Media of Israel

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The media of Israel refers to print, broadcast and online media available in the State of Israel. The country boasts dozens of newspapers, magazines, and radio stations, which play an important role by the press in political, social and cultural life and cater it to a modern, developed and literate society.

There are over 10 different languages in the Israeli media,[1] with Hebrew as the predominant one. Press in Arabic caters to the Arab citizens of Israel, with readers from areas including those governed by the Palestinian National Authority. During the eighties and nineties, the Israeli press underwent a process of significant change as the media gradually came to be controlled by a limited number of organizations, whereas the papers published by political parties began to disappear. Today, three large, privately owned conglomerates based in Tel Aviv dominate the mass media in Israel.[2]

Censorship in Israel is relatively low compared to other countries, but may be exercised only when it is certain that publication of the item in question would harm public safety. When an item is censored, the newspaper may appeal the censor's ruling to a "committee of three," composed of a member of the public (who serves as the chairman), a representative of the army and a representative of the press. The decisions of the committee are binding, and over the years it has in many cases overruled the decision of the censor.[2]

History[edit]

Israeli newspapers, 1949
Entrance of Beit Sokolov, house of the Israeli Journalists Association.

The history of the press began in 1863, before Israeli independence and during the Ottoman Empire, with Ha-Levanon and Havazzelet being the first weekly Hebrew newspapers established. In 1952, the International Publishing Company J-M Ltd was established as the state's first book publisher.[3] Censorship was regularly enforced in years after independence, throughout the Yom Kippur War and the 1970s.[3] In 1986, the government allowed for the establishment of private and commercial media outlets to run in competition with state media.[3]

Freedom of the press[edit]

The Israeli government generally respects freedom of the press, which is protected by the Basic Laws of Israel and independent judiciary.[4] Hate speech, and publishing praise of violence or issues of national security is prohibited.[4] While Israeli journalists operate with little restriction, the government has placed more restrictions on Palestinian journalists working in the region, as Reporters Without Borders alleges that the authorities entered Palestinian offices and homes looking for "illegal material".[full citation needed][5] The media does carry criticism of government policy.[4]

Publication of a newspaper in Israel is illegal without a permit from the government, which continues to implement the Press Ordinance enacted by the Mandatory Government in 1933.[6] Permits can be refused for a variety of reasons, including that the proprietor is less than 25 years old or has a criminal record or insufficient education.[6][7] An investigation by Haaretz early in 2016 revealed that in the preceding decade at least 62 out of more than 500 permit applications had been rejected.[6] Other regulations, including the 1945 Defence (Emergency) Regulations, can also be used to regulate newspaper publication.[6]

Following the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis Israel took steps to ban Qatar-based Al Jazeera by closing its Jerusalem office, revoking press cards, and asking cable and satellite broadcasters not to broadcast al-Jazeera. Defence minister, Avigdor Lieberman, had described some of al-Jazeera reports as "Nazi Germany-style" propaganda. It was not clear if the measures covered Al Jazeera English, considered less strident.[8]

Freedom House[edit]

Freedom House publishes an annual Freedom of the Press report. The 2013 report described Israel has having "the freest press in the region" but downgraded its status from "Free" to "Partly Free" in response to "the indictment of journalist Uri Blau for possession of state secrets, the first time this law had been used against the press in several decades, as well as instances of politicized interference with the content of the Israel Broadcasting Authority radio programs and concerns surrounding the license renewal of television's Channel 10."[9]

Reporters Without Borders[edit]

In 2015 Reporters Without Borders ranked Israel 96th in their Press Freedom Index, after Kuwait, North Cyprus, Kosovo and Mozambique.[10] The results for Israel and the Palestinian National Authority from 2002 to the present are shown below, with lower numbers indicating better treatment of reporters:

Year Israel (Israeli territory) Israel (extraterritorial) Palestinian Authority No. of national entities rated Report URL
2002 92 Not Specified 82 139 [11]
2003 44 146 130 166 [12]
2004 36 115 127 167 [13]
2005 47 Not Specified 132 167 [14]
2006 50 135 134 168 [15]
2007 44 103 158 169 [16]
2008 46 149 163 173 [17]
2009 93 150 161 175 [18]
2014 96 Not Specified 138 180 [19]

List of media outlets[edit]

Print[edit]

Israel Hayom readers in Jerusalem

Israel has a large number of dailies, weeklies and periodicals, all privately owned.[20]

  • B'Sheva: Hebrew-language weekly religious newspaper.
  • Calcalist: Hebrew-language daily business newspaper.
  • Globes: Hebrew-language daily business newspaper (with online English edition).
  • Haaretz: Israel's oldest daily newspaper with Hebrew and English editions.
  • Hamodia: daily Haredi newspaper with Hebrew, English and French editions.
  • Israel Hayom: Hebrew-language free daily newspaper (with online English edition).
  • Israel Post: Hebrew-language free daily newspaper.
  • Al-Ittihad: Arabic-language daily communist newspaper.
  • The Jerusalem Post: Israel's oldest English-language newspaper.
  • Kul al-Arab: Arabic-language weekly newspaper.
  • Maariv: Hebrew-language daily newspaper.
  • Makor Rishon: Hebrew-language weekly newspaper.
  • TheMarker: Hebrew-language business media.
  • Vesti: Russian-language daily newspaper.
  • Yated Ne'eman: daily Haredi newspaper with Hebrew and English editions.
  • Yedioth Ahronoth: Hebrew-language daily newspaper.

Broadcast[edit]

Galei Tzahal broadcasting van

Internet[edit]

The Times of Israel offices in Jerusalem
  • +972: A blog-based web magazine providing on-the-ground reporting and analysis of events in Israel and Palestine.
  • Arutz Sheva: radio station and website in Hebrew, English and Russian.
  • Bamahane: online magazine in Hebrew published by the Israel Defense Forces.
  • Debkafile: intelligence website in Hebrew and English.
  • Kikar HaShabbat: Hebrew-language Haredi website.
  • Mida: online magazine in Hebrew and English
  • Nana 10: Hebrew-language web portal.
  • The Times of Israel: news website in English, Arabic, French and Chinese.
  • TLV1: English-language internet radio station.
  • Walla!: Hebrew-language web portal.
  • Ynet: Hebrew-language news website.
  • Ynetnews: English-language news website.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Recorded Programs". Israel Broadcasting Authority. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Limor, Yehiel. "The Printed Media: Israel's Newspapers". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "Israel". Press reference. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c Israel Press Freedom, Freedom House. Archived 23 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Israel 2007 report, Reporters Without Borders. Archived 26 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ a b c d "Interior Ministry Has a Stranglehold on the Publication of Newspapers in Israel". Haaretz. January 15, 2016. 
  7. ^ "Press Ordinance". The Palestine Gazette. 340: 56–75. January 19, 1933. 
  8. ^ Chulov, Martin (6 August 2017). "Israeli government moves to impose ban on al-Jazeera news network". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 August 2017. 
  9. ^ "Israel - Freedom of the Press 2013". Freedom House. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Israel ranks lowly 96th in press freedom rankings The Times of Israel, Feb 12, 2015
  11. ^ 2002 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 19 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ 2003 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 19 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  13. ^ 2004 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 20 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ 2005 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 29 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ 2006 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 4 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ 2007 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 21 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders Archived 6 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ 2009 Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders. Archived 6 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ 2014 Press Freedom Index Archived 4 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Reporters Without Borders.
  20. ^ Prof. Sam Lehman-Wilzig; Amit Schejter (1994). "Israel". In Yahya Kamalipour; Hamid Mowlana. Mass Media in the Middle East (PDF). Greenwood. pp. 111–114. ISBN 978-0-313-28535-6. Retrieved 24 January 2014. 

External links[edit]