican giant hutia Clidomys osborni Jamaica Extinct (Late Pleistocene) Neotropical spiny rats
Plate-toothed giant hutia Elasmodontomys obliquus Puerto Rico Extinct (c. 1 AD)
Formentera black-tailed garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus ophiusae Formentera Rare[10] Garden dormouse
Minorcan giant dormouse Hypnomys mahonensis Menorca Extinct Leithiinae dormice
Hypnomys.png
Majorcan giant dormouse
Hypnomys morpheus Majorca Extinct
Sicilian giant dormouse Leithia cartei Sicily Extinct
Maltese giant dormouse Leithia melitensis Malta Extinct
Gargano giant voles Mikrotia magna

M. maiuscula

M. parva
Gargano Island Extinct (Early Pliocene) Meadow voles
Papagomys.jpg
Flores giant rat
Papagamoys armandvillei Flores Near Threatened True rats
Sulawesi giant rat Paruromys dominator Sulawesi Least Concern
Twisted-toothed mouse Quemisia gravis Hispaniola Extinct Neotropical spiny rats
Admiralty giant rat Rattus detentus Manus Island Unknown / Likely threatened[11] True rats
Congreso Island black rat population[12] Rattus rattus Congreso Island, one of the Chafarinas Islands Least Concern North African black rat
Arboreal giant hutia[13] Tainotherium valei Puerto Rico Extinct Neotropical spiny rats
Lesser Jamaica giant hutia Xaymaca fulvopulvis Jamaica Extinct

Lagomorphs[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Nuralagus NTy.jpg
Minorcan giant lagomorph
Nuralagus rex Menorca Extinct (Middle Pliocene) Alilepus (?)

Trischizolagus (?)
Prolagus imperialis Gargano Island Extinct Pikas
Prolagus3.jpg
Sardinian pika
Prolagus sardus Corsica, Sardinia and Tavolara Extinct (c. AD 1800)

Primates[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Hispaniola monkey Antillothrix bernensis Hispaniola Extinct (before AD 1600) Titis
Archaeoindris fontoynonti.jpg
Gorilla lemur
Archaeoindris fontoynontii Central Madagascar Extinct (c. 350 BC) Galagos, pottos and lorises
Archaeolemur edwardsi.jpg
Baboon lemurs
Archaeolemur spp.

Hadropithecus spp.
Madagascar Extinct (before AD 1280)
Babakotia radofilai.jpg
Sloth lemurs
Babakotia spp.

Palaeopropithecus spp.
Western and Central Madagascar Extinct (c. AD 1500)
Haitian monkey Insulacebus toussaintiana Southwestern Haiti Extinct Titis
Megaladapis grandidieri.jpg
Koala lemurs
Megaladapis edwardsi

M. grandidieri

M. madagascariensis
Madagascar Extinct (AD 1280-1420) Galagos, pottos and lorises
Paralouatta marianae skull.jpg
Cuban monkeys
Paralouatta marianae[14]

P. varonai[14]
Cuba Extinct (Pleistocene) Titis
Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori Jamaica Extinct

Carnivorans[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
D2627 Megalenhydris.jpg
Sardinian giant otter
Megalenhydris barbaricina Sardinia Extinct (Late Pleistocene) Otters
Cryptoprocta Ferox.JPG
Fossa
Cryptoprocta ferox Madagascar Vulnerable Mongooses
Giant fossa Cryptoprocta spelaea Madagascar Extinct

Birds[edit]

Stem birds[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Balaur bondoc as avialan.jpg
Balaur
B. bondoc Hateg Island Extinct (Late Cretaceous) Jeholornis[15]
Gargantuavis philoinos pelvis.JPG
Gargantuavis
G. philohinos Ibero-Armorican Island Extinct (Late Cretaceous) Patagopteryx (?)

Ratites[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Apteryx australis - Swedish Museum of Natural History - Stockholm, Sweden - DSC00615.JPG
Kiwis
Apteryx spp. New Zealand Variable Proapteryx[b]
Aepyornis maximus.jpg
Larger elephant birds
Aepyornis hildebrandti

A. maximus

Vorombe titan
Madagascar Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Mullerornis agilis.jpg
Lesser elephant birds
Mullerornis spp. Madagascar Extinct (c. AD 1260)
Dinornithidae SIZE 01.png
Moa
Anomalopteryx didiformis

Dinornis spp.

Emeus crassus

Euryapteryx spp.

