Isle of Man
|Isle of Man
Ellan Vannin or Mannin
|Motto: "Quocunque Jeceris Stabit" (Latin)
"Whithersoever you throw it, it will stand"
|Anthem: "O Land of Our Birth"
"Arrane Ashoonagh dy Vannin" (Manx)
Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"
Location of the Isle of Man (red)
in the British Isles (red & grey)
and largest settlement
|Official languages||English, Manx|
|Government||Parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy with a de facto non-partisan democracy|
|-||Lord of Mann||Elizabeth II|
|-||Lieutenant Governor||Adam Wood|
|-||Chief Minister||Allan Bell|
|-||Upper house||Legislative Council|
|-||Lower house||House of Keys|
|-||Total||572 km2 (196th)
221 sq mi
|GDP (PPP)||2010 estimate|
|-||Total||£4.1 billion (162nd)|
|-||Per capita||$53,800 (11th/12th)|
very high · 14th
|Currency||Manx pound (official)
Pound sterling (also used) (GBP)
|Time zone||GMT (UTC)|
|-||Summer (DST)||WEST (UTC+1)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (AD)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||IM|
The Isle of Man (//; Manx: Ellan Vannin [ˈɛlʲən ˈvanɪn]), otherwise known simply as Mann (Manx: Mannin, IPA: [ˈmanɪn]), is a self-governing British Crown dependency located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann. The Lord of Mann is represented by a Lieutenant Governor, but its foreign relations and defence are the responsibility of the British Government.
The island has been inhabited by humans since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, and the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, gradually emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, the Norse began to settle there. Norse people from Scotland then established the Kingdom of the Isles. The King's title would then carry the suffix, "and the Isles". Magnus III, the King of Norway, was also known as "King of Mann and the Isles" as part of the Hebrides civilization between 1099 and 1103. A Norse-Gaelic culture arose and the island came under Norse control. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland, as formalised by the Treaty of Perth. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399. The lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain or its successor the United Kingdom, retaining its status as an internally self-governing Crown dependency.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Government
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
- 8 Culture
- 9 Notable residents
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
The Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning island, while Vannin is a mutation of Mannin, which may refer to Manannán mac Lir, see below. The earliest form of Man is Manu or Mana, which appears in the genitive case as Vaninn, hence Ellan Vannin "Island of Man".
The name enters recorded history as Mona (Julius Caesar, 54 BC), and is also recorded as Monapia or Monabia (Pliny the Elder, AD 77), Monœda (Ptolemy, AD 150), Mevania or Mænavia (Orosius, AD 416), and Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. Welsh records it as Manaw, and in the Sagas of Icelanders it is Mön.
Though the Isle of Man was never incorporated into the Roman Empire, the island was noted in the Classics where it was called variously Monapia, Mοναοιδα (Monaoida), Mοναρινα (Monarina), Menavi and Mevania. The Old Welsh and Old Irish names for the Isle of Man, Manau and Mano, also occur in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth. The name is probably connected with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn and possibly with the Celtic root reflected in Welsh mynydd, Breton menez, and Scottish Gaelic monadh, all of which mean "mountain" and probably derive from the Proto-Indo-European root *men-, "to tower". In this case, such a name may have referred to the island apparently rising out of the Irish Sea on the horizon.
Rising water levels cut the island off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC. Evidence suggests that colonisation of the island took place by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents lived in small huts, hunting, fishing and gathering their food. They used small tools made of flint or bone, examples of which have been found near the coast. Representatives of these artefacts are kept at the Manx Museum.
The Neolithic Period marked the coming of knowledge of farming, better stone tools and pottery. It was during this period that megalithic monuments began to appear around the island. Examples from this period can be found at Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, and Ballaharra Stones at St John's. This was not the only Neolithic culture: there were also the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures.
During the Bronze Age, the large communal tombs of the megalith builders were replaced with smaller burial mounds. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves along with ornamental containers. The Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside.
The Iron Age marked the beginning of Celtic cultural influence. Large hill forts appeared on hill summits, and smaller promontory forts along the coastal cliffs, while large timber-framed roundhouses were built. It is likely that the first Celts to inhabit the island were Britons speaking Common Brittonic. Around the 5th century AD, cultural influence from Ireland and migration precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, which is a Goidelic language closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic.
in 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands, including Mann, to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth but Scotland's rule over Mann did not become firmly established until 1275, when the Manx suffered defeat in the decisive Battle of Ronaldsway, near Castletown.
In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, and it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann sometimes experienced English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of lords and magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann.
In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained a nominal measure of Home Rule.
