Isobutanol

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Isobutanol
Skeletal formula of isobutanol
Ball-and-stick model of isobutanol
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
2-Methylpropan-1-ol
Other names
Isobutyl alcohol
IBA
2-Methyl-1-propanol
2-Methylpropyl alcohol
Isopropylcarbinol
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.044
EC Number 201-148-0
KEGG
RTECS number NP9625000
UNII
Properties[3]
C4H10O
Molar mass 74.122 g/mol
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor sweet, musty[1]
Density 0.802 g/cm3, liquid
Melting point −108 °C (−162 °F; 165 K)
Boiling point 107.89 °C (226.20 °F; 381.04 K)
8.7 mL/100 mL[2]
log P 0.8
Vapor pressure 9 mmHg (20°C)[1]
1.3959
Viscosity 3.95 cP at 20 °C
Hazards[3]
Safety data sheet ICSC 0113
Irritant (Xi)
R-phrases (outdated) R10 R37/38 R41, R67
S-phrases (outdated) (S2) S7/9 S13 S26 S37/39 S46
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g. gasolineHealth code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentineReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
3
1
0
Flash point 28 °C (82 °F; 301 K)
415 °C (779 °F; 688 K)
Explosive limits 1.7–10.9%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
3750 mg/kg (rabbit, oral)
2460 mg/kg (rat, oral)[4]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 100 ppm (300 mg/m3)[1]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 50 ppm (150 mg/m3)[1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
1600 ppm[1]
Related compounds
Related butanols
n-Butanol
sec-Butanol
tert-Butanol
Related compounds
Isobutyraldehyde
Isobutyric acid
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methylpropan-1-ol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CHCH2OH (sometimes represented as i-BuOH). This colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic smell is mainly used as a solvent either directly or as its esters. Its isomers, the other butanols, include n-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol, all of which are important industrially.[5]

Production[edit]

Isobutanol is produced by the carbonylation of propylene. Two methods are practiced industrially, hydroformylation is more common and generates a mixture of isobutyraldehydes:

CH3CH=CH2 + CO + H2 → CH3CH2CH2CHO

The reaction is catalyzed by cobalt or rhodium complexes. The resulting aldehyde are subsequentlyhydrogenated to the alcohols, which are then separated. In Reppe carbonylation, the same products are obtained, but the hydrogenation is effected by the water-gas shift reaction.[5]

Biosynthesis of isobutanol[edit]

E. coli as well as several other organisms has been genetically modified to produce C4 alcohols from glucose, including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol. The host's highly active amino acid biosynthetic pathway is shifted to alcohol production.[6]

Applications[edit]

The uses of isobutanol and n-butanol are similar. They are often used interchangeably. The main applications are as varnishes and precursors to esters, which are useful solvents, e.g. isobutyl acetate. Isobutyl esters of phthalic, adipic, and related dicarboxylic acids are common plasticizers.[5] Isobutanol is also a component of some biofuels.[7]

Safety and regulation[edit]

Isobutanol is one of the least toxic of the butanols with an LD50 of 2460 mg/kg (rat, oral).[5]

In March 2009, the Canadian government announced a ban on isobutanol use in cosmetics.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0352". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. ^ "Iso-butanol". ChemicalLand21.
  3. ^ a b Isobutanol, International Chemical Safety Card 0113, Geneva: International Programme on Chemical Safety, April 2005.
  4. ^ "Isobutyl alcohol". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  5. ^ a b c d Hahn, Heinz-Dieter; Dämbkes, Georg; Rupprich, Norbert (2005). "Butanols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_463..
  6. ^ Atsumi, Shota; Hanai, Taizo; Liao, James C. (January 2008). "Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as biofuels". Nature. 451 (7174): 86–89. Bibcode:2008Natur.451...86A. doi:10.1038/nature06450. PMID 18172501.
  7. ^ Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Zhang, Fuzhong; del Cardayre, Stephen B.; Keasling, Jay D.; Del Cardayre, Stephen B.; Keasling, Jay D. (15 August 2012). "Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels". Nature. 488 (7411): 320–328. Bibcode:2012Natur.488..320P. doi:10.1038/nature11478. PMID 22895337.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ "Cosmetic Chemicals Banned in Canada", Chem. Eng. News, 87 (11): 38, 2009-03-16.

External links[edit]