Istanbul Metro

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Istanbul Metro
Metro istanbul ikon.png
Overview
Native name İstanbul Metrosu
Owner Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
Locale Istanbul, Turkey
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 6 European lines (4 in service, some will be extended; 2 under construction);
3 Asian lines (1 in service, will be extended; 2 under construction)
Number of stations 70 in service;[1]
74 under construction
Annual ridership 384.9 million (2015)[2]
Website Metro Istanbul (English)
Operation
Began operation 1989 (M1 - as light metro)
2000 (M2)
Operator(s) Metro Istanbul
Number of vehicles 453[1]
Technical
System length 90.5 km (56.2 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
(standard gauge)
System map
Metro Transportation Map Istanbul 2014.png

The Istanbul Metro (Turkish: İstanbul Metrosu) is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey. It is operated by Metro Istanbul (the new name of Istanbul Ulaşım A.Ş.), a public enterprise, controlled by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The oldest section is the metro is M1 line, which opened in 1989; it now includes 70 stations in service,[1] with 74 more under construction.

The system currently consists of five lines named M1, M2, M3, M4, and the M6 Mini-Metro. More lines are under construction or planned: M5 (Üsküdar-Çekmeköy/Sancaktepe), M8 (Bostancı-Dudullu) will be on the Asian side, while M7 (Kabataş-Mahmutbey), M9 (Ataköy-İkitelli) will be on the European side.[3]

History[edit]

Karaköy station of the Tünel, which entered service on January 17, 1875.

The oldest underground urban rail line in Istanbul is the Tünel, which entered service on January 17, 1875.[4] It is the world's second-oldest underground urban rail line after the London Underground which was built in 1863,[5] and the first underground urban rail line in continental Europe.

The first master plan for a full metro network in Istanbul, titled Avant Projet d'un Métropolitain à Constantinople and conceived by the French engineer L. Guerby, dates to January 10, 1912.[citation needed] The plan comprised a total of 24 stations between the Topkapı and Şişli districts and included a connection through the Golden Horn. Each station would have a 75-metre platform next to the rail line, while the distance between stations varied from 220 to 975 metres. The blueprints of the project, which was never realized, are today displayed at the Istanbul Technical University Museum.[citation needed]

In 1936 the French urban planner Henri Prost proposed a metro network between the districts of Taksim and Beyazıt, to the north and south of the Golden Horn, respectively.[6][7] In October 1951 the Dutch firm Nedeco proposed a similar route between Taksim and Beyazıt, and in September 1952 the Director of the Paris Transportation Department, Marc Langevin, prepared a 14-chapter report together with his associate Louis Meizzonet for the implementation of the project and its integration with the other means of public transportation in the city. However, these plans never came into effect and all proposals were put on hold until 1987, when the planning for the current Istanbul Metro was made.[citation needed]

Construction works for the first 'modern' mass transit railway system started in 1989.[when?] The M1 was initially called "Hafif Metro" (which literally translates as "light metro"). Although it was built as a fully grade separated line, the M1 line operates with shorter trainsets and shorter station platforms than is standard on a traditional metro line, hence its "light metro" designation. The M1 line was later extended from Aksaray towards the western suburbs, reaching Atatürk Airport in the southwest in 2002.[8] Construction of the M2, began on September 11, 1992, but faced many challenges due to the numerous archaeological sites that were discovered during the drilling process, which slowed down or fully stopped the construction of many stations especially at south. Taking into account the seismic activity in Istanbul, the entire network was built with the cut-and-cover method[citation needed] to withstand an earthquake of up to 9.0 on the Richter magnitude scale.[9][10]

The first section between Taksim and 4. Levent entered service, after some delays, on September 16, 2000. This line is 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long and has 6 stations, which all look similar but are in different colours. In 2000, there were 8 Alstom-built 4-car train sets in service, which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130,000 passengers daily. On January 30, 2009, the first train sets built by Eurotem entered service.[11] Eurotem will build a total of 92 new wagons for the M2 line.[11][12] As of January 30, 2009, a total of 34 trainsets, each with 4 cars, were being used on the M2 line.[12] A northern extension from 4. Levent to Maslak was opened on January 30, 2009.[13] On September 2, 2010 the northern (temporary) terminus Darüşşafaka followed.[14] The southern extension of the M2 line from Taksim to Yenikapı, across the Golden Horn via Haliç station on the bridge and underground through the historic peninsula, entered service on 15 February 2014. The Taksim-Yenikapı extension is 5.2 km long, with four stations. The total cost of the extension was $593 million.[15] At Yenikapı it will intersect with the extended [M1 (Istanbul Metro|M1 line)]] and the Marmaray commuter line.

The Golden Horn Metro Bridge entered service in 2014.

