Ismat Chughtai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ismat Chughtai
IsmatChughtaiPic.jpg
Native name
عصمت چغتائ
Born(1915-08-21)21 August 1915
Badayun, United Province, British India
Died24 October 1991(1991-10-24) (aged 76)
Mumbai, India
Occupation
  • Writer
  • filmmaker
  • essayist
LanguageUrdu
NationalityIndian
Alma materAligarh Muslim University
Genre
  • Short stories
  • novel
  • plays
Notable worksWorks of Ismat Chughtai
SpouseShaheed Latif (1942–1967)
ChildrenSeema Sawhny
Sabrina Lateef

Ismat Chughtai (21 August 1915 – 24 October 1991) was an Indian Urdu language novelist, short story writer, and filmmaker. Beginning in the 1930s, she wrote extensively on themes including female sexuality and femininity, middle-class gentility, and class conflict, often from a Marxist perspective. With a style characterised by literary realism, Chughtai established herself as a significant voice in the Urdu literature of the twentieth century, and in 1976 was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India.

Biography[edit]

Early life and career beginnings (1915–41)[edit]

Ismat Chughtai was born on 21 August 1915 in Badayun, Uttar Pradesh to Nusrat Khanam and Mirza Qaseem Baig Chughtai; she was ninth of ten children–six brothers, four sisters.[1] The family shifted homes frequently as Chughtai's father was a civil servant; she spent her childhood in cities including Jodhpur, Agra, and Aligarh, mostly in the company of her brothers as her sisters had all got married while she was still very young. Chughtai described the influence of her brothers as an important factor which influenced her personality in her formative years. She thought of her second-eldest brother, Mirza Azim Beg Chughtai, a novelist, as a mentor. The family eventually settled in Agra, after Chughtai's father retired from the Indian Civil Services.[2]

Chughtai received her primary education at the Women's College at the Aligarh Muslim University and graduated from Isabella Thoburn College with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1940.[3] Despite strong resistance from her family, she completed her Bachelor of Education degree from the Aligarh Muslim University the following year.[2] It was during this period that Chughtai became associated with the Progressive Writers' Association, having attended her first meeting in 1936 where she met Rashid Jahan, one of the leading female writers involved with the movement, who was later credited for inspiring Chughtai to write "realistic, challenging female characters".[4][5] Chughtai began writing in private around the same time, but did not seek publication for her work until much later.[5]

When I started writing, there was a trend -- writing romantic things or writing like a Progressive. When I started to write, people were very shocked because I wrote very frankly [...] I didn't write what you'd call "literarily." I wrote and do write as I speak, in a very simple language, not the literary language.

—Chughtai on her early writings, in a 1972 interview with Mahfil.[6]

Chughtai wrote a drama entitled Fasādī (The Troublemaker) for the Urdu magazine Saqi in 1939, which was her first published work. Upon publication, readers mistook it as a play by Chughtai's brother Azeem Beg, written using a pseudonym.[7] Following that, she started writing for other publications and newspapers. Some of her early works included Bachpan (Childhood), an autobiographical piece, Kafir (Infidel), her first short-story, and Dheet (Stubborn), her only soliloquy, among others.[8] In response to a story that she wrote for a magazine, Chughtai was told that her work was blasphemous and insulted the Quran.[9] She, nonetheless, continued writing about "things she would hear of".[9]

Chughtai's continued association with the Progressive Writers' Movement had significant bearings on her writing style; she was particularly intrigued by Angaray, a compilation of short-stories written in Urdu by members of the group including Jahan, Sajjad Zaheer, Sahibzada Mahmuduzaffar and Ahmed Ali. Other early influences included such writers as William Sydney Porter, George Bernard Shaw, and Anton Chekhov.[9] Kalyān (Buds) and Cōtēn (Wounds), two of Chughtai's earliest collections of short stories, were published in 1941 and 1942 respectively.[8]

