Isolated brain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

An isolated brain is a brain kept alive in vitro, either by perfusion by a blood substitute, often an oxygenated solution of various salts, or by submerging the brain in oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).[1] It is the biological counterpart of brain in a vat. A related concept, attaching the brain or head to the circulatory system of another organism, is called a head transplant. An isolated brain however is more typically attached to an artificial perfusion device rather than a biological body.

The brains of many different organisms have been kept alive in-vitro for hours, or in some cases days. The central nervous system of invertebrate animals is often easily maintained as they need less oxygen and to a larger extent get their oxygen from CSF; for this reason their brains are more easily maintained without perfusion.[2] Mammalian brains on the other hand have a much lesser degree of survival without perfusion and an artificial blood perfusate is usually used.

For methodological reasons, most research on isolated mammalian brains has been done with guinea pigs. These animals have a significantly larger basilar artery (a major artery of the brain) compared to rats and mice, which makes cannulation (to supply CSF) much easier.

History[edit]

  • 1812 – Julien Jean César Le Gallois (a.k.a. Legallois) put forth the original idea for resuscitating severed heads through the use of blood transfusion.[3]
  • 1818 – Mary Shelley published Frankenstein; or, the Modern Prometheus.
  • 1836 – Astley Cooper showed in rabbits that compression of the carotid and vertebral arteries leads to death of an animal; such deaths can be prevented if the circulation of oxygenated blood to the brain is rapidly restored.[4]
  • 1857 – Charles Brown-Sequard decapitated a dog, waited ten minutes, attached four rubber tubes to the arterial trunks of the head, and injected blood containing oxygen by means of a syringe. Two or three minutes later voluntary movements of the eyes and muscles of the muzzle resumed. After cessation of oxygenated blood transfusion movements stopped.[5]
  • 1887 – Jean Baptiste Vincent Laborde made what appears to be first recorded attempt to revive the heads of executed criminals by connecting the carotid artery of the severed human head to the carotid artery of a large dog.[6] According to Laborde's account, in isolated experiments a partial restoration of brain function was attained.[6]
  • 1912 – Corneille Heymans maintained life in an isolated dog's head by connecting the carotid artery and jugular vein of the severed head to the carotid artery and jugular vein of another dog. Partial functioning in the severed head was maintained for a few hours.[7]
  • 1928 – Sergey Bryukhonenko showed life could be maintained in the severed head of a dog by connecting the carotid artery and jugular vein to an artificial circulation machine.[8][9][10]
  • 1963 – Robert J. White isolated the brain from one monkey and attached it to the circulatory system of another animal.[11]

In philosophy[edit]

In philosophy, the brain in a vat is any of a variety of thought experiments intended to draw out certain features of our ideas about knowledge, reality, truth, mind, and meaning. A contemporary version of the argument originally given by Descartes in Meditations on First Philosophy (i.e., that he could not trust his perceptions on the grounds that an evil demon might, conceivably, be controlling his every experience), the brain in a vat is the idea that a brain can be fooled into anything when fed appropriate stimuli.

The inherently philosophical idea has also become a staple of many science fiction stories, with many such stories involving a mad scientist who might remove a person's brain from the body, suspend it in a vat of life-sustaining liquid, and connect its neurons by wires to a supercomputer which would provide it with electrical impulses identical to those the brain normally receives. According to such science fiction stories, the computer would then be simulating a virtual reality (including appropriate responses to the brain's own output) and the person with the "disembodied" brain would continue to have perfectly normal conscious experiences without these being related to objects or events in the real world.

No such procedure in humans has ever been reported by a research paper in a scholarly journal, or other reliable source. Also, the ability to send external electric signals to the brain of a sort that the brain can interpret, and the ability to communicate thoughts or perceptions to any external entity by wire, is, except for very basic commands, well beyond current (2016) technology.

Growing an isolated brain[edit]

Isolated biological "brains", grown from cultured neurons which were originally separated, have been developed. These are not the same thing as the brains of organisms, but they have been used to control some simple robotic systems.

In 2004 Thomas DeMarse and Karl Dockendorf made an adaptive flight control with living neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays.[12][13]

Teams at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Reading have created neurological entities integrated with a robot body. The brain receives input from sensors on the robot body and the resultant output from the brain provides the robot's only motor signals.[14][15]

Isolated brains in fiction[edit]

The concept of a brain in a jar (or brain in a vat) is a common theme in science fiction:

  • More Fun #62 ( Dec. 1940) had the Spectre battle a human brain in a vat that had developed enormous powers and become mobile and sprouted an arm.
  • The final novel in C.S. Lewis's "Space Trilogy," That Hideous Strength, uses the isolated brain of Francois Alcasan, an Algerian radiologist guillotined for murder, as a plot device. At some point in the novel, it is revealed that Alcasan's artificially-perfused head is used to allow evil intelligence to communicate with humans directly.
  • Many people in the Ghost in the Shell manga and anime franchise possess cyberbrains, which can sustain a modified human brain within a cybernetic body indefinitely.
  • In Alexander Beliaev's novel Head of Prof. Dowell (1925), Professor Dowell discovers a way of keeping heads of dead people alive and even to give them new bodies. After his death Dowell himself becomes a subject of such an experiment
  • In Donovan's Brain (see term), the 1942 science fiction novel by Curt Siodmak (filmed three times in different versions: 1942, 1953 and 1962), the brain of a ruthless millionaire is kept alive in a tank where it grows to monstrous proportions and powers.
  • In Madeleine L'Engle's novel A Wrinkle in Time (1963), the character IT is a disembodied telepathic brain that dominates the planet of Camazotz.
  • A brainship is a fictional concept of an interstellar starship. A brainship is made by inserting the disembodied brain and nervous system or malformed body of a human being into a life-support system, and connecting it surgically to a series of computers via delicate synaptic connections (a Brain–computer interface.) The brain "feels" the ship (or any other connected peripherals) as part of its own body. An example, The Ship Who Sang (1969) short story collection by science fiction author Anne McCaffrey is about the brainship Helva.
  • The 2011 web series The Mercury Men features a brain in a jar[16] ("The Battery") that can communicate telepathically and over a walkie-talkie-like devices and is revealed to control the "mercury men" for a catastrophic plan to destroy Earth.[17][18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ von Bohlen and Halbach O. The isolated mammalian brain: an in vivo preparation suitable for pathway tracing. Eur J Neurosci. 1999 Mar;11(3):1096-100. PMID 10103102
  2. ^ Luksch H, Walkowiak W, Muñoz A, ten Donkelaar HJ. The use of in vitro preparations of the isolated amphibian central nervous system in neuroanatomy and electrophysiology. J Neurosci Methods. 1996 Dec;70(1):91–102. PMID 8982986
  3. ^ Google Scholar:("Le Gallois" OR Legallois) 1812
  4. ^ Holmes R. L., Wolstencroft J. H. (1959). "Accessory sources of blood supply to the brain of the cat" (PDF). J Physiol 148: 93–107. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1959.sp006275. PMC 1363110. PMID 14402794. 
  5. ^ Brown-Sequard C (1858). "Recherches expérimentales sur les propriétés physiologique et les usages du sang rouge et du sang noir et de leurs principaux éléments gazeux, l'oxygène et l'acide carbonique". Journal de la physiologie l'homme et des animaux 1: 95–122. 353–367, 729–735. 
  6. ^ a b Sam Boykin. "So you're dead. now what? Things That Can Happen To Your Body After You're Gone". Creative Loafing Atlanta. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  7. ^ Heymans' biography
  8. ^ "Sergej Sergejewitsch Brychonenko". Archived from the original on 2007-01-21. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 
  9. ^ "Museum of Cardiovascular Surgery". Archived from the original on 2006-02-08. Retrieved 2006-03-06. 
  10. ^ "Карта сайта". 
  11. ^ Pace, Eric (November 25, 1998). "Vladimir P. Demikhov, 82, Pioneer in Transplants, Dies". New York Times. 
  12. ^ Thomas DeMarse, Karl Dockendorf, Adaptive flight control with living neuronal networks on microelectrode arrays
  13. ^ Brain in a dish acts as autopilot, living computer, Science Daily. 22 October 2004.
  14. ^ D. Xydas, D. Norcott, K. Warwick, B. Whalley, S. Nasuto, V. Becerra, M. Hammond, J. Downes and S. Marshall (March 2008). Architecture for Neuronal Cell Control of a Mobile Robot. European Robotics Symposium 2008. Prague: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-78317-6_3. 
  15. ^ "Rise of the rat-brained robots", New Scientist. 13 August 2008.
  16. ^ Weprin, Alex (21 January 2011). "Syfy Picks Up Original Web Series 'The Mercury Men'". Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "The Mercury Men Are Here". needcoffee.com. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  18. ^ Hall, Randy. "The Mercury Men". fanfilmfollies.com. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Fleming, Chet (February 1988). If We Can Keep a Severed Head Alive...Discorporation and U.S. Patent 4,666,425. Polinym Press. ISBN 0-942287-02-9. 
  • Librizzi L, Janigro D, De Biasi S, de Curtis M. Blood–brain barrier preservation in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain preparation. J Neurosci Res. 2001 Oct 15;66(2):289-97. PMID 11592126
  • Mazzetti S, Librizzi L, Frigerio S, de Curtis M, Vitellaro-Zuccarello L. Molecular anatomy of the cerebral microvessels in the isolated guinea-pig brain. Brain Res. 2004 Feb 27;999(1):81–90. PMID 14746924
  • Mühlethaler M, de Curtis M, Walton K, Llinás R. The isolated and perfused brain of the guinea-pig in vitro. Eur J Neurosci. 1993 Jul 1;5(7):915-26. PMID 8281302
  • Kerkut GA. Studying the isolated central nervous system; a report on 35 years: more inquisitive than acquisitive. Comp Biochem Physiol A. 1989;93(1):9–24. Review. PMID 2472918
  • Llinás R, Yarom Y, Sugimori M. Isolated mammalian brain in vitro: new technique for analysis of electrical activity of neuronal circuit function. Fed Proc. 1981 Jun;40(8):2240-5. PMID 7238908