The Isle of Man is located in the middle of the northern Irish Sea, almost equidistant from England, Northern Ireland, Scotland (closest), and Wales (furthest). It is 52 kilometres (32 mi) long and, at its widest point, 22 kilometres (14 mi) wide. It has an area of around 572 square kilometres (221 sq mi). Besides the island of Mann itself, the political unit of the Isle of Man includes some nearby small islands: the seasonally inhabited Calf of Man, Chicken Rock on which stands an unmanned lighthouse, St Patrick's Isle and St Michael's Isle. Both of the latter are connected to the mainland by permanent roads/causeways.
Hills in the north and south are separated by a central valley. The northern plain, by contrast, is relatively flat, consisting mainly of deposits from glacial advances from western Scotland during colder times. There are more recently deposited shingle beaches at the Point of Ayre. The island has one mountain higher than 600 metres (2,000 ft), Snaefell, with a height of 620 metres (2,034 ft). According to an old saying, from the summit one can see six kingdoms: those of the Mann, Scotland, England, Ireland, Wales, and Heaven. Some versions add a seventh kingdom, that of the Sea, or Neptune.
At the 2011 census, the Isle of Man was home to 84,497 people, of whom 27,938 resided in the island's capital, Douglas and 9,273 in the adjoining village of Onchan. The population rose 5.5% between the 2006 and 2011 censuses. By country of birth, those born in the Isle of Man were the largest group (48.1%), while those born in the United Kingdom were the next largest group at 42.2% (35.9% in England, 3.2% in Scotland, 2% in Northern Ireland and 1.1% in Wales), 1.9% in the Republic of Ireland and 0.2% in the Channel Islands. The remaining 7.5% were born elsewhere in the world, with 2.4% coming from EU countries (other than the UK and Ireland). The census also reported 1,823 people who claim a knowledge of the Manx language.
The Isle of Man Full Census, last held in 2011, has been a decennial occurrence since 1821, with interim censuses being introduced from 1966. It is separate from, but similar to, the Census in the United Kingdom.
The 2001 census was conducted by the Economic Affairs Division of the Isle of Man Treasury, under the authority of the Census Act 1929.
The Isle of Man has a temperate climate with cool summers and mild winters. Average rainfall is higher than that of the British Isles, because the Isle of Man is far enough from Ireland for the prevailing south-westerly winds to accumulate moisture. Average rainfall is highest at Snaefell, where it is around 1,900 millimetres (75 in) a year. At lower levels it can be around 800 millimetres (31 in) a year. Temperatures remain fairly cool with the recorded maximum being 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) at Ronaldsway on 12 July 1983.
|Climate data for Isle of Man (Ronaldsway)|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.2
|Average low °C (°F)||3.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||82.6
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||14.0||10.6||11.8||9.9||9.7||9.8||9.0||10.8||11.1||14.1||15.2||13.9||140.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||54.1||77.9||115.9||171.2||227.6||203.4||197.4||184.9||138.9||103.6||63.5||46.0||1,584.6|
|Source: Met Office|
The United Kingdom is responsible for the island's defence and ultimately for good governance, and for representing the island in international forums, while the island's own parliament and government have competence over all domestic matters.
The island's parliament, Tynwald, has been in continuous existence since AD 979 or earlier, making it the oldest continuously governing body in the world. Tynwald is a bicameral or tricameral legislature, comprising the House of Keys (directly elected by universal suffrage with a voting age of 16 years old) and the Legislative Council (consisting of indirectly elected and ex-officio members). These two bodies meet together in joint session as Tynwald.
The executive branch of government is the Council of Ministers, which is composed of members of Tynwald. It is headed by the Chief Minister, currently Allan Bell MHK. The Council of Ministers comprises the greater part of the House of Keys.
External relations and security
Under British law, the Isle of Man is not part of the United Kingdom. However, the UK takes care of its external and defence affairs, and retains paramount power to legislate for the island. There are no independent military forces on the Isle of Man although HMS Ramsey is affiliated with the town of the same name. From 1938 to 1955 there was the Manx Regiment of the British Territorial Army, which saw extensive action during the Second World War. In 1779, the Manx Fencible Corps, a fencible regiment of three companies, was raised and disbanded in 1783 at the end of the American War of Independence. Later, the Royal Manx Fencibles was raised at the time of the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. The 1st Battalion (of 3 companies) was raised in 1793. A 2nd Battalion (of 10 companies) was raised in 1795, and it saw action during the Irish Rebellion of 1798. The regiment was disbanded in 1802. A third body of Manx Fencibles was raised in 1803 to defend the Island during the Napoleonic Wars and to assist the Revenue. It was disbanded in 1811.
