Istanbul Metro

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Istanbul Metro
Metro istanbul logo.png
M2 at Levent station.JPG
A train entering Levent on the M2 line.
Overview
Native name İstanbul Metrosu
Owner Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality
Locale Istanbul, Turkey
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 8 (5 more under construction)
Number of stations 82 in service;[1]
62 under construction
Annual ridership 384.9 million (2015)[2]
Website Metro Istanbul (in English)
Operation
Began operation 3 September 1989; 28 years ago (1989-09-03)
Operator(s) Metro Istanbul
Number of vehicles 579[1]
Technical
System length 105.8 km (65.7 mi)[1]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
(standard gauge)
System map
Metro Transportation Map Istanbul 2014.png

The Istanbul Metro (Turkish: İstanbul Metrosu) is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey. It is operated by Metro Istanbul (known as Istanbul Ulaşım A.Ş. before 2016[3]), a public enterprise, controlled by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. The oldest section is the metro is M1 line, which opened in 1989; it now includes 82 stations in service,[1] with 62 more under construction.

The system consists of six lines named M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 and the M6 Mini-Metro. More lines are under construction or planned: M8 (Bostancı-Dudullu) will be on the Asian side, while M7 (Kabataş-Mahmutbey), M9 (Ataköy-İkitelli) will be on the European side.[4]

Istanbul Metro is connected with Marmaray and F1 Funicular underground systems and T1 modern tram ground system.

History[edit]

Karaköy station of the Tünel, which entered service on January 17, 1875.

The oldest underground urban rail line in Istanbul is the Tünel, which entered service on January 17, 1875.[5] It is the world's second-oldest underground urban rail line after the London Underground which was built in 1863,[6] and the first underground urban rail line in continental Europe.

The first master plan for a full metro network in Istanbul, titled Avant Projet d'un Métropolitain à Constantinople and conceived by the French engineer L. Guerby, dates to January 10, 1912.[citation needed] The plan comprised a total of 24 stations between the Topkapı and Şişli districts and included a connection through the Golden Horn. Each station would have a 75-metre platform next to the rail line, while the distance between stations varied from 220 to 975 metres. The blueprints of the project, which was never realized, are today displayed at the Istanbul Technical University Museum.[citation needed]

In 1936 the French urban planner Henri Prost proposed a metro network between the districts of Taksim and Beyazıt, to the north and south of the Golden Horn, respectively.[7][8] In October 1951 the Dutch firm Nedeco proposed a similar route between Taksim and Beyazıt, and in September 1952 the Director of the Paris Transportation Department, Marc Langevin, prepared a 14-chapter report together with his associate Louis Meizzonet for the implementation of the project and its integration with the other means of public transportation in the city. However, these plans never came into effect and all proposals were put on hold until 1987, when the planning for the current Istanbul Metro was made.[citation needed]

Construction works for the first 'modern' mass transit railway system started in 1989.[when?] The M1 was initially called "Hafif Metro" (which literally translates as "light metro"). Although it was built as a fully grade separated line, the M1 line operates with shorter trainsets and shorter station platforms than is standard on a traditional metro line, hence its "light metro" designation. The M1 line was later extended from Aksaray towards the western suburbs, reaching Atatürk Airport in the southwest in 2002.[9] Construction of the M2, began on September 11, 1992, but faced many challenges due to the numerous archaeological sites that were discovered during the drilling process, which slowed down or fully stopped the construction of many stations especially at south. Taking into account the seismic activity in Istanbul, the entire network was built with the cut-and-cover method[citation needed] to withstand an earthquake of up to 9.0 on the Richter magnitude scale.[10][11]

