It's a Long Way to Tipperary
|"It's a Long Way to Tipperary"|
Sheet music cover
|Songwriter(s)||Jack Judge and Harry Williams|
"It's a Long Way to Tipperary" (or "It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary") is a British music hall song first performed in 1912 by Jack Judge, and written by Judge and Harry Williams though authorship of the song has long been disputed.
It was recorded in 1914 by Irish tenor John McCormack. It became popular as a marching song among soldiers in the First World War and is remembered as a song of that war. Welcoming signs in the referenced county of Tipperary, Ireland, humorously declare, "You've come a long way" in reference to the song.
Jack Judge's parents were Irish, and his grandparents came from Tipperary. Judge met Harry Williams (Henry James Williams, 23 September 1873 – 21 February 1924) in Oldbury, Worcestershire at the Malt Shovel public house, where Williams's brother Ben was the licensee. Williams was severely disabled, having fallen down cellar steps as a child and badly broken both legs. He had developed a talent for writing verse and songs, and played the piano and mandolin, often in public. Judge and Williams began a long-term writing partnership that resulted in 32 music hall songs published by Bert Feldman. Many of the songs were composed by Williams and Judge at Williams's home, The Plough Inn (later renamed The Tipperary Inn), in Balsall Common. Because Judge could not read or write music, Williams taught them to Judge by ear.
Judge was a popular semi-professional performer in music halls. In January 1912, he was performing at the Grand Theatre in Stalybridge, and accepted a 5-shilling bet that he could compose and sing a new song by the next night. The following evening, 31 January, Judge performed "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" for the first time, and it immediately became a great success. The song was originally written and performed as a sentimental ballad, to be enjoyed by Irish expatriates living in London. Judge sold the rights to the song to Bert Feldman in London, who agreed to publish it and other songs written by Judge with Williams. Feldman published the song as "It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary" in October 1912, and promoted it as a march.
Feldman paid royalties to both Judge and Williams, but after Williams' death in 1924, Judge claimed sole credit for writing the song, saying that he had agreed to Williams being co-credited as recompense for a debt that Judge owed. However, Williams' family showed that the tune and most of the lyrics to the song already existed in the form of a manuscript, "It's A Long Way to Connemara", co-written by Williams and Judge back in 1909, and Judge had used this, just changing some words, including changing "Connemara" to "Tipperary".
Judge said: "I was the sole composer of 'Tipperary', and all other songs published in our names jointly. They were all 95% my work, as Mr Williams made only slight alterations to the work he wrote down from my singing the compositions. He would write it down on music-lined paper and play it back, then I'd work on the music a little more ... I have sworn affidavits in my possession by Bert Feldman, the late Harry Williams and myself confirming that I am the composer ...". In a 1933 interview, he added: "The words and music of the song were written in the Newmarket Tavern, Corporation Street, Stalybridge on 31st January 1912, during my engagement at the Grand Theatre after a bet had been made that a song could not be written and sung the next evening ... Harry was very good to me and used to assist me financially, and I made a promise to him that if I ever wrote a song and published it, I would put his name on the copies and share the proceeds with him. Not only did I generously fulfil that promise, but I placed his name with mine on many more of my own published contributions. During Mr Williams' lifetime (as far as I know) he never claimed to be the writer of the song ...".
Williams's family campaigned in 2012 to have Harry Williams officially re-credited with the song, and shared their archives with the Imperial War Museums. The family estate still receives royalties from the song.
In 1917, Alice Smyth Burton Jay sued song publishers Chappell & Co. for $100,000, alleging she wrote the tune in 1908 for a song played at the Alaska–Yukon–Pacific Exposition promoting the Washington apple industry. The chorus began "I'm on my way to Yakima". The court appointed Victor Herbert to act as expert advisor and dismissed the suit in 1920, since the authors of "Tipperary" had never been to Seattle and Victor Herbert testified the two songs were not similar enough to suggest plagiarism.
The song was originally written as a lament from an Irish worker in London, missing his homeland, before it became a popular soldiers' marching song. One of the most popular hits of the time, the song is atypical in that it is not a warlike song that incites the soldiers to glorious deeds. Popular songs in previous wars (such as the Boer Wars) frequently did this. In the First World War, however, the most popular songs, like this one and "Keep the Home Fires Burning", concentrated on the longing for home.
Feldman persuaded Florrie Forde to perform the song in 1913, but she disliked it and dropped it from her act. However, it became widely known. During the First World War, Daily Mail correspondent George Curnock saw the Irish regiment the Connaught Rangers singing this song as they marched through Boulogne on 13 August 1914, and reported it on 18 August 1914. The song was quickly picked up by other units of the British Army. In November 1914, it was recorded by Irish tenor John McCormack, which helped its worldwide popularity. Other popular versions in the USA in 1915 were by the American Quartet, Prince's Orchestra, and Albert Farrington.
