Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest

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Israel
Israel
Member stationKan
Former members
  • 1973–2017: IBA
National selection events
Internal selection
  • 1973–1977
  • 1988 (artist)
  • 1990
  • 1998–2000
  • 2002—2004 (artist)
  • 2007-2010 (artist)
  • 2012
  • 2014 (artist)
  • 2015 (song)
  • 2017–2019 (song)
  • 2021 (artist)
National final
Participation summary
Appearances43 (37 finals)
First appearance1973
Best result1st: 1978, 1979, 1998, 2018
External links
Kan page
Israel's page at Eurovision.tv
Song contest current event.png For the most recent participation see
Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 2021

Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 43 times since making its debut in 1973. Israel was able to enter the contest as the Israel Broadcasting Authority (IBA) was an active member of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), which is responsible for the event. Israel has won the contest four times, and has hosted the contest in Jerusalem twice in 1979 and 1999. Israel hosted the contest for the third time in Tel Aviv in 2019.

Israel's first appearance at the contest in 1973 was successful, with Ilanit finishing fourth. Israel then achieved victories in 1978 and 1979, with wins for Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta, with the song "A-Ba-Ni-Bi", and Milk and Honey, with "Hallelujah". In 1980, the IBA declined to host the contest[2] for the second successive year for financial reasons, and as the date for the contest in The Hague conflicted with Yom Hazikaron – Israeli Memorial Day – Israel did not participate. This is the only time that the winning country did not compete the following year. The country's best results in the 1980s were the second-place finishes for Avi Toledano in 1982 and Ofra Haza in 1983. Former winner Izhar Cohen returned to place fifth in 1985, before Duo Datz finished third in 1991. Israel achieved its third victory in 1998, with Dana International and "Diva". Eden then finished fifth in 1999. As of 2021, Israel has the record for most participations and most wins in the contest without ever coming last, but it has placed second to last in the final three times, in 1986, 1993 and 2006, and got nul points from the juries in 2019.

Since the introduction of the semi-finals in 2004, Israel has failed to reach the final six times. In 2005, Shiri Maimon gave the country its tenth top five result, finishing fourth. Having failed to qualify for the final for four consecutive years (2011–14), Israel reached the final for the first time in five years, with Nadav Guedj finishing ninth in 2015, and the country has participated in the final every year since. Israel's fourth victory came when Netta won the 2018 contest in Lisbon, with the song "Toy".

History[edit]

Victories[edit]

To date there have been four Israeli victories in the contest. Izhar Cohen and Alphabeta won in Paris in 1978 with the uptempo A-Ba-Ni-Bi. On home ground in Jerusalem the following year, Israel won again, this time with the anthemic Hallelujah performed by Milk and Honey. Unusually, Israel did not defend the title in 1980[2] (see below). The third victory came almost 20 years later in Birmingham in 1998. Singer Dana International took top honours with the song Diva, setting off widespread celebrations in Israel. Twenty years later, Israel earned their fourth victory at the 2018 contest in Lisbon, Portugal. The song was "Toy" by Netta Barzilai, which earned Israel their highest-ever score of 529 points.

Other performances[edit]

Israel's earliest selections were picked by the Israel Broadcasting Authority. The first singer to represent the country in 1973 was Ilanit, who finished 4th. In 1972, while Ilanit was in Germany recording as part of the duo Ilat and Ilanit with her partner Shlomo Tzach, the duo received an offer to represent Germany in that year's Eurovision Song Contest. While considering the proposal, the duo noticed that Israel was eligible to participate and approached the IBA with a proposal that Ilanit would represent Israel. However, by the time the IBA contacted the European Broadcasting Union, the registration period was over and instead Ilanit was promised to represent Israel in 1973.[3][4] Criticism increased after she was sent again four years later, leading to a rule that the winner of the already established Hebrew Song and Chorus Festival would also represent Israel at the contest. The Eurovision Song Contest winners of 1978 and 1979 were selected by this method. From 1981 the selection process was handled by the Kdam Eurovision with the exceptions of 1990, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002–2004, 2006–2007 and 2010 where the selections were again picked by the IBA.