The first section between Taksim and 4. Levent entered service, after some delays, on September 16, 2000. This line is 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long and has 6 stations, which all look similar but are in different colours. In 2000, there were 8 Alstom-built 4-car train sets in service, which ran every 5 minutes on average and transported 130,000 passengers daily. On January 30, 2009, the first train sets built by Eurotem entered service.[12] Eurotem will build a total of 92 new wagons for the M2 line.[12][13] As of January 30, 2009, a total of 34 trainsets, each with 4 cars, were being used on the M2 line.[13] A northern extension from 4. Levent to Maslak was opened on January 30, 2009.[14] On September 2, 2010 the northern (temporary) terminus Darüşşafaka followed.[15] The southern extension of the M2 line from Taksim to Yenikapı, across the Golden Horn via Haliç station on the bridge and underground through the historic peninsula, entered service on 15 February 2014. The Taksim-Yenikapı extension is 5.2 km long, with four stations. The total cost of the extension was $593 million.[16] At Yenikapı it will intersect with the extended M1 line and the Marmaray commuter line.

The Golden Horn Metro Bridge entered service in 2014.

The trip between the Şişhane station in Beyoğlu and the Haciosman station in Maslak is 20 km (12.4 mi) long and takes 27 minutes; including Şişhane - Taksim (1.65 km, 2 minutes), Taksim - 4. Levent (8.5 km, 12 minutes), and 4. Levent - Haciosman (8.1 km, 12 minutes.)[17][18] The total length of the European side of the M2 line will reach 23 km (14.3 mi) when all 16 stations from Hacıosman to Yenikapı will be completed;[19][20][21] not including the 936 metres long Golden Horn Metro Bridge,[22] the 0.6 km long Taksim-Kabataş tunnel connection with the Seabus port,[23] and the 0.6 km long Yenikapı-Aksaray tunnel connecting the M1 line to the Yenikapı Transfer Center.[21]

On the Asian side, construction is in progress of the remaining portion of the 26.5 km (16.5 mi) long M4 line from Kadıköy to Kaynarca, yielding a total of 19 stations. It cost € 751 million and was built by the Astaldi / Makyol / Gülermak consortium.[24] The first section opened on August 17, 2012, terminating in Kartal. Construction of the 20 km (12.4 mi) long M5 line from Üsküdar via Ümraniye to Sancaktepe started in March 2012.[25]

Operations[edit]

The Metro operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. every 6–10 minutes. M2 Yenikapı - Hacıosman operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. line During peak-hours the intervals reduce to 3 minutes. There is a flat fare – 2.30 TL with Istanbulkart only (4 TL with token), paid in tokens (which are also valid on the funicular, modern tram, buses and trans-Bosporus ferry boats).[26] Akbil tickets/cards are also valid, which is the most popular method for long distance traveling. The Akbil ticket is valid on all metros, trams, funiculars, ferry boats and buses. Ferryboat and bus fares are not flat, so the price of this transfer ticket also varies depending on the distance to be covered on bus or ferryboat.

Lines[edit]

Rapid transit lines in Istanbul and current expansions of the network

This table lists the metro lines currently in service on the Istanbul Metro. An additional five lines are under-construction or planned.

Line Route Opened Length Stations Notes[27]
Istanbul M1 Line Symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı 1989[28] 26.1 km[28] 23[28] The 0.7 km extension to Yenikapi opened on 9 November 2014.[29] Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul M2 Line Symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman 2000[30] 23.5 km[30] 16[30] Southern extension (3.5 km stretch to Yenikapı, with 3 stations) completed in February 2014. Operates from 06:15 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul M3 Line Symbol.png
Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent–Olimpiyat 2013[31] 15.9 km[31] 11[31] A southern extension (9.0 km to Bakırköy, with 7 stations) is under construction. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul M4 Line Symbol.png
Kadıköy ↔ Tavşantepe 2012[32] 26.5 km[32] 19[32] An extension 7.4 km to Sabiha Gökçen International Airport with 4 more stations is under construction. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m.
Istanbul M5 Line Symbol.png
Üsküdar ↔ Yamanevler 2017[33] 10.5 km[33] 9[33] Opened on 15 December 2017. Operates from 06:00 a.m. to 00.00 a.m. Time from Üsküdar to Yamanevler is 17 min.
Istanbul M6 Line Symbol.png
Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü 2015[34] 3.3 km[34] 4[34] The Mini-Metro is actually a light metro line.
TOTAL: 105.8 km[1] 82[1]

Stations[edit]

The Istanbul Metro sign post at the entrance to Gayrettepe station.