The popularity of the song among soldiers, despite (or because of) its irreverent and non-military theme, was noted at the time, and was contrasted with the military and patriotic songs favoured by enemy troops. Commentators considered that the song's appeal revealed characteristically British qualities of being cheerful in the face of hardship. The Times suggested that "'Tipperary' may be less dignified, but it, and whatever else our soldiers may choose to sing will be dignified by their bravery, their gay patience, and their long suffering kindness... We would rather have their deeds than all the German songs in the world."
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Early recording star Billy Murray, with the American Quartet, sang "It's A Long Way To Tipperary" as a straightforward march, complete with brass, drums and cymbals, with a quick bar of "Rule, Britannia!" thrown into the instrumental interlude between the first and second verse-chorus combination.
The song was featured as one of the songs in the 1951 film On Moonlight Bay, the 1960s stage musical and film Oh! What a Lovely War and the 1970 musical Darling Lili, sung by Julie Andrews. It was also sung by the prisoners of war in Jean Renoir's film La Grande Illusion (1937) and as background music in The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming (1966). It is also the second part (the other two being Hanging on the Old Barbed Wire and Mademoiselle from Armentières) of the regimental march of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. Mystery Science Theater 3000 used it twice, sung by Crow T. Robot in Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Movie (1996), then sung again for the final television episode. It is also sung by British soldiers in the film The Travelling Players (1975) directed by Theo Angelopoulos, and by Czechoslovak soldiers in the movie Černí baroni (1992).
The song is often cited when documentary footage of the First World War is presented. One example of its use is in the annual television special It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown (1966). Snoopy—who fancies himself as a First World War flying ace—dances to a medley of First World War-era songs played by Schroeder. This song is included, and at that point Snoopy falls into a left-right-left marching pace. Schroeder also played this song in Snoopy, Come Home (1972) at Snoopy's send-off party. Also, Snoopy was seen singing the song out loud in a series of strips about his going to the 1968 Winter Olympics. In another strip, Snoopy is walking so long a distance to Tipperary that he lies down exhausted and notes, "They're right, it is a long way to Tipperary." On a different occasion, Snoopy walks along and begins to sing the song, only to meet a sign that reads, "Tipperary: One Block." In a Sunday strip wherein Snoopy, in his World War I fantasy state, walks into Marcie's home, thinking it a French café, and falls asleep after drinking all her root beer, she rousts him awake by loudly singing the song.
The cast of The Mary Tyler Moore Show march off screen singing the song at the conclusion of the series’ final episode, after news anchor Ted Baxter (played by Ted Knight) had inexplicably recited some of the lyrics on that evening's news broadcast.
It was sung by the crew of U-96 in Wolfgang Petersen's 1981 film Das Boot (that particular arrangement was performed by the Red Army Choir). Morale is boosted in the submarine when the German crew sings the song as they begin patrolling in the North Atlantic Ocean. The crew sings it a second time as they cruise toward home port after near disaster.
Survivors of the sinking of HMS Tipperary in the Battle of Jutland (1916) were identified by their rescuers on HMS Sparrowhawk because they were singing "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" in their lifeboat.
Up to mighty London
Came an Irishman one day.
As the streets are paved with gold
Sure, everyone was gay,
Singing songs of Piccadilly,
Strand and Leicester Square,
Till Paddy got excited,
Then he shouted to them there:
It's a long way to Tipperary,
It's a long way to go.
It's a long way to Tipperary,
To the sweetest girl I know!
Farewell, Leicester Square!
It's a long long way to Tipperary,
But my heart's right there.
Paddy wrote a letter
To his Irish Molly-O,
Saying, "Should you not receive it,
Write and let me know!"
"If I make mistakes in spelling,
Molly, dear," said he,
"Remember, it's the pen that's bad,
Don't lay the blame on me!"
Molly wrote a neat reply
To Irish Paddy-O,
Saying "Mike Maloney
Wants to marry me, and so
Leave the Strand and Piccadilly
Or you'll be to blame,
For love has fairly drove me silly:
Hoping you're the same!"
That's the wrong way to tickle Mary,
That's the wrong way to kiss.
Don't you know that over here, lad
They like it best like this.
Hoo-ray pour les français,
We didn't know how to tickle Mary,
But we learnt how over there.
Other versions and adaptations
- In 1916 the Daily Mirror published the song in the languages of the Empire. This included a version translated into the Cornish language by Henry Jenner.
- The Kannadiga playwright and poet, T. P. Kailasam, as part of a wager from a British friend, translated the song into Kannada, adding witty Kannada-specific lyrics. The resulting song, "Namma Tipparahalli balu Doora" (halli meaning "village" in Kannada), is a popular song in Karnataka. This version can be heard played by a marching band in the Bengali film, Pather Panchali (1955), directed by Satyajit Ray.
