Isoetes valida

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Isoetes valida

Apparently Secure (NatureServe)[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Lycopodiophyta
Class: Isoetopsida
Order: Isoetales
Family: Isoetaceae
Genus: Isoetes
Species: I. valida
Binomial name
Isoetes valida
(Engelm.) Clute

I. caroliniana
I. engelmannii var. caroliniana
I. engelmannii var. valida

Isoetes valida, commonly known as the strong quillwort or true quillwort, is an aquatic pteridophyte native to eastern North America. It is found primarily in the Appalachian Mountains from Pennsylvania south to Alabama and Georgia. In addition, one collection of the plant was made in a railway ditch in Wilmington, Delaware in the 1860s, but this was most likely an accidental introduction.[2][3]


  1. ^ "Isoetes valida". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2007-12-20. 
  2. ^ Brunton, Daniel F.; Britton, Donald M.; Britton, Donald M (1996), "Taxonomy and Distribution of Isoetes valida", American Fern Journal, American Fern Society, 86 (1): 16–25, doi:10.2307/1547604, JSTOR 1547604 
  3. ^ Taylor, W. Carl; Luebke, Neil T.; Britton, Donald M.; Hickey, R. James; Brunton, Daniel F. (1993), "Isoetes caroliniana", in Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+, Flora of North America, 2, New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press 

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