Chughtai's first novella Ziddi, which she had written on her early twenties was first published in 1941. The book chronicles the love affair between a woman, who works as domestic help in an affluent household and her employer's son. Chughtai later discussed the similarity in themes and style of the novel with the works of the romantic novelist Hijab Imtiaz Ali, citing her as another early influence. Commentators have praised the novella, both for its "compelling prose"[10] and for providing "[glimpses] into a world where women try to break out of the shackles created by other women, rather than men"[11]. Critic and short story writer Aamer Hussein, in a 2015 retrospective review, likened Chughtai's "oracular voice, which didn’t comment or explain, but studded the narrative with poetic observations" to that of American author Toni Morrison.[10] Ziddi was later translated into English as Wild at Heart and adapted into a 1948 feature film of the same name.[1]

Niche appreciation and transition to film (1942–60)[edit]

After completing her Bachelor's of Education degree, Chughtai successfully applied for the post of headmistress of an Aligarh-based Girls school. There, she met and developed a close friendship with Shaheed Latif, who was pursuing a master's degree at the Aligarh Muslim University at the time.[7] Chughtai continued to write for various publications during her stay at Aligarh. She found success with such short-stories as Gainda and Khidmatgaar and the play Intikhab, all of which were published during the period. [12] She then moved to Bombay in 1942 and began working as an Inspectress of schools.[7] Later that year, she married Latif, who was now working as a dialogue writer in Bollywood, in a private ceremony. Khwaja Ahmad Abbas was the legal witness to the ceremony.[1][13]

Chughtai garnered widespread attention for her short-story Lihaaf (The Quilt), which appeared in a 1942 issue of Adab-i-Latif, a Lahore-based literary journal.[2] Inspired by the rumoured affair of a begum and her masseuse in Aligarh, the story chronicles the sexual awakening of Begum Jan following her unhappy marriage with a nawab.[4] Upon release, Lihaaf attracted criticism for its suggestion of female homosexuality and a subsequent trial, with Chughtai being summoned by the Lahore High Court to defend herself against the charges of "obscenity".[14] Fellow writer and member of the Progressive Writers' Movement Sadat Hassan Manto was also charged with similar allegations for his short-story Bu (Odour) and accompanied Chughtai to Lahore.[15] The charges notwithstanding, both Chughtai and Manto were exonerated.[16]

The trial, which took place in 1945, itself drew much media and public attention and brought notoriety to the duo. Chughtai fared better in the public eye, having garnered support from such fellow members of the Progressive Writers' Movement as Majnun Gorakhpuri and Krishan Chander. Regardless, she detested the media coverage of the whole incident, which in her view weighted heavily upon her subsequent work; "[Lihaaf] brought me so much notoriety that I got sick of life. It became the proverbial stick to beat me with and whatever I wrote afterwards got crushed under its weight."[15]

We stood face to face during a dinner. I felt the ground under my feet receding. She cruised through the crowd, leaped at me and took me in her arms [...] I felt like throwing myself into someone’s arms and crying my heart out. She invited me to a fabulous dinner. I felt fully rewarded when I saw her flower-like boy. I felt he was mine as well. A part of my mind, a living product of my brain. An offspring of my pen.

—Chughtai on her meeting with the woman who was the inspiration behind Lihaaf

Chughtai, however, is known to have made her peace with the whole fiasco, having met the woman who had inspired Begum Jan a few years after the publication of Lihaaf. The woman told Chughtai that she had since divorced her husband, remarried and was raising a child with her second husband. Chughtai's biographers recall the meeting between the two women in Ismat: Her life, Her times: "[Chughtai] felt greatly rewarded when the begum told [her that Lihaaf] had changed her life and it is because of her story now she was blessed with a child".[17] Chughtai, who had been apprehensive about the meeting at first, later expressed her delight in a memoir, writing, "flowers can be made to bloom among rocks. The only condition is that one has to water the plant with one’s heart’s blood".[4]