- A Rhodesian version of the song called "It's a Long Way to Mukumbura" became popular among Rhodesian soldiers during that country's Bush War in the 1970s.
- The University of Missouri uses a version of "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" as a fight song, renamed "Every True Son".
- The University of Oregon uses a contrafact of "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" as a fight song, renamed "Mighty Oregon".
- "It's a Long Way from Amphioxus", a parody of this song written by Philip H. Pope, is sung by students and scientists as an affirmation of evolution. It was originally recorded by Sam Hinton, and is the official song of the Biological Sciences Division at the University of Chicago.
- The song is an example of a partner song, or simultaneous quodlibet, in that the chorus of the song can be sung at the same time as another well-known music hall song, "Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit-Bag", in perfect harmony.
- The Club Atletico River Plate from Buenos Aires, Argentina, used the music from this song to create its hymn.
- John McCormack's version is featured in the soundtrack Titanic: Music from the Motion Picture (1997).
- The song is referenced extensively in the 1917 Billy Murray song "The Further It Is From Tipperary, The Closer It Is To Berlin"
- A piano version of the song is performed by Schroeder in TV's It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown (1966) in which Snoopy marches while the song is played. It is part of a medley of WWI songs that alternate between two jaunty marching songs (this song and "Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit-Bag") and two wistful songs, "There's a Long Long Trail A-Winding" and "Roses of Picardy", during which Snoopy cries and wails.
- "World War One: Bet on It's a Long Long Way to Tipperary". Bbc.co.uk. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- Pybus, Meg (2014). "Final recognition of Harry's composition". Pybus. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- Max Cryer (2009). Love Me Tender: The Stories Behind the World's Best-loved Songs. Frances Lincoln Publishers. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7112-2911-2.[dead link]
- "Community can help make Tipperary the best small town in Ireland". Tipperarylive.ie. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- "The World's Most Famous Marching Song", TipperaryWarSong.co.uk. Retrieved 15 July 2020
- "Jack Judge - His Life and Music", History of Oldbury. Retrieved 15 July 2020
- Max Cryer (2009). Love Me Tender: The Stories Behind the World's Best-loved Songs. Frances Lincoln Publishers. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7112-2911-2.
- "Jack Judge 1872 - 1938: Part 4". Retrieved 15 July 2020
- Fricker, Martin (19 February 2014). "Song that won war: It's a long way to Tipperary and a long time to pay royalties". Mirror. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
- "'Tipperary'" Tune Stolen, She Says. Boston Daily Globe, 20 September 1917, p. 16
- "Victor Herbert Is 'Tipperary' Expert," The New York Times, 27 September 1917, p. 10
- "Loses 'Tipperary' Suit." The New York Times, 24 June 1920, p. 25.
- Richard Anthony Baker, British Music Hall: an illustrated history, Pen & Sword, 2014, ISBN 978-1-78383-118-0, p.157
- Gibbons, Verna Hale (1998). Jack Judge: The Tipperary Man. West Midlands: Sandwell Community Library Service. ISBN 1-900689-07-3.
- Whitburn, Joel (1986). Joel Whitburn's Pop Memories 1890-1954. Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 531. ISBN 0-89820-083-0.
- Ian Mansfield, "It’s a Long Way to Tipperary - the world's first viral", BT.com, 14 August 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2020
-  Archived 16 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- "British POWs sank with the Lisbon Maru - should it be raised?". Bbc.com. 14 July 2018. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- "The Fighting at Jutland". www.kiplingsociety.co.uk. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
- "Artist Unknown: It's a Long Way to Rome 1943". Meehan Military Posters. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
- Peter Berresford Ellis, The Cornish Language and its Literature, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1974.
- Ballinger, Tony (2015). A Walk Against The Stream: A Rhodesian National Service Officer's Story of the Bush War. Solihull: Helion and Company. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-910294-43-7.
- "University of Missouri fight song". Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
- "'Mighty Oregon' sings of the past". Daily Emerald. 12 November 2006. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- "The Sam Hinton Website – Sounds". Golden Apple Design. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- University of Chicago: Biological Sciences Division Archived 21 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Video on YouTube
- University of California, Santa Barbara Library Department of Special Collections (16 November 2005). "Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project". Cylinders.library.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to It's a Long Way to Tipperary.|
- It's a Long Way to Tipperary: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Sheet Music for "It's a Long, Long Way to Tipperary", Chappell & Co., Ltd., 1912.
- Full lyrics and early recordings
- Kannada Version written by Kailasam
- Recording by Billy Murray and the American Quartet
- "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" at MusicBrainz (information and list of recordings)