The Isle of Man Government maintains five emergency services. These are:
- Isle of Man Constabulary (police)
- Isle of Man Coastguard
- Isle of Man Fire and Rescue Service
- Isle of Man Ambulance Service
- Isle of Man Civil Defence Corps
All of these services are controlled directly by the Isle of Man Government, and are independent of the United Kingdom. Nonetheless, the Isle of Man Constabulary voluntarily submits to inspection by the British inspectorate of police, and the Isle of Man Coastguard contracts Her Majesty's Coastguard (UK) for air-sea rescue operations.
Citizenship in the Isle of Man is governed by British law. Passports issued by the Isle of Man Passport Office say "British Islands – Isle of Man" on the cover but the nationality status stated on the passport is simply "British Citizen". Although Manx passport holders are British citizens, because the Isle of Man is not part of the European Union, people born on the Island without a parent or grandparent either born or resident for more than five consecutive years in the United Kingdom do not have the same rights as other British citizens with regard to employment and establishment in the EU. Isle of Man passports can be issued to any British citizen in the Isle of Man (whether or not that person has "Manx status" as an Isle of Man worker under the local Isle of Man employment laws). They can also be issued to Manx-connected British citizens residing in Britain or either of the other Crown Dependencies.
The Isle of Man holds neither membership nor associate membership of the European Union. Protocol 3 of the UK's Act of Accession to the Treaty of Rome included the Isle of Man within the EU's customs area, allowing for the trade for Manx goods without tariffs throughout the EU. However, there are still limitations on the movement of capital and services.
EU citizens are entitled to travel and reside, but not work, in the island without restriction. And Manx citizens—without the hereditary qualification outlined above—are similarly restricted from working in the EU.
Commonwealth of Nations
The Isle of Man is not itself a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. By virtue of its relationship with the United Kingdom, it takes part in several Commonwealth institutions, including the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Commonwealth Games. The Government of the Isle of Man has made calls for a more integrated relationship with the Commonwealth, including more direct representation and enhanced participation in Commonwealth organisations and meetings, including Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings. The Chief Minister of the Isle of Man has said: "A closer connection with the Commonwealth itself would be a welcome further development of the Island’s international relationships"
Most Manx politicians stand for election as independents rather than as representatives of political parties. Though political parties do exist, their influence is not nearly as strong as in the United Kingdom.
There are two political parties in the Isle of Man. The Liberal Vannin Party (established 2006) with two seats in the House of Keys; they promote greater Manx independence and more accountability in Government. The Manx Labour Party is the other, they hold one seat.
A number of pressure groups also exist on the island. Mec Vannin advocate the establishment of a sovereign republic. The Positive Action Group campaign for three key elements to be introduced into the governance of the island: open accountable government, rigorous control of public finances, and a fairer society.
Local government on the Isle of Man is based partly on the island's 17 ancient parishes. There are two types of local authorities: a corporation for the Borough of Douglas, and bodies of commissioners for the town districts of Castletown, Peel and Ramsey, the village districts of Kirk Michael, Laxey, Onchan, Port Erin and Port St Mary, and the 15 "parish districts" (those parishes or parts of parishes which do not fall within the districts previously mentioned). Local authorities are under the supervision of the Isle of Man Government's Department of Local Government and the Environment (DOLGE).
The Isle of Man is a low-tax economy with no capital gains tax, wealth tax, stamp duty, or inheritance tax and a top rate of income tax of 20%. A tax cap is in force; the maximum amount of tax payable by an individual is £115,000 or £230,000 for couples if they choose to have their incomes jointly assessed. The £115,000 tax cap equates to an assessable income of £589,550. Personal income is assessed and taxed on a total worldwide income basis rather than a remittance basis. This means that all income earned throughout the world is assessable for Manx tax rather than only income earned in or brought into the Island.
The rate of corporation tax is 0% for almost all types of income; the only exceptions are that the profits of banks are taxed at 10%, as is rental (or other) income from land and buildings situated on the Isle of Man.
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism form key sectors of the economy. Agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, now make declining contributions to the island's Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Trade takes place mostly with the United Kingdom. The island is in customs union with the UK, and related revenues are pooled and shared under the Common Purse Agreement. This means that the Isle of Man cannot have the lower excise revenues on alcohol and other goods that are enjoyed in the Channel Islands.
The Manx government promotes island locations for making films by contributing to the production costs. Since 1995, over eighty films have been made on the island. The policy has been criticized as unsustainable. Since 2007, the Isle of Man government invested £34 million in the film industry but recouped only £6.3 million, representing a loss of over £27 million.
The Isle of Man Government Lottery operated from 1986 to 1997. Since 2 December 1999 the island has participated in the United Kingdom National Lottery. The island is the only jurisdiction outside the United Kingdom where it is possible to play the UK National Lottery. Since 2010 it has also been possible for projects in the Isle of Man to receive national lottery Good Causes Funding. The good causes funding is distributed by the Manx Lottery Trust. Tynwald receives the 12p lottery duty for tickets sold in the Island.