The trip between the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu and the Haciosman station in Maslak is 20 km (12.4 mi) long and takes 27 minutes; including Şişhane - Taksim (1.65 km, 2 minutes), Taksim - 4. Levent (8.5 km, 12 minutes), and 4. Levent - Haciosman (8.1 km, 12 minutes.)[16][17] The total length of the European side of the M2 line will reach 23 km (14.3 mi) when all 16 stations from Hacıosman to Yenikapı will be completed;[18][19][20] not including the 936 metres long Golden Horn Metro Bridge,[21] the 0.6 km long Taksim-Kabataş tunnel connection with the Seabus port,[22] and the 0.6 km long Yenikapı-Aksaray tunnel connecting the M1 line to the Yenikapı Transfer Center.[20]

On the Asian side, construction is in progress of the remaining portion of the 26.5 km (16.5 mi) long M4 line from Kadıköy to Kaynarca, yielding a total of 19 stations. It cost € 751 million and was built by the Astaldi / Makyol / Gülermak consortium.[23] The first section opened on August 17, 2012, terminating in Kartal. Construction of the 20 km (12.4 mi) long M5 (Istanbul Metro) line from Üsküdar via Ümraniye to Sancaktepe started in March 2012.[24]

Operations[edit]

The Metro operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. every 6–10 minutes. M2 Yenikapı - Haciosman operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. line During peak-hours the intervals reduce to 3 minutes. There is a flat fare – 2.30 TL with Istanbulkart only (4 TL with token), paid in tokens (which are also valid on the funicular, modern tram, buses and trans-Bosporus ferry boats).[25] Akbil tickets/cards are also valid, which is the most popular method for long distance traveling. The Akbil ticket is valid on all metros, trams, funiculars, ferry boats and buses. Ferryboat and bus fares are not flat, so the price of this transfer ticket also varies depending on the distance to be covered on bus or ferryboat.

Lines[edit]

Rapid transit lines in Istanbul and current expansions of the network

This table lists the metro lines currently in service on the Istanbul Metro. An additional four lines are under-construction or planned.

Line Route Opened Length Stations Notes[26]
Istanbul public transport - M1 line symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı 1989[27] 26.1 km[27] 23[27] The 0.7 km extension to Yenikapi opened on 9 November 2014.[28] Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul public transport - M2 line symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman 2000[29] 23.5 km[29] 16[29] Southern extension (3.5 km stretch to Yenikapı, with 3 stations) completed in February 2014. Operates from 06:15 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul public transport - M3 line symbol.png
Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent–Olimpiyat 2013[30] 15.9 km[30] 11[30] A southern extension (9.0 km to Bakırköy, with 7 stations) is under construction. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul public transport - M4 line symbol.png
Kadıköy ↔ Kartal 2012[31] 21.7 km[31] 16[31] An extension of 4.5 km on the south-eastern end of city with 3 more stations is under final construction. Also an extension 7.4 km to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport with 4 more stations is under construction. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul public transport - M6 line symbol.png
Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü 2015[32] 3.3 km[32] 4[32] The Mini-Metro is actually a light metro line.
TOTAL: 90.5 km[1] 70[1]

Stations[edit]

European side[edit]

Şişli station of the Istanbul Metro in front of Istanbul Cevahir, Europe's largest mall between 2005 and 2011.
Levent station of the Istanbul Metro
Gayrettepe subway station
Levent subway station
Taksim subway station
Osmanbey subway station

M1 line[edit]

Main article: M1 (Istanbul Metro)

The following stations are served by both the M1A and M1B branch lines:

M1A branch line
M1B branch line

M2 line[edit]

Main article: M2 (Istanbul Metro)

The route splits to form a short one-station spur line at the Sanayi Mahallesi station to the following station:

M3 line[edit]

Main article: M3 (Istanbul Metro)

The route splits to form a 'Y' at the İkitelli Sanayi station with the western branch line traveling to the following two northwesterly stations:

M6 line[edit]

Main article: M6 (Istanbul Metro)

Asian side[edit]

Kadıköy subway station
Bostancı subway station, the only station with 3 tracks in the M4.

M4 line[edit]

Main article: M4 (Istanbul Metro)

Technical specifications[edit]

This table lists technical characteristics of the metro lines that are currently in service or under construction.