The Istanbul Metro system has a total of 79 stations in operation with 50 more under construction. Since the majority of the system is underground, stations are generally accessed going down from street level. At every entrance to the metro is a post with the Istanbul metro "M" logo and the station name underneath it. Entrances are usually built into sidewalks along a street, although many stations of newer lines have their entrances from street level on small plazas.

Out of the 79 operating stations of the Istanbul Metro,

  • 63 are fully underground
  • 5 are elevated stations
  • 9 are on an embankment or at-grade
  • 2 are partially underground
The mezzanine concourse at Yenikapı station.

Mezzanines[edit]

Most stations have a mezzanine directly below street level, which allow passengers to enter the stations from multiple locations and proceed to the correct platform without having to cross any streets. Inside the mezzanines are ticket machines and turnstiles, where passengers must pay to enter fare control zones and proceed to the trains. In some stations, mezzanines connect directly to nearby buildings and structures, such as shopping malls or business centers. Each station concourse or mezzanine are patrolled by Istanbul Metro security guards to prevent fare evasion and crime.

Stations with large walkways toward different exits, such as Taksim also have travelators to cover the long walking distances.

Upon entering the station, passenger may use ticket vending machines or manned ticket booths to purchase their fare, which can be stored on the Istanbulkart contactless smart card. After entering the fare-controlled area, via the turnstiles, passengers may continue further down to the platform level.

Platforms[edit]

The platform at İSTOÇ station.

Since the different lines of the Istanbul Metro have different specifications, most notably car length, there is no uniform length for platforms. The oldest platforms of the network, built between 1989 and 2002 on the M1 line, are 100 m (330 ft) and can accommodate trains up to 4 cars long. Platforms on the M2, M3 and M4 lines span about 150 m (490 ft) and can each accommodate trains up to 8 cars long. Platforms on the M5 line can accommodate up to 6-car trains, whiles platforms on the M6 line accommodate 4-car trains.

Sections of platforms are subject to close during off-peak hours, especially on the M2 line. While platforms on the M2 line are open fully during peak hours, capacity is reduced to 4-car trains during off-peak hours. Platforms on the M5 line are protected by glass barriers, with doors that open only when a train is in the station. Except on funicular lines, most platforms of the Istanbul Metro consist of two side platforms or one island platform. Five stations consist of two island platforms, serving three tracks. These station are Otogar on the M1 line, Yenikapı and Sanayi on the M2 line, Olimpiyat on the M3 line, and Bostancı on the M4 line.

Technical specifications[edit]

This table lists technical characteristics of the metro lines that are currently in service or under construction.

Line Route Gauge Voltage Conductor system Notes
Istanbul M1 Line Symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul M2 Line Symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail
Istanbul M3 Line Symbol.png
Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent–Olimpiyat 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul M4 Line Symbol.png
Kadıköy ↔ Tavşantepe 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul M5 Line Symbol.png
Üsküdar ↔ Çekmeköy 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul M6 Line Symbol.png
Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 750 V DC Third rail
Istanbul M7 Line Symbol.png
Kabataş ↔ Mahmutbey 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul M8 Line Symbol.png
Bostancı ↔ Dudullu 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line
Istanbul M9 Line Symbol.png
Ataköy ↔ İkitelli 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge 1,500 V DC Overhead line

Alignment and interchanges[edit]

The lines have no connection between them. Apart from the Haliç station on the M2 line and about half of the M1 (mostly M1A) line, the lines are fully underground. All station names are on the bus lines as well.

The M2 line has an interchange between F1 in Taksim and an interchange tunnel with the Zincirlikuyu Metrobus station at the Gayrettepe station.[35] There is also a transfer station at Yenikapı with Marmaray, M1 line and İDO Ferry Port; from where it is possible to take the high-speed catamaran Seabus departing for Bursa, Bandırma or Yalova; as well as the other Seabus ports of İstanbul such as Bostancı, Kadıköy, Bakırköy and Kabataş.