After winning the contest in 1978 and 1979, the IBA was financially and logistically unable to organise the event for the second consecutive year. The organization of the festival was subsequently handed over to the Netherlands who finally agreed to stage it. Because much time had already passed, it was difficult to find a suitable date for the Song Contest. The date chosen coincided with a memorial day in Israel, and the country was forced to withdraw. This made Israel the only country to date unable to defend its title. The 1980 Hebrew Song and Chorus Festival therefore did not double as a national final that year unlike the last two years, and the winning song "Pizmon Chozer" by the band The Brothers & the Sisters was never given the chance to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest. In 1984 Israel once again refrained from participating due to the same date conflict.

Apart from its victories, Israel's entries have had a mixed reception at the contest. Avi Toledano (1982) and Ofra Haza (1983) scored well with big revivalist numbers, but the all-singing, all-dancing style became less popular later in the decade and Israel's 1986 entry, Yavo Yom by Moti Giladi & Sarai Tzuriel, came in 19th, the country's worst showing yet.

In 1987 Israel finished 8th with Shir Habatlanim by the satiric duo Lazy Bums. Due to its satiric nature, it prompted then Israeli Minister of Culture, Yitzhak Navon, to threaten to resign, if the song went on to represent Israel on the night of the contest. However, he didn't.

In 1990 Rita's sensuous ballad was not well received, but in 1991, Orna and Moshe Datz finished third, Israel's best result since 1983. Israel's third victory occurred in 1998, when Dana International won the crown with her song "Diva." Israel also had a 5th-place finish by Eden when it hosted the 1999 contest. However, Ping-Pong's disco effort in 2000 failed badly, though the group was noted for their largely optimistic lyrics and message of reconciliation and peace in Western Asia. They went as far as waving Syrian flags at the end of their performance, angering some Israelis.

In 2004 David D'Or came in 11th in the semifinal with the song "Leha'amin" (להאמין), leaving Israel out of the finals for the first time since 1997. Shiri Maymon's performance in Kyiv in 2005 brought Israel back to the top five, and ensured a place in the Athens 2006 final. In 2006, Israel was represented by singer Eddie Butler, who had finished 5th as part of Eden in 1999; however, his performance of the song "Together We Are One" finished 23rd, with just four points.

IBA's Eurovision committee chose the band Teapacks to represent Israel in the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest Semi-Final in Helsinki. Their humorous entry "Push the Button" did not fare well, finishing in 24th place out of a semifinal field of 28 and failing to reach the final. Israel had to compete in the semi-final in Belgrade 2008, from which it passed on to the final; Boaz finished ninth. At the Eurovision Song Contest 2009, an Arab citizen of Israel represented the country for the first time, as Mira Awad performed along with Jewish-Israeli singer Noa in Moscow. Israel was represented in 2010 by Harel Skaat, who came in 14th in the final.

Israel's participations from 2011 to 2014 were less successful, as former Eurovision winner Dana International in Düsseldorf, the band Izabo in Baku, Moran Mazor in Malmö and Mei Finegold in Copenhagen, all failed to qualify for the final. However, 16-year-old Nadav Guedj qualified with "Golden Boy" in 2015, the first Israeli song without a Hebrew lyric. Prior to their fourth win, they also managed to qualify in 2016 with Hovi Star and "Made of Stars" (which finished 14th) and in 2017 with Imri Ziv and "I Feel Alive" (which finished 23rd, Israel's lowest placing in a Eurovision final since 2006). In 2019 as host country with Kobi Marimi and his song "Home", Israel was pre-qualified for the final, however, they eventually finished in 23rd place, making it the fourth time since 2015 that the host country ranked in the bottom five.