The main telephone provider on the Isle of Man is Manx Telecom. At present, the island has two mobile operators: Manx Telecom, previously known as Manx Pronto, and Sure. For a short time, Cloud9 operated as a third mobile operator on the island, but has since withdrawn. Broadband internet services are available through four local providers which are Wi-Manx, Domicilium, Manx Computer Bureau and Manx Telecom. The island does not have its own ITU country code, but is accessed via the British country code (+44) and the island's telephone numbers are part of the British telephone numbering plan with local dialling codes 01624 for landlines and 07524, 07624 and 07924 for mobiles.
In 1996, the Isle of Man Government obtained permission to use the .im national top-level domain (TLD) and has ultimate responsibility for its use. The domain is managed on a daily basis by Domicilium, an island-based internet service provider.
In December 2007, the Manx Electricity Authority and its telecommunications subsidiary, e-llan Communications commissioned the laying of a new fibre-optic link that connects the island to a worldwide fibre-optic network.
There is no insular television service, and local transmitters retransmit British mainland digital broadcasts via the free-to-air digital terrestrial service Freeview. Isle of Man is part of the regions served by BBC North West for BBC One and BBC Two television services, and Granada Television for ITV.
Many television services are available by satellite, such as Sky, and Freesat from the group of satellites at 28.2° east, as well as services from a range of other satellites around Europe such as the Astra satellites at 19.2° east and Hotbird.
The Isle of Man has three newspapers, all weeklies, and all owned by Isle of Man Newspapers, a division of the Edinburgh media company Johnston Press. The Isle of Man Courier (distribution 36,318) is free and distributed to homes on the island. The other two newspapers are Isle of Man Examiner (circulation 13,276) and the Manx Independent (circulation 12,255).
The island has a total of 688 miles (1,107 km) of public roads, all of which are paved. In areas denoted by derestricted signs in the Isle of Man, there is no overriding national speed restriction; only local speed limits are set. Rules for reckless driving and most other driving regulations are enforced in a manner similar to the UK. One proposal currently under consideration by the Isle of Man Government to improve road safety is the introduction of compulsory vehicle tests (similar to MOT tests in the UK). There is a comprehensive bus network, operated by the government owned bus operator Bus Vannin.
The Isle of Man Sea Terminal in Douglas has frequent ferries to and from Heysham as well as frequent summer ferries to and from Liverpool with a more restricted timetable operating in winter. There are also limited summer-only services to and from Belfast and Dublin. The Dublin route also operates at Christmas. In conjunction with the Isle of Man TT a limited number of sailings operate to and from Larne in Northern Ireland. All ferries are operated by the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company.
The only commercial airport on the island is the Isle of Man Airport at Ronaldsway. There are scheduled and chartered flights to numerous airports in the United Kingdom and Ireland, as well as further afield. The Irish operator Aer Arann entered a code-sharing agreement with Abu Dhabi airliner Etihad Airways in 2009, which allows the booking of one-ticket flights from the Isle of Man.
The island used to have an extensive narrow-gauge railway system, both steam-operated and electric, but the majority of the steam railway tracks have been taken out of service and the track removed. Currently there is a steam railway which runs between Douglas and Port Erin, an electric railway between Douglas and Ramsey and an electric mountain railway which climbs Snaefell.
The Isle of Man has become a centre for emerging private space travel companies. A number of the competitors in the Google Lunar X Prize, a $30 million competition for the first privately funded team to send a robot to the moon, are based on the Island. The team summit for the X Prize was held on the Island in October 2010. In 2010 the Island was named the fifth most likely nation to reach the moon next. In January 2011 two research space stations owned by Excalibur Almaz arrived on the Island and were kept in an aircraft hangar at the airfield at the former RAF Jurby located near Jurby.
The culture of the Isle of Man is influenced by its Celtic, and to a lesser extent its Norse, origins. Proximity to the UK, popularity as a UK tourist destination, and mass immigration by British migrant workers has meant that British influence has been dominant since the Revestment period. Revival campaigns have attempted to preserve the surviving vestiges of Manx culture after a long period of Anglicisation, and significant interest in the Manx language, history and musical tradition has been the result.
The official language of the Isle of Man is English, while Manx Gaelic has also had official status since 1985. Manx has traditionally been spoken but is now considered "critically endangered".
Manx is a Goidelic Celtic language and is one of a number of insular Celtic languages spoken in the British Isles. Manx has been officially recognised as a legitimate autochthonous regional language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, ratified by the United Kingdom on 27 March 2001 on behalf of the Isle of Man government.
In Manx English, the greetings moghrey mie and fastyr mie, which mean good morning and good afternoon respectively, can also be heard. Like Irish and Scottish Gaelic, the English terms evening and afternoon are referred to with one word. Another term used in Manx English is traa dy liooar, meaning time enough, and represents a stereotypical view of the Manx attitude to life.