Megalapteryx didinus

Pachyornis spp.
New Zealand Extinct (before AD 1445) Tinamous

Waterfowl[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
New Zealand musk duck Biziura delautouri New Zealand Extinct (after AD 1500) Australian musk duck
Cnemiornis.jpg
New Zealand geese
Cnemiornis calcitrans

C. gracilis
New Zealand Extinct Cape Barren goose
Garganornis ballmanni (reconstruction by Stefano Maugeri).jpg
Garganornis
G. ballmanni Gargano and Scontrone islands Extinct (Late Miocene) Geese[17]
ChelychelynechenBunt.jpg
Turtle-jawed moa-nalo
Chelychelynechen quassus Kauai Extinct (c. AD 1000) Ducks
Moa Nalo Maui Nui.JPG
Small-billed moa-nalo
Ptaiochen pau Maui Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Moa Nalo Maui Nui.JPG
Maui Nui large-billed moa-nalo
Thambetochen chauliodous Maui Nui Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Thambetochen xanion.jpg
O'ahu moa-nalo
Thambetochen xanion O'ahu Extinct (c. AD 1000)
Giant swan Cygnus falconeri Sicily and Malta Extinct (Middle Pleistocene) Mute swan
Scarlett's duck Malacorhynchus scarletti New Zealand Extinct (after AD 1500) Pink-eared duck

Galliformes[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Pile-builder megapode Megapodius molistructor New Caledonia and Tonga Extinct (c. 1500 BC) Scrubfowl
Noble megapode Megavitiornis altirostris Fiji Extinct Galliformes
Sylviornis.PNG
New Caledonian giant megapode
Sylviornis neocaledoniae New Caledonia and Isle of Pines Extinct

Gruiformes[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
AphanapteryxBonasia.JPG
Red rail
Aphanapteryx bonasia Mauritius Extinct (c. AD 1700) Rails
Aptornis BW.jpg
Adzebills
Aptornis defossor

A. otidiformis
New Zealand Extinct Trumpeters
Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi 1 1896.jpg
Hawkins's rail
Diaphanapteryx hawkinsi Chatham Islands Extinct (c. AD 1900) Rails
Fulica chathamensis 1 1896.jpg
Chatham coot
Fulica chathamensis Chatham Islands Extinct (after AD 1500) Coots
Fulica newtoni.jpg
Mascarene coot
Fulica newtonii Mauritius and Réunion Extinct (c. AD 1700) Eurasian coot
New Zealand coot Fulica prisca New Zealand Extinct (after AD 1280) Coots
Antillean cave rail Nesotrochis debooyi Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands Extinct Rails
Cuban cave rail Nesotrochis picapicensis Cuba Extinct
Haitian cave rail Nesotrochis steganinos Hispaniola Extinct
Porphyrio coerulescens.png
Réunion swamphen
Porphyrio coerulescens Plaine des Cafres, Réunion Extinct (c. AD 1730) Purple swamphens
Porphyrio hochstetteri -Tiritiri Matangi Island-8b-3c.jpg
South Island takahē
Porphyrio hochstetteri South Island, New Zealand Endangered Rails
North Island Takahē.jpg
North Island takahē
Porphyrio mantelli North Island, New Zealand Extinct (before AD 1900)

Suliformes[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
ExtbPallusCormorantovw.jpg
Spectacled cormorant
Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Komandorski Islands Extinct (c. AD 1850) Double-crested cormorant

Pigeons[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Lapitiguana impensa.JPG
Viti Levu giant pigeon
Natunaornis gigoura Viti Levu, Fiji Extinct Crowned pigeons
Pezophaps solitaria.png
Rodrigues solitaire
Pezophaps solitaria Rodrigues Extinct (before AD 1778) Nicobar pigeon
Dodo 1.JPG
Dodo
Raphus cucullatus Mauritius Extinct (c. AD 1662)

Birds of prey[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Liko Cave golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos simurgh Crete Extinct (Late Pleistocene) Golden eagle
Giant crab-hawk[18] Buteogallus borrasi Cuba Extinct Great black hawk
Jamaican caracara Caracara tellustris Jamaica Extinct Caracaras
Eyles's harrier Circus eylesi New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1000) Swamp harrier
Gargano Island eagles Garganoaetus freudenthali

G. murivorus
Gargano Island Extinct (Late Miocene) Aquila delphinensis
Giant hawk Gigantohierax sp. Cuba Extinct Hawks
Harpagornis claw vs eagle.png
Haast's eagle
Harpagornis moorei New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1400) Little eagle