In early 2020, it was announced that the 2020 season of HaKokhav HaBa would be the last time it would be used to select the Israeli entrant, with a separate national final to select the winning artist's Eurovision entry. Eden Alene, selected via HaKokhav HaBa in 2020 – with the entry "Feker Libi" chosen via a separate national final – was selected to represent Israel again in 2021 following the cancellation of the 2020 contest, and a new national final was held to select her entry for 2021. "Set Me Free" was chosen as the entry, which went on to finish in 17th place in the final. The song notably includes a B6 whistle note, the highest note in the history of the contest.

In April 2021, it was announced that the fourth season of The X Factor Israel will determine the 2022 artist; later in August, it was confirmed that the show will also determine the competing song.[1]

Participation overview[edit]

Table key
1
Winner
2
Second place
3
Third place
X
Entry selected but did not compete
Upcoming
Year Entrant Song Language Final Points Semi Points
Ilanit "Ey Sham" (אי שם) Hebrew 4 97 No semi-finals
Poogy "Natati La Khayay" (נתתי לה חיי) Hebrew 7 11
Shlomo Artzi "At Va'Ani" (את ואני) Hebrew 11 40
Chocolate, Menta, Mastik "Emor Shalom" (אמור שלום) Hebrew 6 77
Ilanit "Ahava Hi Shir Lishnayim" (אהבה היא שיר לשניים) Hebrew 11 49
Izhar Cohen and the Alphabeta "A-Ba-Ni-Bi" (א-ב-ני-בי) Hebrew 1 157
Milk and Honey "Hallelujah" (הללויה) Hebrew 1 125
Habibi Group "Halayla" (הלילה) Hebrew 7 56
Avi Toledano "Hora" (הורה) Hebrew 2 100
Ofra Haza "Hi" (חי) Hebrew 2 136
Izhar Cohen "Olé, Olé" (עולה, עולה) Hebrew 5 93
Moti Giladi & Sarai Tzuriel "Yavo Yom" (יבוא יום) Hebrew 19 7
Datner & Kushnir "Shir Habatlanim" (שיר הבטלנים) Hebrew 8 73
Yardena Arazi "Ben Adam" (בן אדם) Hebrew 7 85
Gili & Galit "Derekh Hamelekh" (דרך המלך) Hebrew 12 50
Rita "Shara Barkhovot" (שרה ברחובות) Hebrew 18 16
Duo Datz "Kan" (כאן) Hebrew 3 139
Dafna Dekel "Ze Rak Sport" (זה רק ספורט) Hebrew 6 85
Lehakat Shiru "Shiru" (שירו) Hebrew, English 24 4 Kvalifikacija za Millstreet
Liora "Amen" (אמן) Hebrew 8 81 No semi-finals
Galit Bell "Shalom Olam" (שלום עולם) Hebrew Failed to qualify[a] X 28 12
Dana International "Diva" (דיווה) Hebrew 1 172[b] No semi-finals
Eden "Yom Huledet" (יום הולדת) Hebrew, English 5 93
PingPong "Sameach" (שמח) Hebrew[c] 22 7
Tal Sondak "En Davar" (אין דבר) Hebrew 16 25
Sarit Hadad "Light a Candle" Hebrew, English 12 37
Lior Narkis "Words for Love" Hebrew[d] 19 17
David D'Or "Leha'amin" (להאמין) Hebrew, English Failed to qualify 11 57
Shiri Maimon "HaSheket SheNish'ar" (השקט שנשאר) English, Hebrew 4 154 7 158
Eddie Butler "Together We Are One" English, Hebrew 23 4 Top 11 previous year[e]
Teapacks "Push the Button" English, French, Hebrew Failed to qualify 24 17
Bo'az Ma'uda "The Fire In Your Eyes" Hebrew[f] 9 124 5 104
Noa & Mira Awad "There Must Be Another Way" English, Hebrew, Arabic 16 53 7 75
Harel Skaat "Milim" (מילים) Hebrew 14 71 8 71
Dana International "Ding Dong" (דינג דונג) Hebrew, English Failed to qualify 15 38
Izabo "Time" English, Hebrew 13 33
Moran Mazor "Rak Bishvilo" (רק בשבילו) Hebrew 14 40
Mei Finegold "Same Heart" English, Hebrew 14 19
Nadav Guedj "Golden Boy" English 9 97 3 151
Hovi Star "Made of Stars" English 14 135 7 147
Imri "I Feel Alive" English 23 39 3 207
Netta Barzilai "Toy" English[g] 1 529 1 283
Kobi Marimi "Home" English 23 35 Host country[h]
Eden Alene "Feker Libi" (ፍቅር ልቤ) English, Amharic[i] Contest cancelled[j] X
Eden Alene "Set Me Free" English[k] 17 93 5 192
TBD January 2022 [5]