For centuries, the island's symbol has been the so-called "three legs of Mann" (Manx: Tree Cassyn Vannin), a triskelion of three legs conjoined at the thigh. The Manx triskelion, which dates with certainty to the late 13th century, is of an uncertain origin. It has been suggested that its origin lies in Sicily, an island which has been associated with triskelions since ancient times.
The symbol appears in the island's official flag and official coat of arms, as well as its currency. The Manx triskelion may be reflected in the island's motto, Latin: Quocunque jeceris stabit, which appears as part of the island's coat of arms. The Latin motto translates into English as "whichever way you throw, it will stand" or "whithersoever you throw it, it will stand". It dates to the late 17th century when it is known to have appeared on the island's coinage. The original meaning of the motto, however, may have referred to the poor quality of coinage which was common at the time—as in "however it is tested it will pass".
The predominant religious tradition of the island is Christianity. Before the Protestant Reformation, the island had a long history as part of Catholic Christendom, and in the years following the Reformation, the religious authorities on the island, and later the population of the island, accepted the religious authority of the British monarchy and the Church of England. It has also come under the influence of Irish religious tradition. The island forms a separate diocese called Sodor and Man, which once comprised the medieval kingdom of Man and the Isles ("Sudrys" in Old Norse). It now consists of 16 parishes, and since 1541 has formed part of the Province of York.
Other Christian churches also operate on the Isle of Man. The second largest denomination is the Methodist Church, whose Isle of Man District is close in numbers to the Anglican diocese. There are eight Roman Catholic parish churches, included in the Catholic Archdiocese of Liverpool, as well as a presence of Eastern Orthodox Christians. Additionally there are five Baptist churches, four Pentecostal churches, the Salvation Army, a ward of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, two congregations of Jehovah's Witnesses, two United Reformed churches, as well as other Christian churches. There is a small Muslim community, with its own mosque in Douglas, and there is also a small Jewish community.
Myth, legend and folklore
In Manx mythology, the island was ruled by Manannán mac Lir, a Celtic sea god who would draw his misty cloak around the island to protect it from invaders. One of the principal theories about the origin of the name Mann is that it is named after Manannán.
In the Manx tradition of folklore, there are many stories of mythical creatures and characters. These include the Buggane, a malevolent spirit who, according to legend, blew the roof off St Trinian's Church in a fit of rage; the Fenodyree; the Glashtyn; and the Moddey Dhoo, a ghostly black dog who wandered the walls and corridors of Peel Castle.
The Isle of Man is also said to be home to fairies, known locally as the little folk or themselves. There is a famous Fairy Bridge and it is said to be bad luck if one fails to wish the fairies good morning or afternoon when passing over it. It used to be a tradition to leave a coin on the bridge to ensure good luck. Other types of fairies are the Mi'raj and the Arkan Sonney.
An old Irish story tells how Lough Neagh was formed when Ireland's legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (commonly anglicised to Finn McCool) ripped up a portion of the land and tossed it at a Scottish rival. He missed, and the chunk of earth landed in the Irish Sea, thus creating the island.
The music of the Isle of Man reflects Celtic, Norse and other influences, including from its neighbours, Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales. A wide range of music is performed on the island, such as rock, blues, jazz and pop. However, its traditional folk music has undergone a revival since the 1970s, starting with a music festival called Yn Çhruinnaght in Ramsey. This was part of a general revival of the Manx language and culture after the death of the last native speaker of Manx in 1974. The Isle of Man was mentioned in the Who song "Happy Jack" as the homeland of the song's titular character, who is always in a state of ecstasy, no matter what happens to him.
In the past the basic national dish of the island was spuds and herrin, boiled potatoes and herring. This plain dish was supported by the subsistence farmers of the island, who crofted the land and fished the sea for centuries. A more recent claim for the title of national dish could be the ubiquitous chips, cheese and gravy. This dish, which is similar to poutine, is found in most of the island's fast-food outlets, and consists of thick cut chips, covered in shredded Cheddar cheese and topped with a thick gravy.
Seafood has traditionally accounted for a large proportion of the local diet. Although commercial fishing has declined in recent years, local delicacies include Manx kippers (smoked herring) which are produced by the smokeries in Peel on the west coast of the island, albeit mainly from North Sea herring these days. The smokeries also produce other specialities including smoked salmon and bacon.
Crab, lobster and scallops are commercially fished, and the Queen Scallop (Queenies) is regarded as a particular delicacy, with a light, sweet flavour. Cod, ling and mackerel are often angled for the table, and freshwater trout and salmon can be taken from the local rivers and lakes, supported by the Government fish hatchery at Cornaa on the east coast.
Cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are all commercially farmed; Manx lamb from the hill farms are a popular dish. The Loaghtan, the indigenous breed of Manx sheep, has a rich, dark meat that has found favour with chefs, featuring in dishes on the BBC's MasterChef series.
Manx cheese has also found some success, featuring smoked and herb-flavoured varieties and is stocked by many of the UK's supermarket chains. Manx cheese took bronze medals in the 2005 British Cheese Awards, and sold 578 tonnes over the year.
Beer is brewed on a commercial scale by Okells Brewery which was established in 1850 and is the largest brewer of the island, and also Bushy's Brewery and the Hooded Ram Brewery. The Isle of Man's Pure Beer Act of 1874, which resembles the German Reinheitsgebot is still in effect, according to which brewers can only use water, malt, sugar and hops in their brews.
The Isle of Man is represented as a nation in the Commonwealth Games and the Island Games and hosted the IV Commonwealth Youth Games in 2011. Manx athletes have won three gold medals at the Commonwealth Games, including the one by cyclist Mark Cavendish in 2006 in the Scratch race. The Island Games were first held on the island in 1985, and again in 2001.
Isle of Man teams and individuals participate in many sports both on and off the island including rugby union, football, gymnastics, field hockey, netball, Taekwondo, bowling, Obstacle Course Racing and cricket. It being an island, many types of watersports are also popular with residents.
The main international event associated with the island is the Isle of Man Tourist Trophy race, colloquially known as "The TT", which began in 1907. It takes place in late May and early June. The TT is now an international road racing event for motorcycles, which used to be part of the World Championship, and is long considered to be one of the "greatest motorcycle sporting events of the world". Taking place over a two-week period, it has become a festival for motorcycling culture, makes a huge contribution to the island’s economy and has become part of Manx identity. For many, the Isle carries the title "road racing capital of the world".
Prior to the introduction of football at the turn of the twentieth century, Cammag was the national sport of the Isle of Man. It is similar to the Irish hurling and the Scottish game of shinty. Nowadays it is an annual match at St John's.
The Isle of Man has two cinemas. The Broadway Cinema is located in the Government-owned and -run Villa Marina and Gaiety Theatre complex. It has a capacity of 154 and also doubles as a conference venue.
The Palace Cinema is located next to the derelict Castle Mona hotel and is operated by the Sefton Group. It has two screens, Screen One hold 293 customers, while Screen Two is smaller with a capacity of just 95. It was extensively refurbished in August 2011.
There are two domestic animals specifically connected to the Isle of Man, though they are also found elsewhere.
The Manx cat is a breed of cat noted for having a genetic mutation that causes it to have a shortened tail. The length of this tail can range from a few inches, known as a "stumpy", to being completely nonexistent, or "rumpy". Manx cats display a range of colours and usually have somewhat longer hind legs compared to most cats. The cats have been used as a symbol of the Isle of Man on coins and stamps and at one time the Manx government operated a breeding centre to ensure the continuation of the breed.
The Manx Loaghtan sheep is a breed native to the island. It has dark brown wool and four, or sometimes six horns. The meat is considered to be a delicacy. There are several flocks on the island and others have been started in England and Jersey.
- "Island Facts". Isle of Man Public Services (www.gov.im). Retrieved 15 September 2011.
- "Income inequalities". The Poverty Site. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- "Human Development Report 2010" (PDF). United Nations. p. 143 ff. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Ellan is Manx for "island"; Vannin is the genitive case of Mannin, and means "of Mann".
- Magnus 3 Olavsson Berrføtt – Norsk biografisk leksikon. Snl.no. Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
- Kinvig, R. H. (1975). The Isle of Man: A Social, Cultural and Political History (3rd ed.). Liverpool University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-85323-391-8.
- Kneale, Victor (2006). "Ellan Vannin (Isle of Man). Britonia". In Koch, John T. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 676.
- Moore 1903:84
- Sacheverell 1859:119–120
- Waldron 1726:1
- Kinvig, R.H. (1975). The Isle of Man. A Social, Cultural and Political History. (3rd ed.). Liverpool University Press. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-85323-391-8.
- Rivet, A.L.F. & Smith, Colin (1979). "The Place Names of Roman Britain". Batsford. pp. 410–411.
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 676. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 676. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.
- Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch: Record number 1277 (Root / lemma: men-1)
- Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO Ltd. p. 679. ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.
- Bradley, Richard (2007). The prehistory of Britain and Ireland. Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-84811-3.
- Manx Museum Mesolithic collections
- Manx Museum Neolithic collections
- Manx Museum Bronze Age collections
- Manx Museum Celtic Farmers (Iron Age) collections
- Geography – Isle of Man Public Services
- Archer, Mike (2010). Bird Observatories of Britain and Ireland (2nd ed.). A&C Black. ISBN 1-4081-1040-7.