Chughtai's quasi-autobiographical novel Tedhi Lakeer (The Crooked Line) was released in 1943.[8] She was pregnant with her daughter during the time. She recalled the difficult circumstances facing her during her work on the novel, in a 1972 interview with Mahfil: Journal of South Asian Literature: "[It was] during the war that I wrote my novel Terhi Lakeer, a big, thick novel. I was sick then, pregnant with my daughter. But I was always writing that novel".[6] The book chronicles the lives of the Muslim community, women in particular, in the backdrop of the waning British Raj.[18] Chughtai's exploration of the "inner realms of women’s lives" was well received by critics who variously described her work in Tedhi Lakeer as "probing and pertinent"[19] and "empowering".[20] She herself recalled her creative process in the 1972 interview, saying she found inspiration from the small incidents that she would witness around her and even the personal conversations that took place amongst the women in her family, "I write about people I know or have known. What should a writer write about anyway"?[6]

In the years following their marriage, Latif also introduced Chughtai to the Hindi film industry.[12] She began writing scripts in the late 1940s and made her debut as a screenwriter for Latif's drama film Ziddi. Starring Kamini Kaushal, Pran, and Dev Anand in his first major film role, Ziddi became one of the biggest commercial successes of 1948. It was based on the 1941 eponymous short story; Chughtai had rewritten the narrative in form of a screenplay for the production.[13][21] She then wrote the dialogue and screenplay for the 1950 romance drama film Arzoo, starring Kaushal and Dilip Kumar. Chughtai expanded her career into directing with the 1953 film Fareb, which featured an ensemble cast of Amar, Maya Daas, Kishore Kumar, Lalita Pawar, and Zohra Sehgal. Having again written the screenplay based on one of her short stories, Chughtai co-directed the film with Latif.[21] Upon release, both Arzoo and Fareb garnered positive response from the audience and performed well at the box-office.[22]

Chughtai's association with film solidified when she and Latif co-founded the production company Filmina.[8] Her first project as a filmmaker was the 1958 drama film Sone Ki Chidiya, which she wrote and co-produced. Starring Nutan and Talat Mahmood in lead roles, it told the story of a child actor, who was abused and exploited over the course of her career. The film was well received by audiences and the success translated directly into a rise in Chughtai's popularity, as noted by writer and critic Shams Kanwal.[23] Sone Ki Chidiya has been described as a significant production for "[chronicling] a heady time in Indian cinema" and showcasing the "grime behind the glamour" of the film industry.[24] Nutan, who garnered a good response for her performance in the film, herself described it as one of her favorite projects.[25] Also in 1958, Chughtai produced the Mahmood-Shyama starrer romance drama Lala Rukh.[26]

Chughtai continued writing short-stories during the time despite her commitment to film projects. Her fourth collection of short-stories Chui Mui (Touch-me-not) was released in 1952 to an enthusiastic response.[27] The eponymous short-story has been noted for its "pertinent dissection of our society"[28] and contesting the venerated tradition of motherhood, especially its equation of womanhood.[8] Rafay Mahmood highlighted, in a 2014 editorial, the relevance of the story in the twenty-first century. Chui Mui was adapted for stage by Naseeruddin Shah as a part of a commemorative series Ismat Apa Kay Naam, with his daughter Heeba Shah playing the central character in the production.[28]

Success with writing novels (1961–90)[edit]

Beginning in the 1960s, Chughtai wrote a total of eight novels, the first of which was Masooma (The Innocent Girl), published in 1962.[8] The film follows the life of a young actress, Nilofar, who is forced to work as call girl to sustain her family once her father abandons them. Set in the Bombay of 1950s, the novel delves into the themes of sexual exploitation and social and economic injustice.[29][30][31] Her next work, the 1966 novella Saudai (Obsession) was based on the screenplay of 1951 film Buzdil, which she co-wrote with Latif.[32] Commentators have noted that Saudai could never shed its structure and still read like a screenplay despite Chughtai's efforts.[33]

Following a lukewarm reception for both Masooma and Saudai,[2] Chughtai received significant praise for her fifth novel Dil ki Duniya (The Heart Breaks Free).[33][10] Reviewing the novel, observers have placed it second only to Tedhi Lakeer in the canon of her work.[10][34] Comparing the two, Hussein says, "if Tedhi Lakeer impressed me with its boldness, range and its credentials as a major novel, Dil ki Duniya's influence would linger with me forever, and I’d find its thematic and stylistic echoes in my own stories".[10]