Congratulations: 50 Years of the Eurovision Song Contest[edit]

Entrant Language Song At Congratulations At Eurovision
Final Points Semi Points Year Place Points
Dana International Hebrew "Diva" (דיווה) Failed to qualify 13 39 1998 1 172

Hostings[edit]

Year Location Venue Presenters Photo
1979 Jerusalem International Convention Center Yardena Arazi and Daniel Pe'er
1999 Dafna Dekel, Sigal Shachmon and Yigal Ravid Sigal Shachmon and Dafna Dekel D941-056.jpg
2019 Tel Aviv Expo Tel Aviv Erez Tal, Bar Refaeli, Assi Azar and Lucy Ayoub ESC2019 - Hosts 01.jpg

Awards[edit]

Marcel Bezençon Awards[edit]

Year Category Song Composer(s)
lyrics (l) / Music (m)
Performer Final Points Host city Ref.
2010 Press Award "Milim" (מילים) Tomer Hadadi (m) and Noam Horev (l) Harel Skaat 14 71 Norway Oslo
Artistic Award[l]
Composer Award

Winner by OGAE members[edit]

Year Song Performer Final result Points Host city Ref.
2018 "Toy" Netta 1 529 Portugal Lisbon

Related involvement[edit]

Conductors[edit]

Year Conductor[m] Musical Director Notes Ref.
1973 Nurit Hirsh N/A [8]
1974 Yoni Rechter
1975 Eldad Shrim
1976 Matti Caspi
1977 Eldad Shrim
1978 Nurit Hirsh[n] [o]
1979 Kobi Oshrat[p] Izhak Graziani [q]
1981 Eldad Shrim N/A [9]
1982 Nansi Silviu Brandes [r]
1983
1985 Kobi Oshrat
1986 Yoram Zadok
1987 Kobi Oshrat
1988 Eldad Shrim
1989 Shaike Paikov
1990 Rami Levin
1991 Kobi Oshrat
1992
1993 Amir Frohlich
1995 Gadi Goldman
1998 No conductor

Heads of delegation[edit]

Year Head of delegation Ref.
20022006 Izchak Sonnenschein

Commentators and spokespersons[edit]

Until 2018, Israel only had a television commentator once, in 1979. In most cases, they opted instead to simply broadcast the transmission without commentary and with Hebrew subtitles. Beginning in 2013 and lasting until 2017, they also aired the contest with Arabic subtitles on IBA Channel 33. 1980 was the only year that was not broadcast either on television or radio due to Yom HaZikaron; in both 1984 and 1997, which Israel also had to miss due to the holiday, the IBA aired the show on delay, and there was no radio broadcast. They also typically provided radio commentary beginning in the early '80s, unless they weren't participating that year (excepting 2000). They had no commentary of either sort until 2013, when they resumed radio broadcasting, and 2018, when they had their first television commentators since 1979. The Israeli transmission was also shown worldwide via the Israeli Network between 2003 and 2004.[12]