The M3 line has an interchange with the M1B line at the Kirazlı station.

The M4 line has a vapur (traditional ferry), motorboat, İDO and nostalgic tram interchange at Kadıköy which is the heart of İstanbul's Asian side. One can also interchange to Marmaray at the Ayrılık Ceşmesi station. Also at Ünalan / Uzunçayır, the line has a Metrobus interchange just like Gayrettepe in M2.

The M5 line has an interchange with the Marmaray and İDO at the Üsküdar station. Also at Altunizade the line has a Metrobus interchange.

The M6 line has an interchange with the M2 line at the Levent station.

Rolling stock[edit]

Interior of M2 rolling stock

Although line M1 is a (light) metro line, its rolling stock—in use since 1989—is made up of typical ABB light rail vehicles (LRVs). These are partly the same as those used on the T4 tramway line.

The first Istanbul full metro rolling stocks, which entered service on September 16, 2000 on the Taksim - 4. Levent line, were built by Alstom. These trains are air conditioned and equipped with LCD screens, and share a similar exterior design to the first three generations of rolling stock used on the Caracas Metro in Venezuela.

On January 30, 2009, the first 8 trains (each with 4 wagons) built by Eurotem (the Turkish factory of Hyundai Rotem) entered service.[36] Today the system has 268 trains.[1] These trains are also air conditioned and equipped with LCD screens, as well as dynamic route map showing the location and direction of the train.[37]

In September 2009, CAF signed a contract to supply 144 units for the M4 line, amounting to 1.156.159 euros. These metro units are formed with 4 cars for a total length of 90 meters and have a maximum transport capacity of 1300 passengers.[38]

Future extensions[edit]

As part of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality's goal of expanding the size of the city's rail transportation network to 1,023 km (636 mi) by the end of the 2020s, the Istanbul Metro has several lines that, as of 2018, are under construction or planned. Since the city does not have a widespread railway network, the Metropolitan Municipality aims to connect urban areas of the city that do not have access the Istanbul's two coastal railways with metro lines.

By 2019, the Municipality aims to open five new metro lines and complete extensions of three existing metro lines. By 2023 the Municipality aims to open three more new lines and complete extensions of six other lines.

Construction of the following metro lines are under construction:

Line Route Length Stations Notes[27]
Istanbul M3 Line Symbol.png
Bakırköy-İDO ↔ Kirazlı 9.0 km (under construction) 7 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Istanbul M4 Line Symbol.png
Tavşantepe ↔ Sabiha Gökçen Airport 7.4 km (under construction) 4 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2018.
Istanbul M5 Line Symbol.png
Yamanevler ↔ Çekmeköy–Sancaktepe 9.5 km[39] (under construction) 7 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2018.
Istanbul M7 Line Symbol.png
Kabataş ↔ Mahmutbey 24.5 km (under construction) 19 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Istanbul M8 Line Symbol.png
Bostancı-İDO ↔ Dudullu 14.27 km (under construction) 13 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Istanbul M9 Line Symbol.png
Ataköy ↔ İkitelli 13.0 km (under construction) 12 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
Istanbul M11 Line Symbol.png
Gayrettepe ↔ İstanbul New Airport 37.2 km (under construction) 9 (under construction) Line under construction, opening: 2019.
TOTAL: 114.8 km[1] 71[1]

Construction of the following metro lines are planned or on hold:

Line Route Length Stations Notes[27]
Istanbul M1B Line Symbol.png
Kirazlı ↔ Halkalı 9.70 km (on hold) 9 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M2 Line Symbol.png
Yenikapı ↔ Sefaköy 14 km (tender phase) 11 (tender phase) Line in the tender phase.
Istanbul M3 Line Symbol.png
Başakşehir ↔ Kayaşehir 6.20 km (on hold) 5 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M4 Line Symbol.png
Tavşantepe ↔ Tuzla 7.90 km (on hold) 7 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M5 Line Symbol.png
Çekmeköy–Sancaktepe ↔ Sultanbeyli 10.90 km (on hold) 9 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M7 Line Symbol.png
Mahmutbey ↔ Esenyurt 18.50 km (on hold) 12 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M10 Line Symbol.png
Pendik Sahil ↔ Kaynarca Merkez 5.10 km (on hold) 2 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M12 Line Symbol.png
Göztepe ↔ Ümraniye 13.03 km (on hold) 11 (on hold) Line on hold.
Istanbul M13 Line Symbol.png
Hastane ↔ Yenidoğan 6.90 km (on hold) 6 (on hold) Line on hold.