Later years, critical reappraisals and subsequent acclaim (1990s and beyond)[edit]

Chughtai was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in the late 1980s, which limited her work thereafter.[35] She died at her house in Mumbai on 24 October 1991, following the prolonged illness.[36] Chughtai was known to have been averse of getting a burial, the common funeral practice in Islam. Rakhshanda Jalil quotes one of Chughtai's conversations with Qurratulain Hyder, a friend and contemporary writer in An Uncivil Woman: Writings on Ismat Chughtai, "I am very scared of the grave. They bury you beneath a pile of mud. One would suffocate [...] I’d rather be cremated."[37] As per most accounts, Chughtai was cremated at the Chandanwadi crematorium, in accordance with her last wishes.[36][38]

Following the translation of numerous of her works into English, a renewed interest in the Urdu literature of the twentieth century, and subsequent critical reappraisals, Chughtai's status as a writer rose.[a] Critical reappraisals for her works began with rereadings of Lihaaf, which in the intervening years has attached a greater significance; it was noted for its portrayal of the insulated life of a neglected wife in the feudal society and became a landmark for its early depiction of sex, still a taboo in modern Indian literature.[42] Lihaaf has since been widely anthologised, and following the critical reappraisals, has become one of Chughtai's most appreciated works.[1]

With more of her work being made available for reading to a wider audience over the years, criticism centered around the limited scope of Chughtai's writing has also subsided. In a 1993 retrospective piece, Naqvi also countered the perceived scope of Chughtai's writings, saying that her work was "neither confined to nor exhausted" by the themes central to Lihaaf: "she had much, much more to offer".[7]

Tedhi Lakeer, which has come to be regarded as Chughtai's magnum opus is now considered to be one of the most significant works of Urdu literature by commentators and various media outlets.[9][18][43] Critic and dramatist Shamim Hanfi gives it highest praise, saying that the novel, its first half in particular, matches up to the highest standards of world literature.[44] Hussein comparably calls it one of the best novels of Urdu language and notes that Chughtai combines all her literary influences and her own lived experiences to create a radical text. He likened the novel's framework to that of a bildungsroman and praised its examination of the nationalist and feminist issues of the period.[10] Commentators have also compared Chughtai's writing style in the novel to that of French writer and intellectual Simone de Beauvoir, based on the duo's existentialist and humanist affiliations.[8][10]

Influences and writing style[edit]

Chughtai was a liberal Muslim whose daughter, nephew & niece were married to Hindus. In her own words, Chughtai came from a family of "Hindus, Muslims and Christians who all live peacefully".[45] She said she read not only the Qur’an, but also the Gita and the Bible with openness.[45]

Chughtai's short stories reflected the cultural legacy of the region in which she lived. This was well demonstrated in her story "Sacred Duty", where she dealt with social pressures in India, alluding to specific national, religious and cultural traditions.[46][47]

In Chughtai's formative years, Nazar Sajjad Hyder had established herself an independent feminist voice, and the short stories of two very different women, Hijab Imtiaz Ali and Rashid Jehan, were also a significant early influence.[48]

Many of her writings, including Angarey and Lihaaf, were banned in South Asia because their reformist and feminist content offended conservatives (for example, her view that the Niqab, the veil worn by women in Muslim societies, should be discouraged for Muslim women because it is oppressive and feudal[49]). Many of her books have been banned at various times.[citation needed]

In popular culture[edit]

Publications on Ismat Chughtai[edit]

  • Ismat: Her Life, Her Times. Sukrita Paul Kumar, Katha, New Delhi,2000. ISBN 81-85586-97-7.
  • Ismat Chughtai, A Fearless Voice. Manjulaa Negi, Rupa and Co, 2003.81-29101-53-X.
  • "Torchbearer of a literary revolution". The Hindu, Sunday, 21 May 2000.[1]
  • Kashmir Uzma Urdu weekly, Srinagar, 27 December 2004, 2 January 2005.[2]
  • "Ismat Chughtai – Pakistan-India (1915–1991)", World People, 5 May 2006.[3]
  • Eyad N. Al-Samman, "Ismat Chughtai: An Iconoclast Muslim Dame of Urdu Fiction", Yemem Times, 13 April 2009