Year Television commentator Radio commentator Spokesperson Ref.
1970 No commentator Unknown Did not participate
1971 No broadcast
1972 No commentator
1973 No radio broadcast No spokesperson
1974 Yitzhak Shim'oni
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979 Yoram Arbel Yitzhak Shim'oni Dan Kaner
1980 No broadcast Did not participate [2]
1981 No commentator Daniel Pe'er Dan Kaner
1982 Yitzhak Shim'oni
1983
1984 Delayed, no commentator No radio broadcast Did not participate
1985 No commentator Daniel Pe'er Yitzhak Shim'oni
1986
1987 Yigal Ravid
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992 Yitzhak Shim'oni Daniel Pe'er
1993 Daniel Pe'er Danny Rup
1994 No radio broadcast Did not participate
1995 Danny Rup Daniel Pe'er
1996 No radio broadcast Did not participate
1997 Delayed, no commentator
1998 No commentator Daniel Pe'er Yigal Ravid
1999 Yoav Ginai
2000 No radio broadcast
2001 Daniel Pe'er
2002 Michal Zoharetz
2003
2004 No radio broadcast Merav Miller
2005 Dana Herman
2006
2007 Jason Danino-Holt
2008 Noa Barak-Weshler
2009 Ofer Nachshon
2010
2011
2012
2013 Kobi Menora (all shows); Ofer Nachshon (semi-final 1);
Amit Kotler, Yuval Caspin (semi-final two);
Ron Levinthal, Kobi Oshrat, Yhaloma Bat Porat (final)[16]
2014 Kobi Menora, Yuval Caspin (all shows)[17]
2015 Kobi Menora (all shows); Yuval Caspin (semi-final 1); Tal Argaman (semi-final 2)[18]
2016 Kobi Menora, Or Vaxman, Nansi Brandes (semi-final 2 and final)[19][20]
2017 Kobi Menora, Dori Ben Ze'ev, Alon Amir (all shows)[21]
2018 Asaf Liberman, Shir Reuven (semi-final 1)
Itai Herman, Goel Pinto (semi-final 2)
Erez Tal, Idit Hershkowitz (final)
Lucy Ayoub
2019 Sharon Taicher, Eran Zarachowicz Izhar Cohen
2020 Geula Even-Sa'ar, Asaf Liberman Not announced before cancellation
2021 Asaf Liberman and Akiva Novick Lucy Ayoub

Costume designers[edit]

Year Costume designers Ref.
1973 Rozi Ben-Yosef [25]
1976 Gideon Oberson [26]
1978 Dorin Frankfurt [25]
1979
1982
1983
1985 Nissim Mizrachi [27]
1988 Perach Reuven [25]
1990 Gideon Oberson [25]
1991 Yaron Minkowsky [28]
1995
1998 Galit Levi [25]
2002 Pnina Tournet [29]
2005 Riva Oshida [30]
2009 [31]
2011 Jean Paul Gaultier [32]
2013 Efrat Kalig [33]
2014 Dana Barak [34]
2018 Maor Zabar [35]
2021 Alon Livne [36]

Gallery[edit]

Arab reaction to Israeli participation[edit]

In 1978, during the performance of the Israeli entry, the Jordanian broadcaster JRTV suspended the broadcast, and instead showed pictures of flowers. When it became apparent during the later stages of the voting sequence that Israel was going to win the contest, JRTV abruptly ended the transmission.[37] Afterwards, the Jordanian news media refused to acknowledge the fact that Israel had won, and announced that the winner was Belgium (which had actually come in second).[38] By coincidence, Israel did not broadcast the victory either, as the IBA did not buy enough broadcasting time.[citation needed] The victory was broadcast the next day.

At the time, Israeli Television was in its infancy and broadcasting in black & white. Many/most Israelis therefore watched international events in colour, using the signal from neighbouring Jordan. As Jordan did not broadcast the Israeli entry and the IBA did not broadcast the results part of the event, the win only became known as a result of radio broadcasts.

