M1 (Istanbul Metro)
|Owner||Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality|
|Transit type||Light metro|
|Number of lines||1 (2 branch lines: M1A & M1B)|
|Number of stations||23|
|Began operation||September 3, 1989|
|Operator(s)||İstanbul Ulaşım AŞ|
|Number of vehicles||105|
|Headway||2.5 minutes in peak hours|
|System length||26.1 km (16.2 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|Electrification||750 V DC Overhead line|
M1, officially referred to as the M1 Yenikapı–Atatürk Airport/Kirazlı line, (also known as the Istanbul Light Metro (Turkish: Hafif Metro)) is a rapid transit line of the Istanbul Metro. Opened in 1989, it was the first rapid transit line in Istanbul and Turkey and its opening started the revival of mass-transit in Turkish cities. The M1 consists of two separate train services, the M1A and M1B. Both services run on the same line from Yenikapı to Otogar, where the M1B branches off to Kirazlı, while the M1A continues on the original line to Istanbul Atatürk Airport. The M1 has 23 stations in service, 11 underground and 3 elevated, and the total length of the line is 26.1 kilometers (16.2 mi) with 10.4 kilometers (6.5 mi) running underground. Even though the M1 is fully grade separated, it is considered a light metro line, due to the relatively low passenger capacity compared to other lines of the system. A total of 105 trainsets operate, carrying about 400,000 passengers daily.
In November 2014, the long-awaited extension from Aksaray to Yenikapı was opened. From Yenikapı connections are available to the M2 line and Marmaray commuter rail service as well as İDO seabus service. Using the M2 and Marmaray, passenger may travel north of the Golden Horn to Taksim, Mecidiyeköy, Levent and Maslak as well as across the Bosphorus to Üsküdar and Kadıköy. İDO seabuses offer service to coastal districts of Istanbul as well as other cities and towns on the Sea of Marmara.
With Istanbul's population growing and the city rapidly expanding outward, the bus service available in the city became insufficient in the 1970s and 1980s. At that time, the city did not have a mass transit rail system, except for a single 0.57 km (0.35 mi) funicular line known as Tünel – the last operating original tramline was closed in 1969. Istanbul desperately needed a rapid transit rail system to help transport its large population.
The first segment of the M1 line began service on September 3, 1989, between Aksaray and Kocatepe. On December 18, 1989, the line was extended to Esenler, but at that time the Otogar (Intercity Bus Station) was omitted. The Otogar station, and the segment between Otogar and Zeytinburnu stations on the M1A branch line, was opened on January 31, 1994. Following this, the M1A segment between Zeytinburnu and Bakırköy stations was opened on July 3 of the same year. Further extensions of the M1A line, to Ataköy and then Yenibosna stations, were opened in July and August 1995, at which point the length of the line reached approximately 16 km. In 1999, a new M1A line station located between Ataköy and Bakırköy stations, the Bahçelievler station, opened. Finally, the M1A branch line was completed on December 20, 2002, when the extension to the World Trade Center and Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy opened.
Operations and route
A total of 105 trainsets transport up to 400,000 passenger daily between the operation hours from 6:00 in the early morning to 0:00 in the midnight. The M1 line has a maximum headway of 3 minutes during peak hours. All stations have covered seating. A total of 52 escalators and 44 elevators make access to the stations easy for passengers.
M1A branch line
The M1A line is 20.3 kilometers (12.6 mi) long in total, and serves 18 stations. The trip between the termini stations, Yenikapı and Atatürk Airport, takes approximately 35 minutes. Daily, 170 trains run in one direction between the termini stations.
On the M1A line, seven stations are built underground, nine are ground-level stations, and three are elevated. The stations are so structured that six of them have island platforms and eleven stations have side platforms. The connection station at Otogar in Esenler has two island platforms, which enable traffic on three tracks by the two different M1 branch lines.
M1B branch line
The M1B line is 14.0 kilometers (8.7 mi) long in total, and serves 13 stations. The trip between the termini stations, Yenikapı and Kirazlı, takes approximately 25 minutes. Daily, 170 trains run in one direction between the termini stations.
The following stations are served by both the M1A and M1B branch lines:
- Yenikapı (transfer to: M2, Marmaray, İDO)
- Aksaray (transfer to: T1)
- Topkapı-Ulubatlı (transfer to: T4)
- Otogar (Coach Station)
M1A branch line
- Merter (transfer to: Metrobüs)
- Zeytinburnu (transfer to: T1, Metrobüs)
- Bakırköy-İncirli (transfer to: M3)
- Bahçelievler (transfer to: Metrobüs)
- Ataköy-Şirinevler (transfer to: Metrobüs)
- Yenibosna (transfer to: M9)
- DTM-İstanbul Fuar Merkezi (Expo Center)
- Atatürk Havalimanı (Airport)
M1B branch line
Since this line is the oldest modern rail line in İstanbul, it has relatively old vehicles, produced by ABB in 1988. The vehicles reach a maximum speed of 80 km/h with an acceleration of 0.7 m/s2.
- Istanbul modern tramways – Separate state-of-the-art tramways (T1 & T4) of Istanbul
- Istanbul nostalgic tramways – Two separate heritage tramways of Istanbul
- Trams in Istanbul – the first generation tramway network
- İstanbul–Halkalı Line – suburban/commuter rail line
- Public transport in Istanbul – includes information on trams
- EsTram (Eskisehir)
- Antalya trams
- Kayseri tram (Kayseray)
- "M1 Yenikapı – Atatürk Havalimanı / Kirazlı Metro Hattı" [M1 Yenikapı – Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı Metro Line]. istanbululasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşim A.Ş. Retrieved 2015-09-20.
- "Prime Minister Davutoglu Inaugurates Istanbul's Aksaray-Yenikapi Metro". en.haberler.com. November 9, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
- "PM Davutoğlu inaugurates İstanbul's Aksaray-Yenikapı metro". Today's Zaman. November 9, 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
Media related to Istanbul Metro line M1 at Wikimedia Commons