Bibliography[edit]

Filmography[edit]

Film
Year Title Role Notes
1948 Shikayat Dialogue writer
1948 Ziddi
1950 Arzoo
1951 Buzdil
1952 Sheesha
1953 Fareb Also co-director
1954 Darwaza
1955 Society
1958 Sone Ki Chidiya Also producer
1958 Lala Rukh Also co-director and producer
1966 Baharen Phir Bhi Ayengi
1973 Garam Hawa Filmfare Best Story Award (shared with Kaifi Azmi)
1978 Junoon Miriam Labadoor Cameo appearance

Awards and honours[edit]

Year Work Award Category Result Ref.
1974 Terhi Lakeer Ghalib Award Best Urdu Drama Won [50]
1974/75 Garam Hawa National Film Awards Best Story Won
Filmfare Award Best Story Won
Government of India State Award Won
1976 Indian civilian awards Padma Shri Won [51]
1979 Andhra Pradesh Urdu Akademi Award Makhdoom Literary Award Won
1982 Soviet Land Nehru Award Won [52]
1990 Rajasthan Urdu Akademi Iqbal Samman Won [52]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Gopal, Priyamvada (2012). Literary Radicalism in India: Gender, Nation and the Transition to Independence. Routledge Press. pp. 83–84. ISBN 978-1-134-33253-3. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Parekh, Rauf (30 August 2015). "Essay: Ismat Chughtai: her life, thought and art". Dawn. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  3. ^ Bhandare, Namita (11 November 2014). "The fine print of the AMU Library row". Mint. Archived from the original on 12 October 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  4. ^ a b c Bahuguna, Urvashi (15 August 2017). "Born on India's future Independence Day, Ismat Chughtai wrote of the world she saw, not aspired to". Scroll.in. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  5. ^ a b McLain, Karline. "The Fantastic as Frontier: Realism, the Fantastic and Transgression in Mid-Twentiet century Urdu fiction" (PDF). University of Texas, Austin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  6. ^ a b c Coppola, Carlo (1972). "Interview with Ismat Chughtai". Mahfil (Vol. 8 no. 2-3): 169. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Naqvi, Tahira (1993). "Ismat Chughtai–A Tribute" (PDF). Annual of Urdu Studies Vol. 8. University of Wisconsin. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Bano, Farhat (2013). "The emergence of feminist consciousness among Muslim women the case of Aligarh" (PDF). University of Calcutta. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018 – via Shodhganga.
  9. ^ a b c d Patel, Aakar (14 August 2015). "Ismat Chughtai's fearless pen". Livemint. Archived from the original on 26 April 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Hussein, Aamer (4 August 2015). "How long can a river be held back by a dam?". Kindle Magazine. Archived from the original on 4 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  11. ^ Afif Siddiqi, Shams (5 September 2014). "The realm of the heart". The Telegraph. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  12. ^ a b Gupta, Neeta. "The Short Stories". School of Open Learning. Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  13. ^ a b c Kumar, Kuldeep (20 January 2017). "Remembering a trailblazer". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  14. ^ Mitra, Ipshita (28 September 2012). "The same-sex appeal in literature". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  15. ^ a b Asaduddin, M (1 April 2012). "Dude, it's not lewd". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  16. ^ Shamsie, Muneeza (27 November 2016). "The feminist voice of Ismat Chughtai". Dawn. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  17. ^ Paul Kumar, Sukrita; Sadique, Sadique (2000). Ismat: Her Life, Her Times. Katha Books. p. 65. ISBN 9788185586977. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  18. ^ a b "Ismat Chughtai birth anniversary: A look at her memorable work". The Indian Express. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  19. ^ Zakaria, Rafia (26 October 2013). "Ismat Chughtai: The inner worlds of educated women". Dawn. Archived from the original on 20 April 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  20. ^ Gautam, Nishtha (22 August 2015). "Ismat Chughtai, thank you for being our Tedhi Lakeer". DailyO. Archived from the original on 6 May 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  21. ^ a b Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (2014). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 9781135943189. Archived from the original on 7 May 2018.
