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Ismail Gulgee (The Gulgeez)
25 October 1926
|Died||16 December 2007 (aged 81)|
|Known for||Calligraphy, Painting, Sculptures|
|Awards||Pride of Performance, Sitara-e-Imtiaz (twice), Hilal-e-Imtiaz|
Ismail Gulgee – The Gulgeez (25 October 1926 – 16 December 2007) Pride of Performance, Sitara-e-Imtiaz (twice), Hilal-e-Imtiaz, was a Pakistani artist born in Peshawar. He was a qualified engineer in the US and self-taught abstract painter and portrait painter. Before 1959, as portraitist, he painted the entire Afghan Royal Family. From about 1960 on, he was noted as an abstract painter influenced by the tradition of Islamic calligraphy and by the American "action painting" idiom.
Gulgee was born on 26 October 1926 at Karimpura locality in Peshawar, Pakistan. Initially, he went to Lawrence College Murree and then to Aligarh University to study civil engineering before heading off to the US for continuing his higher education. Gulgee started to paint while acquiring his training as an engineer in the United States at Columbia University and then Harvard. His first exhibition was in 1950.
Gulgee was a gifted and consummately skilled naturalistic portrait painter who had enjoyed (according to Partha Mitter) "lavish state support" and plenty of elite commissions in this capacity. Nevertheless, he was perhaps best known worldwide for his abstract work, which was inspired by Islamic calligraphy and was also influenced by the "action painting" movement of the 1950s and 1960s (Mitter notes that Elaine Hamilton was a strong influence in this direction). This is perhaps a natural enough stylistic combination since in both Islamic calligraphy and action painting a high value is placed on the unity and energy of gestural flow. As with the works of other action painters or abstract expressionists, Gulgee's canvases were often quite large. He was also known for using materials such as mirror glass and gold or silver leaf in his oil paintings, so that they were in fact mixed media pieces.
According to the Metropolitan Museum of Art (see external links): "Gulgee's calligraphy paintings are abstract and gestural interpretations of Arabic and Urdu letters. His sweeping layers of paint explore the formal qualities of oil paint while they make references to Islamic design elements." 
Beginning in the 1960s (if not earlier), Gulgee also created sculptures, including bronze pieces that were (like so many of his paintings) calligraphic in form and inspiration, and sometimes specifically based on verses from the Quran [source:artnet.com].
His paintings were bright and full of color, but the paint was put on with great sensitivity, and paintings vibrate with intense feeling. Areas sing with luminous, thin color; thick blobs of paint pulsate with fiberglass tears, the brush swirls strong and free. The total effect used to be very free, yet considered and well thought out. They work enormously well, because it was all orchestrated with great care and concentration.
[Note: the name is also spelled "Guljee", "Gulji", or "Gulgi" in some sources.]
International and special assignments
Guljee, as he was famously known, received many requests for his paintings internationally, from the Saudi royal family to the Islamabad presidency. Many of his works are placed in the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. Guljee received many awards, including from Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Japan and France.
Exhibition and personal life
Gulgee's exhibitions have mostly been available to few people. Keeping that in mind and high demand from public and lovers of his works, an art gallery for Gulgee has been built in Clifton, Karachi near South City Hospital and Sea View Karachi. Gulgee mostly painted for his own inspirations and vision. Although selected paintings are available for sale in Gulgee art gallery. Gulgee was last based in Boat Basin in Karachi. He has a son Amin Gulgee.
Gulgee, his wife Zarrin Gulgee and a maid were found dead by strangulation in their house on the evening of 19 December 2007 by his servants. Police suspect that all three had been murdered. While the bodies were found on the 19th, officials report that they had apparently been deceased for three days, leading to a speculative death date of 16 December 2007. Their bodies were found bound and gagged in separate rooms of the house. The initial cause of death for all three has been attributed to suffocation. According to press reports, his son reported that Gulgee's car and driver are missing. Gulgee was buried on the evening of 20 December 2007 in Karachi.
- Islamic calligraphy (primary source of inspiration for Gulgee's abstract works)
- Action painting (Gestural abstraction)
- Elaine Hamilton (American action painter and colleague who influenced Gulgee, according to Partha Mitter)
- Mixed media
- Abstract expressionism
- "Gulgee". kp.gov.pk.
- "Gulgee and his wife appeared to have been dead at least three days, police said". CBC News. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Amjad Ali, S. Gulgee, Versatile Artist. Islamabad: Idara Saqafat-e-Pakistan, 1984 OCLC 12811086 (Worldcat link: )
- Ismaili, Mohammad. Gulgee (Lahore: Ferozsons, 2000) ISBN 969-0-01428-5
- Mitter, Partha. Indian art (Oxford History of Art) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001) ISBN 0-19-284221-8 (This book deals with the history of art in the entire South Asian subcontinent, including what are today modern Pakistan and Bangladesh.)
- Naqvi, Akbar. Image and Identity: Fifty Years of Painting and Sculpture in Pakistan. (Karachi and New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
- Art Review (at getPakistan.com) 
- Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York): discussion of modern art in Pakistan (including COLOR IMAGE of a 1999 Gulgee work)
- In the Memory of Ismail Gulgee : A Website Dedicated to Ismail Gulgee
- Direct link to the Metropolitan Museum of Art discussion page on Gulgee's calligraphic painting entitled "Allah" (1999), with color image
- Royaat Gallery (Lahore, Pakistan): includes COLOR IMAGE of Gulgee work.
- Artnet Resource Library biography of Gulgee
- BBC News report, Dec. 19, 2007: "One of Pakistan's best known artists has been found murdered at his home in the southern city of Karachi along with his wife and a servant, police say...."