Booted eagle
Titan-hawk Titanohierax gloveralleni Cuba, Hispaniola and the Bahamas Extinct Hawks

Parrots[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Anakena Beach parrots Two unnamed species Easter Island Extinct Parrots
Lophopsittacus.jpg
Broad-billed parrot
Lophopsittacus mauritianus Mauritius Extinct (c. AD 1680) Psittaculine parrots
Strigops habroptilus 1.jpg
Kakapo
Strigops habroptila New Zealand Critically Endangered Parrots

Owls[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Candiacervus ropalophorus.jpg
Cretan owl
Athene cretensis Crete Extinct (Pleistocene) Little owl
Ornimegalonyx oteroi.jpg
Cuban giant owls
Ornimegalonyx spp. Cuba Extinct (Pleistocene) True owls
Tyto gigantea.JPG
Larger Gargano giant owl
Tyto gigantea Gargano Island Extinct (Late Miocene) Barn owls
Tyto pollens.jpg
Andros Island barn owl
Tyto pollens Andros Island, Bahamas Extinct (before AD 1600)
Rivero's barn owl Tyto riveroi Cuba Extinct
Tyto robusta.JPG
Lesser Gargano giant owl
Tyto robusta Gargano Island Extinct (Early Pliocene)

Storks[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Leptoptilos robustus.jpeg
Flores flightless stork[19]
Leptostilos robustus Flores Extinct (Late Pleistocene) Greater adjutant

Lesser adjutant

Caprimulgiformes[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
New Zealand owlet-nightjar Aegotheles novazelandiae New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1200) Australian owlet-nightjar
Aegothelessavesi.jpg
New Caledonian owlet-nightjar
Aegotheles savesi New Caledonia Critically endangered

Passeriforms[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
NovitatesZoologicae18 Pl02 Corvus moriorum.png
Chatham raven
Corvus moriorum Chatham Islands Extinct New Zealand raven
Emberiza alcoveri.jpg
Long-legged bunting
Emberiza alcoveri Tenerife Extinct (after AD 1) Cabanis's bunting

Yellowhammer
Giant nukupu'u Hemignathus vorpalis Hawaii Extinct (after AD 1000) Finches
Tasmanian superb fairywren Malurus cyaneus cyaneus Tasmania Least Concern Superb fairywren
Kangaroo Island superb fairywren Malurus cyaneus ashbyi Kangaroo Island Least Concern
Stout-legged wren Pachyplichas yaldwyni South Island of New Zealand Extinct Passeriforms
Silvereye, Capricorn.JPG
Capricorn silvereye
Zosterops lateralis chlorocephalus Capricorn and Bunker Group of the Australian Great Barrier Reef Unknown Silvereye

Reptiles[edit]

Pterosaurs[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Hatzegopteryx.png
Hatzegopteryx
H. thambema Hateg Island Extinct (Late Cretaceous) Quetzalcoatlus

Iguanids[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Brachylophus gibbonsi.JPG
Tongan giant iguana[20]
Brachylophus gibbonsi Tonga Extinct (c. 800 BC) South American iguanids
Lapitiguana impensa.JPG
Fijian giant iguana [21]
Lapitiguana impensa Fiji Extinct (c. 1000 BC)
Sauromalus hispidus - Reptilium Landau.jpg
Angel Island chuckwalla
Sauromalus hispidus Isla Ángel de la Guarda, Baja California Near Threatened Peninsular chuckwalla
San Esteban Island Chuckwalla.jpg
San Esteban chuckwalla
Sauromalus varius San Esteban Island, Baja California Endangered

Geckos[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Gecko de Delcourt Hoplodactylus delcourti GLAM MHNL 2016 3742.jpg
Delcourt's giant gekko
Hoplodactylus delcourti New Zealand Extinct (c. AD 1870) Diplodactylid geckos
Phelsuma gigas - Giant Rodrigues Gecko - extinct 2.jpg
Rodrigues giant day gecko
Phelsuma gigas Rodrigues Extinct (c. AD 1850) Day geckos
Rhacodactylus leachianus.jpg
New Caledonian giant gecko
Rhacodactylus leachianus New Caledonia Least Concern Diplodactylid geckos

Skinks[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Vaillant's mabuya Chioninia vaillanti Cape Verde Endangered Mabuyas
Leiolopisma mauritiana - memorial model - Ile aux Aigrettes.jpg
Mauritius giant skink
Leiolopisma mauritiana Mauritius Extinct (after AD 1600) New Zealand Leiolopisma skinks
Macroscincus coctei003.jpg
Cape Verde giant skink
Macroscincus coctei Cape Verde Extinct (after AD 1900) Mabuyas
Terror skink Phoboscincus bocourti Île des Pins off New Caledonia Endangered Skinks

