Issidae

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Issidae
Issidae - Issus sp....JPG
Issus coleoptratus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Superfamily: Fulgoroidea
Family: Issidae
Spinola, 1839
Subfamilies

see text

Issidae is a family of planthoppers described by Spinola in 1839, belonging to the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha superfamily Fulgoroidea.

Distribution[edit]

Species of this family are present throughout the Northern Hemisphere.

Description[edit]

Issid nymph

Issidae are small insects generally with a stocky body, as the wings mainly develop in width. Basic body coloration is not striking, usually shows brownish colors. The head has two ocelli. The forewings have strong pronounced ribs. They wrap the abdomen when the insect is at rest. The family originally included approximately 1000 species with 215 genera, but the systematics of Issidae remains uncertain, with many of the subfamilies having been recently removed to separate families, including Caliscelidae. Nogodinidae, and Tropiduchidae.

In 2013, scientists described a biologically unique set of mechanical gears in an Issus nymph, though identical structures are known in most planthoppers, and were known for decades[1] before the function of the gears was discovered[2]

List of subgroups[edit]

The family Issidae was once large and included many groups which are now treated in other families or as families themselves. These groups include the Caliscelidae, Nogodinidae, and Tropiduchidae (e.g., subfamilies Tonginae and Trienopinae). Around 2003, the treatment is in favour of a single subfamily Issinae Spinola, 1839 with five tribes Issini, Parahiraciini, Hemisphaeriini, Thioniini, and Colpopterini.[3]

Genera[edit]

Genera within this family include:[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ K. Sander. 1957. Bau und Funktion des Sprungapparates von Pyrilla perpusilla WALKER (Homoptera - Fulgoridae). Zool. Jb. Jena (Anat.) 75, 383–388
  2. ^ Burrows, Malcolm; Sutton, Gregory (2013-09-13), "Interacting gears synchronize propulsive leg movements in a jumping insect", Science, 341 (6151): 1254–1256, doi:10.1126/science.1240284, lay summaryScienceNews.org 
  3. ^ Gnezdilov, Vladimir M. (2002). "A new tribe of the family Issidae with comments on the family as a whole (Homoptera: Cicadina)" (PDF). Zoosystematica Rossica. 11 (2): 305–309. 
  4. ^ Catalogue of life
  • W. E. Holzinger, I. Kammerlander, H. Nickel: The Auchenorrhyncha of Central Europe - Die Zikaden Mitteleuropas. Volume 1: Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha excl. Cicadellidae. - Brill, Leiden 2003
  • Stephen W. Wilson – Keys to the families of Fulgoromorpha with emphasis on planthoppers of potential importance in the Southern United States -Florida Entomologist 88(4) Fcla.edu

External links[edit]