  22. ^ Hyder, Qurratulain (25 August 2017). "Ismat Chughtai dared to raise the veil of hypocrisies in Indian society". DailyO. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  23. ^ Sadique, Daktar; Paul Kumar, Sukrita (2000). Ismat: Her Life, Her Times. Katha Books. p. 92. ISBN 9788185586977. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  24. ^ Gahlot, Deepa (2015). Take-2: 50 Films That Deserve a New Audience. Hay House, Inc. ISBN 9789384544850. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Forever Nutan". Rediff.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  26. ^ Somaaya, Bhawana (2016). Once Upon a Time in India: A Century of Indian Cinema. Random House India. ISBN 9789385990403. Archived from the original on 12 May 2018.
  27. ^ Tharu, Susie J.; Lalita, Ke (1991). Women Writing in India: The twentieth centvcbvcbvury. The Feminist Press. p. 128. ISBN 9781558610293.
  28. ^ a b Mahmood, Rafay (6 March 2014). "Ismat Apa Kay Naam: The Shahs take the stage". The Express Tribune. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  29. ^ Wadehra, Randeep (7 August 2011). "Sexploitation, cops and verse". The Tribune. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  30. ^ Jalil, Rakhshanda (12 June 2012). "Masooma by Ismat Chughtai - A review". The Biblio. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  31. ^ Hussein, Aamer. "Aamer Hussein reviews Ismat Chughtai's Short Stories". Asymptote. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
  32. ^ Chughtai, Ismat (2015). A Chughtai Quartet: Obsession, The Wild One, Wild Pigeons, The Heart Breaks Free. Women Unlimited. p. 3. ISBN 9789385606045.
  33. ^ a b "Four Novellas By Ismat Chughtai Now Available in Collection". Outlook. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  34. ^ "Four Novellas By Ismat Chughtai Now Available in Collection". Outlook. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  35. ^ "Remembering Midnight's Magnificent Daughter Ismat Chughtai on Her Birth Anniversary". The Wire. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  36. ^ a b Shah, Noor (15 February 2005). "Ismat Chughtai — her life and ideals". The Milli Gazette. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  37. ^ Hyder, Qurratulain. "Ismat Chughtai dared to raise the veil of hypocrisies in Indian society". DailyO. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  38. ^ Naqvi, Tahira (14 August 2015). "The Beguiling Ismat Chugtai, Through Her Own Words". The Wire. Retrieved 19 September 2019.
  39. ^ Jalil, Rakhshanda (4 August 2015). "The Crooked Line". Kindle Magazine . Archived from the original on 7 May 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  40. ^ Bhagat, Rasheeda (29 March 2012). "The powerful isms of Ismat". Hindu Business Line. Retrieved 15 September 2019.
  41. ^ Nair, Malini (15 March 2015). "Rediscovering the rebel". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 25 December 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  42. ^ Kumar Das, Sisir (1 January 1995). History of Indian Literature: 1911-1956, struggle for freedom : triumph and tragedy. Sahitya Akademi. p. 348. ISBN 978-81-7201-798-9.
  43. ^ "Who was Ismat Chughtai". The Indian Express. 21 August 2018. Archived from the original on 15 April 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  44. ^ "Shamim Hanfi on Chughtai". Sahapedia. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2019 – via YouTube.
  45. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2007.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  46. ^ "Ismat Chughtai". Goodreads. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  47. ^ "How Ismat Chughtai Stood Up for Freedom of Speech". The Wire. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
  48. ^ "Ismat Chughtai". SAWNET.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  49. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 August 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  50. ^ "List of winners of Ghalib Award in Urdu, 1976 onwards". Ghalib Institute. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2018.
  51. ^ "Previous Awardees". Padma Awards. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  52. ^ a b Khan, Hafiza Nilofar (2008). Treatment of a Wife's Body in the Fiction of Indian Sub-Continental Muslim Women Writers. (The University of Southern Mississippi, PhD dissertation). p. 11. OCLC 420600128.

External links[edit]