Wall lizards[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
La Palma giant lizard Gallotia auaritae La Palma Critically endangered Mediterranean sandrunner lizards
Gallotia bravoana.jpg
La Gomera giant lizard
Gallotia bravoana Gomera Critically endangered
Gallotia goliath mummy 2.JPG
Tenerife giant lizard[22]
Gallotia goliath Tenerife Extinct (c. AD 1500)
Gallotia Simonyi at Centro de recuperación del lagarto gigante..jpg
El Hierro giant lizard
Gallotia simonyi El Hierro Critically endangered
Gallotia stehlini -Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain-8.jpg
Gran Canaria giant lizard
Gallotia stehlini Gran Canaria Least Concern

Snakes[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Angel de la Guarda Island speckled rattlesnake Crotalus mitchellii angelensis Isla Ángel de la Guarda off Baja California Least Concern Speckled rattlesnake
Tadanae-jima striped snake population[23] Elaphe quadrivirgata Tadanae-jima island off Tokyo Unknown Japanese striped snake
20060306 King Island Tiger Snake.jpg
Island tiger snake populations
Notechis scutatus Mount Chappell Island (Tasmania) and Williams Island, Hopkins Island and islands of the Nuyts Archipelago (South Australia)[24] Least Concern[25] Tiger snake
Isla Cerralvo long-nosed snake Rhinocheilus lecontei etheridgei Jacques Cousteau Island off Baja California Sur Unknown Long-nosed snake

Dubious examples[edit]

  • The Komodo dragon and a similar (extinct) giant monitor lizard from Timor have been regarded as examples of giant insular carnivores. Since islands tend to offer limited food and territory, their mammalian carnivores (if present) are usually smaller than continental ones. These cases involve ectothermic carnivores on islands too small to support much mammalian competition. However, these lizards are not as large as their extinct Australian relative Megalania, and it has been proposed based on fossil evidence that the ancestors of these varanids first evolved their large size in Australia and then dispersed to Indonesia.[26] If this is true, rather than being insular giants they would be viewed as examples of phyletic gigantism. Nevertheless, given that Australia is sometimes viewed as the world's largest island, the former view may still be valid.
  • Giant tortoises in the Galápagos Islands, the Seychelles, and formerly the Mascarenes and Canary Islands are often considered examples of island gigantism. However, during the Pleistocene, comparably sized or larger tortoises were present in Australia (Meiolania), southern Asia (Megalochelys), Madagascar (Dipsochelys), North[27] (Hesperotestudo) and South America[28] (Chelonoidis, the same genus now found in the Galápagos[29]), and on a number of other, more accessible islands.[27] In the late Pliocene they were also present in Africa[30] ("Geochelone" laetoliensis[31]). The present situation of large tortoises being only found on remote islands may reflect that these islands were discovered by humans fairly recently and have not been heavily populated, making their tortoises less subject to overexploitation.

Arthropods[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Birgus latro 2.jpg
Coconut crab
Birgus latro Indian Ocean islands and Polynesia[32] Unknown Coenobita hermit crabs
Wetapunga.jpg
Giant wetas
Deinacrida spp. New Zealand Variable South African king crickets
Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis 10June2011 PalmNursery.jpg
Lord Howe Island stick insect[33][34]
Dryococelus australis Lord Howe Island Critically endangered Phasmatid stick insects
Giant pseudoscorpion[35] Garypus titanius Boatswain Bird Island off Ascension Island Unknown Garypoid pseudoscorpions
Roachies.JPG
Madagascar hissing cockroaches
Gromphadorhina spp. Madagascar Least Concern Blaberid cockroaches
Labidura herculeana.jpg
Saint Helena earwig
Labidura herculeana Saint Helena Extinct (c. AD 1967) Labidura riparia
Sphaeromimus andohahela.jpg
Giant pill-millipedes of Madagascar
Microsphaerotherium spp.

Sphaeromimus spp.