European side[edit]

Istanbul network with lines and extensions under construction through 2019, and including proposed lines and extensions.
M3 metro line extension 
BakırköyKirazlı metro line. Under Construction.
M7 metro line 
The M7 Kabataş-Mahmutbey metro line is under construction. On December 20, 2013, the line was commissioned to Kalyon Group for construction.[40] The groundbreaking ceremony was held on February 9, 2014. The line will be 24.5 km (15.2 mi) long with 19 stations, and is expected to go into service in 2018.
M9 metro line 
M9 Ataköy-İkitelli:
  1. Ataköy (under construction)
  2. Yenibosna (under construction)
  3. Çobançeşme (under construction)
  4. Kuyumcukent (under construction)
  5. Doğu Sanayi (under construction)
  6. Mimar Sinan Avenue (under construction)
  7. Evren District (under construction)
  8. İkitelli Junction (under construction)
  9. Mehmet Akif (under construction)
  10. Bahariye (under construction)
  11. MASKO (under construction)
  12. İkitelli Sanayi (under construction)
Istanbul New Airport metro line 
The Gayrettepe-Tayakadın metro line is under construction tender in 2016. The new airport will be connected with a metro system via a line starting from Gayrettepe station, with a total length of 33 km that will only be a 26-minute ride.[41]

Asian side[edit]

The ÜsküdarBeykoz metro line will run parallel to the Bosporus shoreline.