Because of Israel's participation in the Eurovision Song Contest, many Arab states that are eligible to participate do not do so. Tunisia, Morocco, and Lebanon are cases in point.[citation needed] Tunisia intended participation in 1977, but decided not to do so in the end; Lebanon also intended to participate in 2005 when it withdrew (incurring a fine by the EBU) because Lebanese law does not allow recognition of Israel, and consequently Lebanese television would not transmit any Israeli material – which would have been a violation of the EBU's rules.[39]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Israel failed to qualify for the 1996 contest. There was an audio-only pre-qualification round for all countries (excluding hosts Norway). The official Eurovision site does not count 1996 in Israel's list of appearances.
  2. ^ Spain originally gave its 12 points to Israel and 10 to Norway. After the broadcast it was announced that Spanish broadcaster wrongly tallied the votes and Germany should have got the top mark - 12 points - instead of being snubbed, as it happened. The mistake was corrected and so Germany was placed 7th over Norway. Israel and Norway both received 2 points less than originally and Croatia, Malta, Portugal, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, Estonia and Turkey all received one point less than indicated during the broadcast.
  3. ^ Contains several words in English.
  4. ^ Contains several words in English, Greek, French, and Spanish.
  5. ^ According to the then-Eurovision rules, the top ten non-Big Four countries from the previous year along with the Big Four automatically qualified for the Grand Final without having to compete in semi-finals. For example, if Germany and France placed inside the top ten, the 11th and 12th spots were advanced to next year's Grand Final along with all countries ranked in the top ten.
  6. ^ Contains several words in English.
  7. ^ Contains several words in Hebrew.
  8. ^ The host country did not have to compete in the semi-finals.
  9. ^ Contains phrases in Hebrew and Arabic.
  10. ^ The 2020 contest was cancelled due to
    the COVID-19 pandemic.
  11. ^ Contains several phrases in Hebrew.
  12. ^ Voted by commentators.
  13. ^ All conductors are of Israeli nationality unless otherwise noted.
  14. ^ Conducted by Izhak Graziani at the national final.
  15. ^ Only woman to ever conduct a winning Eurovision entry
  16. ^ Conducted by Izhak Graziani at the national final.
  17. ^ Graziani conducted the interval music
  18. ^ Went by "Silviu Nansi Brandes" at the contest.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Israel: X Factor for Eurovision 2022 to decide both artist and song". Wiwibloggs. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  2. ^ a b c 1980 Eurovision, eurovision.tv
  3. ^ ימים טובים, ימים רעים: אילנית פותחת פה על המדינה ועל נינט Sagi Ben-Nun, 27 April 2012, Makor Rishon (in Hebrew)
  4. ^ ללכת שבי אחריה Yuval Abramovich, 16 April 2013, Israel HaYom (in Hebrew)
  5. ^ Herbert, Emily (6 September 2021). "Israel: First X Factor Israel Participants Revealed". Eurovoix. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  6. ^ a b c "Israeli grand slam in the Marcel Bezençon Awards". eurovision.tv. 31 May 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  7. ^ "OGAE POLL 2018 – FINAL Results". OGAE. 28 March 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2019.
  8. ^ Roxburgh, Gordon (2014). Songs for Europe: The United Kingdom at the Eurovision Song Contest. Volume Two: The 1970s. Prestatyn: Telos Publishing. pp. 142–168. ISBN 978-1-84583-093-9. |volume= has extra text (help)
  9. ^ Roxburgh, Gordon (2016). Songs for Europe: The United Kingdom at the Eurovision Song Contest. Volume Three: The 1980s. Prestatyn: Telos Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84583-118-9. |volume= has extra text (help)