Line Route Gauge Voltage Conductor system Notes
Istanbul public transport - M1 line symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul public transport - M2 line symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail
Istanbul public transport - M3 line symbol.png
Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent–Olimpiyat 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul public transport - M4 line symbol.png
Kadıköy ↔ Kartal 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul public transport - M5 line symbol.png
Üsküdar ↔ Çekmeköy 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul public transport - M6 line symbol.png
Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail
Istanbul public transport - M7 line symbol.png
Kabataş ↔ Mahmutbey 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul public transport - M8 line symbol.png
Bostancı ↔ Dudullu 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul public transport - M9 line symbol.png
Ataköy ↔ İkitelli 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line

Alignment and interchanges[edit]

The lines are fully underground and have no connection between them. All station names are on the bus lines as well.

The M2 line has an interchange between F1 in Taksim and an interchange tunnel with the Zincirlikuyu Metrobus station at the Gayrettepe station.[33] There is also a transfer station at Yenikapı with Marmaray, M1 line and İDO Ferry Port; from where it is possible to take the high-speed catamaran Seabus departing for Bursa, Bandırma or Yalova; as well as the other Seabus ports of İstanbul such as Bostancı, Kadıköy, Bakırköy, and Kabataş.

The M3 line has an interchange with the M1B line at the Kirazlı station.

The M4 line has a vapur (traditional ferry), motorboat, İDO and nostalgic tram interchange at Kadıköy which is the heart of İstanbul's Asian side. One can also interchange to Marmaray at the Ayrılık Ceşmesi station. Also at Ünalan / Uzunçayır, the line has a Metrobus interchange just like Gayrettepe in M2.

Rolling stock[edit]

Interior of M2 rolling stock

Although line M1 is a (light) metro line, its rolling stock—in use since 1989—is made up of typical ABB light rail vehicles (LRVs). These are partly the same as those used on the T4 tramway line.

The first Istanbul full metro rolling stocks, which entered service on September 16, 2000 on the Taksim - 4. Levent line, were built by Alstom. These trains are air conditioned and equipped with LCD screens. On January 30, 2009, the first 8 trains (each with 4 wagons) built by Eurotem (the Turkish factory of Hyundai Rotem) entered service.[34] Today the system has 268 trains.[1] These trains are also air conditioned and equipped with LCD screens, as well as dynamic route map showing the location and direction of the train.[35]

In September 2009, CAF signed a contract to supply 144 units for the M4 line, amounting to 1.156.159 euros. These metro units are formed with 4 cars for a total length of 90 meters and have a maximum transport capacity of 1300 passengers.[36]

Future extension projects and plans[edit]

Line Route Length Stations Notes[26]
Istanbul Line Symbol M3.png
Bakırköy-İDO ↔ Kirazlı 9.0 km (under construction) 7 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Istanbul Line Symbol M4.png
Kartal ↔ Kaynarca 4.5 km (under construction) 3 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2016.
Istanbul Line Symbol M4.png
Sabiha Gökçen Airport ↔ Kaynarca 7.4 km (under construction) 4 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2018.
Istanbul Line Symbol M5.png
Üsküdar ↔ Çekmeköy–Sancaktepe 20.0 km[37] (under construction) 16 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2016.
Istanbul Line Symbol M7.png
Kabataş ↔ Mahmutbey 24.5 km (under construction) 19 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2018.
Istanbul Line Symbol M8.png
Bostancı-İDO ↔ Dudullu 14.27 km (under construction) 13 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Istanbul public transport - M9 line symbol.png
Ataköy ↔ İkitelli 13.0 km (under construction) 12 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Bakırköy ↔ Beylikdüzu 25.0 km (planned) 17 (planned) Planned line.


Istanbul network with lines and extensions under construction through 2019, and including proposed lines and extensions.

European side[edit]

M3 metro line extension 
BakırköyKirazlı metro line. Under Construction.
M7 metro line 
The M7 Kabataş-Mahmutbey metro line is under construction. On December 20, 2013, the line was commissioned to Kalyon Group for construction.[38] The groundbreaking ceremony was held on February 9, 2014. The line will be 24.5 km (15.2 mi) long with 19 stations, and is expected to go into service in 2018.
M9 metro line 
M9 Ataköy-İkitelli:
  1. Ataköy (under construction)
  2. Yenibosna (under construction)
  3. Çobançeşme (under construction)
  4. Kuyumcukent (under construction)
  5. Doğu Sanayi (under construction)
  6. Mimar Sinan Avenue (under construction)
  7. Evren District (under construction)
  8. İkitelli Junction (under construction)
  9. Mehmet Akif (under construction)
  10. Bahariye (under construction)
  11. MASKO (under construction)
  12. İkitelli Sanayi (under construction)


Asian side[edit]

The ÜsküdarBeykoz metro line will run parallel to the Bosporus shoreline.