Zoosphaerium spp.
Madagascar Unknown Giant pill-millipedes of India (Arthrosphaera)
Orsonwelles graphicus (Simon, 1900).jpg
Orsonwelles
Orsonwelles spp. Hawaii Unknown Money spiders
Conants Giant.jpg
Conant's giant Nihoa tree cricket
Thaumatogryllus conanti Nihoa Unknown Tree crickets
Taveuni longhorn beetle.jpg
Giant Fijian long-horned beetle[36]
Xixuthrus heros Viti Levu, Fiji Vulnerable Australasian Xixuthrus species
Taveuni beetle Xixuthrus terribilis Taveuni, Fiji Unknown

Gastropods[edit]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Paryphanta busbyi.jpg
Kauri land snails
Paryphanta spp.

Powelliphanta spp.
New Zealand Near Threatened Other rhytidids

Flora[edit]

In addition to size increase, island grass plants may also exhibit "insular woodiness". The most notable examples are the megaherbs of New Zealand's subantarctic islands.[37]

Example Binomial name Native range Current status Continental relatives
Anisotome latifolia.jpg
Campbell Island carrot
Anisotome latifolia Campbell and Auckland Islands Unknown Apiaceae
Bulbinella rossi and Australasian pipit.jpg
Ross lily
Bulbinella rossii Campbell and Auckland Islands Unknown New Zealand Maori Lily

South African Yellow Cat-tail
Black-eyed daisy Damnamenia vernicosa Auckland and Campbell Islands Unknown Astereae
Lodoicea Maldivica B.jpg
Coco de mer[38]
Lodoicea maldivica Seychelles Endangered Borassoid palms
Flora Antarctica Plate XXIV.XXV.jpg Pleurophyllum criniferum Antipodes, Auckland and Campbell Islands Unknown Cineraria
Pleurophyllum hookeri.jpg
Silver-leaf daisy
Pleurophyllum hookeri Macquarie Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands Unknown
Pleurophyllum speciosum (1).jpg
Campbell Island daisy
Pleurophyllum speciosum Campbell and Auckland Islands Unknown
Stilbocarpa polaris.jpg
Macquarie Island cabbage
Stilbocarpa polaris Macquarie Island and New Zealand subantarctic islands Vulnerable Araliaceae

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The reduction in predation on islands often also leads to tamer behavior of island prey species, a trend that has been analyzed in lizards.[2][3]
  2. ^ The earliest known New Zealand kiwi ancestor, a presumed recent arrival from Australia.[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Herczeg, G. B.; Gonda, A. L.; Merilä, J. (2009-07-16). "Evolution of Gigantism in Nine-Spined Sticklebacks". Evolution. 63 (12): 3190–3200. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00781.x.
  2. ^ Cooper, W. E.; Pyron, R. A.; Garland, T. (2014-01-08). "Island tameness: Living on islands reduces flight initiation distance". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 281 (1777): 20133019. doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.3019. PMC 3896029. PMID 24403345.
  3. ^ Yong, E. (2014-01-08). "Islands make animals tamer". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14462.
  4. ^ Jaffe, A. L.; Slater, G. J.; Alfaro, M. E. (2011-01-26). "The evolution of island gigantism and body size variation in tortoises and turtles". Biology Letters. 7 (4): 558–561. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.1084. PMC 3130210. PMID 21270022.
  5. ^ Barahona, F.; Evans, S.E.; Mateo, J.A.; Garcia-Marquez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, L.F. (March 2000). "Endemism, Gigantism and Extinction in Island Lizards: The Genus Gallotia on the Canary Islands". Journal of Zoology. 250 (3): 373–388. doi:10.1017/s0952836900003101.
  6. ^ a b Raia, P.; Meiri, S. (August 2006). "The island rule in large mammals: paleontology meets ecology". Evolution. 60 (8): 1731–1742. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2006.tb00516.x. Retrieved 2011-11-27.
  7. ^ Keehn, J. E.; Nieto, N. C.; Tracy, C. R.; Gienger, C. M.; Feldman, C. R. (2013-08-27). "Evolution on a desert island: Body size divergence between the reptiles of Nevada's Anaho Island and the mainland around Pyramid Lake". Journal of Zoology. 291 (4): 269–278. doi:10.1111/jzo.12066.
  8. ^ Lomolino, M. V. (2005-09-05). "Body size evolution in insular vertebrates: generality of the island rule". Journal of Biogeography. 32 (10): 1683–1699. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01314.x. Retrieved 2011-11-19.
  9. ^ Filin, I.; Ziv, Y. (2004). "New Theory of Insular Evolution: Unifying the Loss of Dispersability and Body-mass Change" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology Research. 6: 115–124.
  10. ^ http://www.mapama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/conservacion-de-especies-amenazadas/LIRON_tcm7-20977.pdf
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