  10. ^ › misc https://www.haaretz.co.il › misc Check |url= value (help). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ https://www.makorrishon.co.il/nrg/online/5/ART/935/702.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ "EBU.CH :: 2004_05_11_ESC". EBU. Archived from the original on 8 April 2005. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  13. ^ Barak, Itamar (10 May 2005). "Dana Herman to give Israeli televote". ESCToday. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  14. ^ Barak, Itamar (19 April 2007). "Former MTV Europe VJ to present Israel's votes". ESCToday. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Granger, Anthony (31 March 2018). "Israel: Lucy Ayoub Announced as Eurovision 2018 Spokesperson". Eurovoix. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  16. ^ "88FMאירווזיון 2013 ב" [88FM in Eurovision 2013]. Israel Broadcasting Authority (in Hebrew). 11 May 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2013.
  17. ^ המופע של פרנק נֵף לקראת אירוויזיון 2014 [The performance of the Frank Neff preparation for Eurovision 2014]. Israel Broadcasting Authority (in Hebrew). 17 April 2014. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
  18. ^ אירוויזיון 2015 מוינה בערוץ הראשון [Eurovision 2015 is classified into the first channel]. Israel Broadcasting Authority (in Hebrew). 12 May 2015. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  19. ^ נבחרו חברי צוות השיפוט הישראלי לאירוויזיון. iba.org.il (in Hebrew). Israel Broadcasting Authority. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  20. ^ "בהצלחה ל-Hovi Star הערב ב-Eurovision Song... - 88 FM - הדף הרשמי" (in Hebrew). Kol Yisrael. 12 May 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2016 – via Facebook.
  21. ^ Laufer, Gil (10 May 2017). "Israel national broadcaster IBA is officially shut down". esctoday.com. ESCToday. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  22. ^ Granger, Anthony (15 April 2019). "Israel: Izhar Cohen Revealed as Spokesperson". Eurovoix. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  23. ^ "נחשפו פרשני האירוויזיון של 'כאן'". kipa.co.il (in Hebrew). 22 January 2020.
  24. ^ http://www.euromix.co.il/2021/05/03/ישראל-נחשפו-פרשני-משדר-האירוויזיון-ומ/
  25. ^ a b c d e Arad, Daphna (16 May 2019). "The Quest for the "Unforgettable Dress" Revealed: The Dress Was Forgotten". Ynet (in Hebrew).
  26. ^ Shoef, Hadas (6 April 2011). "It's Good, It's Good". Ynet (in Hebrew).
  27. ^ Jacob, Itay (11 May 2016). "Sixty Years of Eurovision: Every 'Douze Points' Outfit of Israeli Participants Over The Years". Ynet (in Hebrew).
  28. ^ Mugrabi Kobani, Ziva (12 May 2019). "Dresses Inspired by Female Israeli Eurovision Participants Over The Years". Israel Hayom (in Hebrew).
  29. ^ Haimovich, Natasha (21 May 2002). "You're Wearing This?". Ynet (in Hebrew).
  30. ^ Cohen, Ziv (21 May 2005). "Shiri Maimon to Sing in a Different Dress". Ynet (in Hebrew).
  31. ^ Abramovich, Yuval (2 May 2009). "Eurovision Approaches: Mira Awad and Noa 'Shooting in All Directions'". Makor Rishon (in Hebrew).
  32. ^ "Diva Dana reveals the Gaultier dress". Eurovision. 7 May 2011.
  33. ^ Jacob, Itay (16 May 2013). "Twice As Bad: Moran Mazor Will Sing at Eurovision in Her National Final Dress". Ynet (in Hebrew).
  34. ^ Cahill, William (18 April 2014). "Mei Finegold films Same Heart selfie, confirms dress!". Wiwibloggs.
  35. ^ "The Secrets of Netta's Kimono are Revealed". Israeli Public Broadcasting Corporation (in Hebrew). 7 May 2018.
  36. ^ "Israel's Eden Alene advances to Eurovision final". The Jerusalem Post. 19 May 2021.
  37. ^ O'Connor, John Kennedy (2005). The Eurovision Song Contest 50 Years The Official History. London: Carlton Books Limited. ISBN 1-84442-586-X.
  38. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 1978". esctoday.com. 2005. Retrieved 8 May 2007.
  39. ^ "Lebanon withdraws from Eurovision". BBC News. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 15 July 2006.