- "Snaefell Mountain Railway". Isle of Man Guide. Maxima Systems Ltd. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
From the top on a clear day it is said one can see the six kingdoms. The kingdom of Scotland, England, Wales, Ireland, Mann and Heaven.
- "Snaefell Mountain Railway". visitisleofman.com. Isle of Man Government. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Snaefell Mountain Railway". Best Loved Hotels. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
- "Snaefell Summit". isle-of-man.com. Retrieved 5 June 2008.
It is the answer to the often posed question as to where can one see seven kingdoms at the same time? The seven Kingdoms being the four mentioned by Earl James, the Kingdom of Man, of Earth (in some answers that of Neptune) and of Heaven.
- Diane Pfister-Drews. "UW-Milwaukee: Center for Celtic Studies -- Home Page" (PDF). uwm.edu. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "Isle of Man Census 2011 – Summary Results" (PDF). Isle of Man Treasury. Isle of Man Government. April 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2014.
- "Ronaldsway 1981–2010 averages". Station, District and Regional Averages 1981–2010. Met Office. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
- Isle of Man Government website
- "Taking Liberties - Star Items - Chronicle of Mann". bl.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Royal Commission on the Constitution 1969–1973, Volume I, Report (Cmnd 5460) (Report). London. 1973.
- "HMS Ramsey". Royal Navy. 2009. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- "Regimental Museum – History". Isle of Man Guide. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- See The Forgotten Army: Fencible Regiments for more detail.
- Scobie, Ian Hamilton Mackay (1914). "An old highland fencible corps : the history of the Reay Fencible Highland Regiment of Foot, or Mackay's Highlanders, 1794-1802, with an account of its services in Ireland during the rebellion of 1798". Edinburgh: Blackwood. p. 363.
- "Regiments stationed on Isle of Man, 1765-1896". isle-of-man.com. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- The official Government web portal lists five emergency services here.
- "Welcome to the Isle of Man Constabulary". Isle of Man Constabulary accessdate = 11 September 2011.
- Manx government explanation of Protocol 3
- "Isle of Man Facts & Economic Data". Isle of Man Finance. Isle of Man Government. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "Immigration in the Isle of Man" (PDF). Isle of Man Government. October 2006. p. 12. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
- "The role and future of the Commonwealth". House of Commons. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Written evidence from the States of Guernsey". Policy Council of Guernsey. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Isle of Man welcomes report on Commonwealth future". Isle of Man Government. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Mec Vannin". mecvannin.im. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "PAG - Positive Action Group - Isle of Man - Positive Action Group - Isle of Man - Pag, Credit, Agreement, User, February". positiveactiongroup.org. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Department of Education and Children Home Page – Isle of Man Government Department of Education and Children. Gov.im. Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
- "Financial Services Sector - Isle of Man. Where You Can.". gov.im. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "Interview With Brian Donegan, Director Of Foreign Investment, Isle Of Man Government". OnlinePersonalsWatch. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- New Assessor of Income Tax – Isle of Man Government
- Forget Monaco: Isle of Man cuts tax to tempt super-rich – Tax, Money – Independent.co.uk
- Brooks, Xan (17 June 2011). "Isle of Man film industry loses £27m". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Can I Play The National Lottery On The Isle of Man?
- "UK National Lottery Diary". merseyworld.com. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- National Lottery FAQ:Can I play while overseas?
- "BBC News - Manx charities to benefit from lottery". BBC News. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "House of Lords - Constitution - Ninth Report". parliament.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "Manx Lottery Trust - About". mlt.org.im. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- "Our Business". Johnston Press. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Isle of Man Newspapers". Isle of Man Newspapers. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2008.
- Isle of Man – About the Island
- "Driving on the Isle of Man". Isle of Man Guide. Maxima Systems Ltd. 2005. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
- "Compulsory MOT tests in the Isle of Man". All about Isle of Man Cars. ChipManx Ltd. 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- Noonan, Laura (16 January 2009). "Aer Arann teams up with Etihad". Independent.ie. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- Goodman, Mike (22 July 2011). "Lift-off for Isle of Man's quest to join space race". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Lunar Entrepreneurs Converge on Isle of Man for Google Lunar X PRIZE Summit". Google Lunar X PRIZE. 18 October 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "How the Isle of Man has become a major player in space commerce". Isleofman.com. 15 October 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Research space stations arrive on Isle of Man". BBC. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – United Kingdom : Manx". UNHCR / Minority Rights Group International. 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- "UNESCO accepts Manx language is not 'extinct'". Isle of Man Government. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
- Carpenter, Rachel N. (2011). "Mind Your P’s and Q’s: Revisiting the Insular Celtic hypothesis through working towards an original phonetic reconstruction of Insular Celtic" (PDF). Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Kelly, Phil. "Manx today by Phil Kelly". BBC. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Davies, Alan (2007). An Introduction to Applied Linguistics (2nd The Manx ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-3354-8.
