Ispend bin Yusuf
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Ispend bin Yusuf was the son of Qara Yusuf and ruled over Baghdad and its environs for twelve years. Qara Yusuf's death in 1420 left his sons Ispend, Qara Iskander, Jahan Shah and Abu Sa’id bin Yusuf fighting over the succession of his vast kingdom. The Saadlu tribe, one of the main sub-tribes of the Kara Koyunlu, declared Ispend as the new chief. Abu Sa’id bin Yusuf had to flee and Jahan Shah went to Baghdad under the protection of his brother Ispend. Qara Iskander was thus left with Azerbaijan and Tabriz as its capital while Ispend was left with Iraq with Baghdad as his capital. Ispend bin Yusuf and Qara Iskander joined together to fight the Ak Koyunlu, who were invading from the west, and defeated them.
Before Ispend bin Yusuf died in 1445, he bequeathed the government of the state to his nephew Elvend, since his son Fulad bin Ispend was too young at the time. However, most of the emirs preferred Fulad, as did Jahan Shah. He decided to organize a military expedition against Baghdad with the backing of some of the emirs, who had sought refuge with him. After a siege of seven months, Baghdad was captured in June 1446 by Jahan Shah.
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