Isotopes of moscovium

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Main isotopes of moscovium (115Mc)
Iso­tope Decay
abun­dance half-life (t1/2) mode pro­duct
287Mc syn 37 ms α 283Nh
288Mc syn 164 ms α 284Nh
289Mc syn 330 ms[1][2] α 285Nh
290Mc syn 650 ms[1][2] α 286Nh

Moscovium (115Mc) is a synthetic element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given. Like all synthetic elements, it has no known stable isotopes. The first isotope to be synthesized was 288Mc in 2004. There are four known radioisotopes from 287Mc to 290Mc. The longest-lived isotope is 290Mc with a half-life of 0.65 seconds.

List of isotopes[edit]

The isotopes undergo alpha decay into the corresponding isotope of nihonium, with half-lives increasing as neutron numbers increase.

Z N Isotopic mass (Da)
[n 1][n 2]


Spin and
287Mc 115 172 287.19070(52)# 37(+44−13) ms α 283Nh
288Mc 115 173 288.19274(62)# 164(+30−21) ms α 284Nh
289Mc[n 3] 115 174 289.19363(89)# 330(+120−80) ms α 285Nh
290Mc[n 4] 115 175 290.19598(73)# 650(+490−200) ms α 286Nh
This table header & footer:
  1. ^ ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
  2. ^ # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
  3. ^ Not directly synthesized, created as decay product of 293Ts
  4. ^ Not directly synthesized, created as decay product of 294Ts


Chronology of isotope discovery
Isotope Year discovered Discovery reaction
287Mc 2003 243Am(48Ca,4n)
288Mc 2003 243Am(48Ca,3n)
289Mc 2009 249Bk(48Ca,4n)[1]
290Mc 2009 249Bk(48Ca,3n)[1]

Target-projectile combinations[edit]

The table below contains various combinations of targets and projectiles which could be used to form compound nuclei with Z=115. Each entry is a combination for which calculations have provided estimates for cross section yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield is given.

Target Projectile CN Attempt result
208Pb 75As 283Mc Reaction yet to be attempted
209Bi 76Ge 285Mc Reaction yet to be attempted
238U 51V 289Mc Failure to date
243Am 48Ca 291Mc[3][4] Successful reaction
241Am 48Ca 289Mc Planned reaction
243Am 44Ca 287Mc Reaction yet to be attempted

Hot fusion[edit]

Hot fusion reactions are processes that create compound nuclei at high excitation energy (~40–50 MeV, hence "hot"), leading to a reduced probability of survival from fission. The excited nucleus then decays to the ground state via the emission of 3–5 neutrons. Fusion reactions utilizing 48Ca nuclei usually produce compound nuclei with intermediate excitation energies (~30–35 MeV) and are sometimes referred to as "warm" fusion reactions. This leads, in part, to relatively high yields from these reactions.


There are strong indications that this reaction was performed in late 2004 as part of a uranium(IV) fluoride target test at the GSI. No reports have been published suggesting that no product atoms were detected, as anticipated by the team.[5]

243Am(48Ca,xn)291−xMc (x=2,3,4)[edit]

This reaction was first performed by the team in Dubna in July–August 2003. In two separate runs they were able to detect 3 atoms of 288Mc and a single atom of 287Mc. The reaction was studied further in June 2004 in an attempt to isolate the descendant 268Db from the 288Mc decay chain. After chemical separation of a +4/+5 fraction, 15 SF decays were measured with a lifetime consistent with 268Db. In order to prove that the decays were from dubnium-268, the team repeated the reaction in August 2005 and separated the +4 and +5 fractions and further separated the +5 fractions into tantalum-like and niobium-like ones. Five SF activities were observed, all occurring in the niobium-like fractions and none in the tantalum-like fractions, proving that the product was indeed isotopes of dubnium.

In a series of experiments between October 2010 – February 2011, scientists at the FLNR studied this reaction at a range of excitation energies. They were able to detect 21 atoms of 288Mc and one atom of 289Mc, from the 2n exit channel. This latter result was used to support the synthesis of tennessine. The 3n excitation function was completed with a maximum at ~8 pb. The data was consistent with that found in the first experiments in 2003.

Reaction yields[edit]

The table below provides cross-sections and excitation energies for hot fusion reactions producing moscovium isotopes directly. Data in bold represent maxima derived from excitation function measurements. + represents an observed exit channel.

Projectile Target CN 2n 3n 4n 5n
48Ca 243Am 291Mc 3.7 pb, 39.0 MeV 0.9 pb, 44.4 MeV

Theoretical calculations[edit]

Decay characteristics[edit]

Theoretical calculations using a quantum-tunneling model support the experimental alpha-decay half-lives.[6]

Evaporation residue cross sections[edit]

The table below contains various target-projectile combinations for which calculations have provided estimates for cross section yields from various neutron evaporation channels. The channel with the highest expected yield is given.

MD = multi-dimensional; DNS = Di-nuclear system; σ = cross section

Target Projectile CN Channel (product) σmax Model Ref
243Am 48Ca 291Mc 3n (288Mc) 3 pb MD [3]
243Am 48Ca 291Mc 4n (287Mc) 2 pb MD [3]
243Am 48Ca 291Mc 3n (288Mc) 1 pb DNS [4]
242Am 48Ca 290Mc 3n (287Mc) 2.5 pb DNS [4]
241Am 48Ca 289Mc 4n (285Mc) 1.04 pb DNS [7]


  1. ^ a b c d Oganessian, Yuri Ts.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Bailey, P. D.; et al. (2010-04-09). "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117". Physical Review Letters. American Physical Society. 104 (142502): 142502. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.104n2502O. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.142502. PMID 20481935.
  2. ^ a b Oganessian, Y.T. (2015). "Super-heavy element research". Reports on Progress in Physics. 78 (3): 036301. Bibcode:2015RPPh...78c6301O. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/78/3/036301. PMID 25746203.
  3. ^ a b c Zagrebaev, V. (2004). "Fusion-fission dynamics of super-heavy element formation and decay" (PDF). Nuclear Physics A. 734: 164–167. Bibcode:2004NuPhA.734..164Z. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.01.025.
  4. ^ a b c Feng, Z; Jin, G; Li, J; Scheid, W (2009). "Production of heavy and superheavy nuclei in massive fusion reactions". Nuclear Physics A. 816: 33–51. arXiv:0803.1117. Bibcode:2009NuPhA.816...33F. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2008.11.003.
  5. ^ "List of experiments 2000–2006". Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave. Archived from the original on July 23, 2007.
  6. ^ C. Samanta; P. Roy Chowdhury; D. N. Basu (2007). "Predictions of alpha decay half lives of heavy and superheavy elements". Nucl. Phys. A. 789: 142–154. arXiv:nucl-th/0703086. Bibcode:2007NuPhA.789..142S. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.04.001.
  7. ^ Zhu, L.; Su, J.; Zhang, F. (2016). "Influence of the neutron numbers of projectile and target on the evaporation residue cross sections in hot fusion reactions". Physical Review C. 93 (6). doi:10.1103/PhysRevC.93.064610.