M4 metro line 
M4 Kadıköy–Tavşantepe is being extended, and will eventually connect Sabiha Gökçen International Airport:
  1. Hastane (under construction)
  2. Şeyhli (under construction)
  3. Kurtköy (under construction)
  4. Sabiha Gökçen International Airport (under construction)
M5 metro line 
M5 Üsküdar-Çekmeköy:
  1. Üsküdar (under construction)
  2. Fıstıkağacı (under construction)
  3. Bağlarbaşı (under construction)
  4. Altunizade (under construction)
  5. Kısıklı (under construction)
  6. Bulgurlu (under construction)
  7. Ümraniye (under construction)
  8. Çarşı (under construction)
  9. Yamanevler (under construction)
  10. Çakmak (under construction)
  11. Ihlamur Kuyu (under construction)
  12. Altınşehir (under construction)
  13. İmam Hatip (under construction)
  14. Dudullu (under construction)
  15. Necip Fazıl (under construction)
  16. Çekmeköy (under construction)
M8 metro line 
M8 Bostancı-Dudullu:
  1. Bostancı İDO (under construction)
  2. Suadiye (under construction)
  3. Upper Bostancı (under construction)
  4. Kozyatağı (under construction)
  5. Küçükbakkalköy (under construction)
  6. İçerenköy (under construction)
  7. Kayışdağı (under construction)
  8. Türkiş Blocks (under construction)
  9. İMES (under construction)
  10. MODOKO (under construction)
  11. Dudullu (under construction)
  12. Upper Dudullu (under construction)
  13. Depot (under construction)
Göztepe-Ataşehir-Ümraniye line (under construction)
  1. Göztepe 60. Yıl Parkı
  2. Göztepe
  3. Sahrayı Cedit
  4. Yeni Sahra
  5. Ataşehir
  6. Finans Merkezi
  7. Soyak Yenişehir
  8. Ataken
  9. Ümraniye Çarşı
  10. Hastane
  11. Kazım Karabekir
Future lines within the network: M5 (under construction), M6 (under construction), M7 (under construction) and M8 (planned)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Raylı Sistemler" [Rail Systems] (in Turkish). Metro İstanbul. 2016. Retrieved 2017-08-01. 
  2. ^ "İstanbul'da raylı sistem taşımacılığı rekor kırdı". Hürriyet (in Turkish). January 28, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-17. 
  3. ^ https://www.metro.istanbul/about-us/timeline.aspx
  4. ^ Rayli Sistemler. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  5. ^ "Tunnel". IETT. Retrieved 2014-12-18. 
  6. ^ "A brief history of the Underground - London Underground milestones". Transport for London. Retrieved 2014-06-06. 
  7. ^ TMMOB: "İstanbul Ulaştırmasının Dünü, Bugünü" (Güngör Evren)
  8. ^ Yıldız Technical University Faculty of Architecture Magazine (Megaron): "İki Fransız mimarı Henri Prost ve August Perret'nin İstanbul ile ilgili çalışmaları" (Işık Aydemir)
  9. ^ "Europe > Turkey > ISTANBUL Metro". UrbanRail.Net. Retrieved 2013-08-12. 
  10. ^ NTV-MSNBC: "10 soruda İstanbul Metrosu" (17 September 2000)
  11. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: "İstanbul Metrosu: Taksim – 4. Levent" Archived 2009-06-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ a b "Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Yenikapı Metro Hattı". Ibb.gov.tr. 2002-01-23. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  13. ^ a b "İstanbul Ulaşım: Metro Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzandı". Istanbululasim.com. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  14. ^ "Metro, Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzadı". Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  15. ^ istanbululasim.net
  16. ^ "Taksim-Yenikapı Metro Hattı". Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality. Archived from the original on 2009-04-24. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  17. ^ Anasayfa - Raytürk
  18. ^ http://www.istanbul-ulasim.com.tr/default.asp?page=haberler&category=guncelhaberler&article=539&process=read
  19. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim - 4. Levent metro hattı Archived 2009-06-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Ayazağa-Hacıosman metro hattı Archived 2009-05-06 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ a b Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Yenikapı metro hattı Archived 2009-04-24 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Golden Horn metro bridge Archived 2013-12-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ "FUNİKÜLER SİSTEM Taksim - Kabataş". İstanbul Ulaşım. Archived from the original on 2008-08-20. Retrieved 2009-06-20. 
  24. ^ "Kadiköy - Kartal metro opened by Prime Minister". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2012-08-19. 
  25. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  26. ^ Istanbul Ulasim. Istanbul Ulasim. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  27. ^ a b c "Istanbul Railway Network Map (complete, including under construction sections)". Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr. İstanbul Ulaşim A.Ş. 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-13. 
  28. ^ a b c "M1 Yenikapı - Atatürk Havalimanı / Kirazlı Metro Hattı" [M1 Yenikapı - Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşim A.Ş. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  29. ^ "PM Davutoğlu inaugurates İstanbul's Aksaray-Yenikapı metro". Today's Zaman. 9 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 
  30. ^ a b c "M2 Yenikapı- Hacıosman Metro Hattı" [M2 Yenikapı- Hacıosman Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  31. ^ a b c "M3 Başakşehir Metro Hattı" [M3 Başakşehir Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  32. ^ a b c "M4 Kadıköy-Kartal Metro Hattı" [M4 Kadikoy-Kartal Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Archived from the original on 2015-04-23. Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  33. ^ a b c "M5 Üsküdar – Yamanevler". Milliyet.com.tr (in Turkish). 
  34. ^ a b c "M6 Levent – Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü Metro Hattı" [M6 Levent – Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü Metro Line]. Istanbul-ulasim.com.tr (in Turkish). İstanbul Ulaşım. Retrieved 2015-04-20. 
  35. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  36. ^ Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality: Taksim-Yenikapı Metro Hattı Archived 2009-05-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  37. ^ İstanbul Ulaşım: Metro Şişhane'den Maslak'a uzandı
  38. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine.. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  39. ^ İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Archived 2012-06-01 at the Wayback Machine.. Ibb.gov.tr. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
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  41. ^ "Subway running to 3rd Istanbul airport to be put out to tender in 2016". Daily Sabah Istanbul. 2015-08-09. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 

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