- "Manx Culture". visitisleofman.com. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- Arthur William, Moore (1971). The Folk-Lore of the Isle of Man (Reprint ed.). Forgotten Books. p. 274. ISBN 1-60506-183-2.
- "Moscow Manx cheese". iomtoday.co.im. 8 January 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- De Miro, Ernesto (2003). Fiorentini, Graziella; De Miro, Ernesto; Calderone, Anna; Caccamo Caltabiano, Maria, eds. Archeologia del Mediterraneo: studi in onore di Ernesto De Miro. L'Erma di Bretschneider. pp. 735–736. ISBN 978-88-8265-134-3.
- Kinvig, R.H. (1975). The Isle of Man: A social, cultural and political history. Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle. pp. 91–92. ISBN 0-8048-1165-2.
- "The Three Legs of Man". (www.isle-of-man.com). Retrieved 15 September 2011.. This webpage cited: Wagner, A.R. (1959–60). "The Origin of the Arms of Man". Manx Museum 6.. This webpage also cited: Megaw, B. R. S. (1959–60). "The Ship Seals of the Kings of Man". Manx Museum 6.
- Island Facts – Isle of Man Public Services. Gov.im (12 July 1996). Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
- Moore, A. "Diocesan Histories. Sodor and Mann.".
- A full list is given on the Diocesan Registry website.
- Act of Parliament (1541) 33 Hen.8 c.31
- See official entry in the Anglican Communion directory.
- Many religious organisations on the island are listed on the Isle of Man government site "Religious Faiths and Organisations".
- "Avalon's Location". electricscotland.com. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Isle of Man
- King Arthur, Norma Lorre Goodrich, Harper and Row, 1989, p. 318
- "Trad music in the Isle of Man". ceolas.org. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
- Isle of Man Cuisine
- American Motorcyclist Assoc (November 1971). American Motorcyclist. American Motorcyclist Assoc. p. 22. ISSN 0277-9358. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- Evans, Ann (2009). "Scallops the main ingredient of unique gathering for foodies; SUN, sea, sand and shellfish". Coventry Newspapers. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- Kallaway, Jane. "Award winning organic lamb". Langley Chase Organic Farm. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Purely Isle of Man" (PDF). Isle of Man Department of Finance. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Isle of Man Oak Smoked Mature Cheddar Wins Bronze Medal at The British Cheese Awards 2010". Isle News. 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Bumper Sales for Manx Cheese". iomtoday.co.im. 15 October 2003. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Success at World Cheese Awards". isleofman.com. 22 March 2007. Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Purely Isle of Man" (PDF). Purely Isle of Man. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Wright, David. 100 Years of the Isle of Man TT: A Century of Motorcycle Racing. The Crowood Press, 2007
- Disko, Sasha. The Image of the “Tourist Trophy” and British Motorcycling in the Weimar Republic. International Journal of Motorcycle Studies, Nov 2007
- Vaukins, Simon. The Isle of Man TT Races: Politics, Economics and National Identity. International Journal of Motorcycle Studies, Nov 2007
- Faragher, Martin. “Cultural History: Motor-Cycle Road Racing.” A New History of the Isle of Man Volume V: The Modern Period 1830–1999. Ed. John Belchem. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2000
- "2009 Manx Grand Prix", page 4 (archived link)
- "The Game of Cammag". Retrieved 12 September 2011.
- "Broadway Cinema". Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Cinemas Refurbishment". Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- "Origin of Manx cat breed".
- Moore, Arthur William (1903). Manx Names (Revised Cheap ed.). London: Elliot Stock (published 1906).
- Sacheverell, William (1859). Cumming, Joseph George, ed. An Account of the Isle of Man. Douglas: The Manx Society.
- Waldron, George (1726). Harrison, William, ed. A Description of the Isle of Man. Douglas: The Manx Society (published 1865).
- Russel, G. (1988). "Distribution and development of some Manx epiphyte populations". Helgolander Meeresunters. 42 (42): 477–492. Bibcode:1988HM.....42..477R. doi:10.1007/BF02365622.
- Goodwin Sarah (2011). A Brief History of the Isle of Man. Surrey: Loaghtan Books. ISBN 978-1-908060-00-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Isle of Man.|
- CIA World Factbook – Listing for the Isle of Man
- Isle of Man News
- Isle of Man (European Union) passport description in PRADO
- Manx Government A comprehensive site covering many aspects of Manx life from fishing to financial regulation
- Isle of Man Airport
- Information on the work and duties of Members of the House of Keys
- Images of the Isle of Man at the English Heritage Archive