M4 metro line 
M4 Kadıköy–Kartal is being extended, and will eventually connect Sabiha Gökçen International Airport:
  1. Yakacık (under construction)
  2. Pendik (under construction)
  3. Tavşantepe (under construction)
  4. Hastane (under construction)
  5. Şeyhli (under construction)
  6. Kurtköy (under construction)
  7. Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (under construction)
M5 metro line 
M5 Üsküdar-Çekmeköy:
  1. Üsküdar (under construction)
  2. Fıstıkağacı (under construction)
  3. Bağlarbaşı (under construction)
  4. Altunizade (under construction)
  5. Kısıklı (under construction)
  6. Bulgurlu (under construction)
  7. Ümraniye (under construction)
  8. Çarşı (under construction)
  9. Yamanevler (under construction)
  10. Çakmak (under construction)
  11. Ihlamur Kuyu (under construction)
  12. Altınşehir (under construction)
  13. İmam Hatip (under construction)
  14. Dudullu (under construction)
  15. Necip Fazıl (under construction)
  16. Çekmeköy (under construction)
M8 metro line 
M8 Bostancı-Dudullu:
  1. Bostancı İDO (under construction)
  2. Suadiye (under construction)
  3. Upper Bostancı (under construction)
  4. Kozyatağı (under construction)
  5. Küçükbakkalköy (under construction)
  6. İçerenköy (under construction)
  7. Kayışdağı (under construction)
  8. Türkiş Blocks (under construction)
  9. İMES (under construction)
  10. MODOKO (under construction)
  11. Dudullu (under construction)
  12. Upper Dudullu (under construction)
  13. Depot (under construction)
Future lines within the network: M5 (under construction), M6 (under construction), M7 (under construction) and M8 (planned)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Raylı Sistemler" [Rail Systems]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşim A.Ş. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  2. ^ "İstanbul'da raylı sistem taşımacılığı rekor kırdı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). January 28, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  3. ^ Rayli Sistemler. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  4. ^ "Tunnel". IETT. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  5. ^ "A brief history of the Underground - London Underground milestones". Transport for London. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  6. ^ TMMOB: "İstanbul Ulaştırmasının Dünü, Bugünü" (Güngör Evren)
  7. ^ Yıldız Technical University Faculty of Architecture Magazine (Megaron): "İki Fransız mimarı Henri Prost ve August Perret'nin İstanbul ile ilgili çalışmaları" (Işık Aydemir)
  8. ^ "Europe > Turkey > ISTANBUL Metro". UrbanRail.Net. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
  9. ^ NTV-MSNBC: "10 soruda İstanbul Metrosu" (17 September 2000)
  10. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: "İstanbul Metrosu: Taksim – 4. Levent"
  11. ^ a b "Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Yenikapı Metro Hattı". Ibb.gov.tr. 2002-01-23. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  12. ^ a b "İstanbul Ulaşım: Metro Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzandı". Istanbululasim.com. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  13. ^ "Metro, Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzadı". Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  14. ^ istanbululasim.net
  15. ^ "Taksim-Yenikapı Metro Hattı". Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  16. ^ Anasayfa - Raytürk
  17. ^ http://www.istanbul-ulasim.com.tr/default.asp?page=haberler&category=guncelhaberler&article=539&process=read
  18. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim - 4. Levent metro hattı
  19. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Ayazağa-Hacıosman metro hattı
  20. ^ a b Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Yenikapı metro hattı
  21. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Golden Horn metro bridge
  22. ^ "FUNİKÜLER SİSTEM Taksim - Kabataş". İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  23. ^ "Kadiköy - Kartal metro opened by Prime Minister". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  24. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  25. ^ Istanbul Ulasim. Istanbul Ulasim. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  26. ^ a b "Istanbul Railway Network Map (complete, including under construction sections)". Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr. İstanbul Ulaşim A.Ş. 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  27. ^ a b c "M1 Yenikapı - Atatürk Havalimanı / Kirazlı Metro Hattı" [M1 Yenikapı - Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşim A.Ş. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  28. ^ "PM Davutoğlu inaugurates İstanbul's Aksaray-Yenikapı metro". Today's Zaman. 9 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  29. ^ a b c "M2 Yenikapı- Hacıosman Metro Hattı" [M2 Yenikapı- Hacıosman Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  30. ^ a b c "M3 Başakşehir Metro Hattı" [M3 Başakşehir Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  31. ^ a b c "M4 Kadıköy-Kartal Metro Hattı" [M4 Kadikoy-Kartal Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  32. ^ a b c "M6 Levent – Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü Metro Hattı" [M6 Levent – Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2015-04-20. 
  33. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  34. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Yenikapı Metro Hattı
  35. ^ İstanbul Ulaşım: Metro Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzandı
  36. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  37. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  38. ^ "İstanbul'a yeni metro". NTV MSNBC (in Turkish). 2013-12-20. Retrieved 2014-02-09. 

External links[edit]