Italian general election, 2008

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Italian general election, 2008
Italy
← 2006 13–14 April 2008 2013 →

All 630 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
and 315 seats (out of 322) in the Senate of the Republic
Turnout 78.12%
  First party Second party Third party
  Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Walter Veltroni cropped.jpg Pierferdy Casini.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Walter Veltroni Pier Ferdinando Casini
Party People of Freedom Democratic Party Union of the Centre
Alliance Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition
Leader since 18 January 1994 14 October 2007 18 January 1994
Leader's seat Molise (C) Lazio 1 (C) Liguria (C)
Seats won 344 C / 174 S 246 C / 134 S 36 C / 3 S
Seat change Increase102 C / Increase29 S Increase3 C / Increase21 S Decrease3 C / Decrease18 S
Coalition vote 17,063,874 C
15,508,899 S
13,686,673 C
12,457,182 S
2,050,309 C
1,866,356 S
Percentage 46.8% (C)
47.3% (S)
37.5% (C)
38.0% (S)
5.6% (C)
5.7% (S)

Italian 2008 elections.png
Election results maps for the Chamber of Deputies (on the left) and for the Senate (on the right). On the left, the color identifies the coalition which received the most votes in each province. On the right, the color identifies the coalition which won the most seats in respect to each Region. Blue denotes the Centre-right coalition, Red the Centre-left coalition, Light Blue, and Gray regional parties.

Prime Minister before election

Romano Prodi
Democratic Party

Elected Prime Minister

Silvio Berlusconi
People of Freedom

A snap general election was held in Italy on 13–14 April 2008.[1] The election came after President Giorgio Napolitano dissolved Parliament on 6 February 2008, following the defeat of the government of Prime Minister Romano Prodi in a January 2008 Senate vote of confidence[2] and the unsuccessful tentative appointment of Franco Marini with the aim to change the current electoral law. Under Italian law, elections must be held within 70 days of the dissolution. The voting determined the leader of Italy's 62nd government since the end of World War II.[3] The coalition led by ex-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi from The People of Freedom party defeated that of former Mayor of Rome, Walter Veltroni of the Democratic Party.[4]

Background[edit]

On 24 January 2008 Prime Minister of Italy Romano Prodi lost a vote of confidence in the Senate by a vote of 161 to 156 votes, causing the downfall of his government.[5] Prodi's resignation led President Giorgio Napolitano to request the president of the Senate, Franco Marini, to assess the possibility to form a caretaker government. The other possibility would have been to call for early elections immediately.

The decision of former Minister of Justice Mastella arrived a few days after the confirmation of the Constitutional Court which confirmed the referendum to modify the electoral system.[6] As stated many times by Minister Mastella, if the referendum would have been confirmed this would have led directly to the fall of the government[7][8] and it happened.
The fall of the government would disrupt a pending election-law referendum that if passed would make it harder for small parties like Mastella's to gain seats in parliament.[9]

Silvio Berlusconi during a People of Freedom rally in 2008.

UDEUR's defection forced the question of whether Prodi still had the parliamentarian support to govern. Presenting a motion of confidence to parliament, he won relatively easily in the lower house of the Parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, where the coalition's majority was substantial.[10] Yet a win in the upper house – or Senate – seemed unlikely, and President Giorgio Napolitano was said to have warned against going through with the vote.[10]

The vote, held between 3pm and 9pm (CET), was heated and dramatic.[11] During its course the UDEUR party Senator Stefano Cusumano decided to confirm the confidence and to support the prime minister, even against the orders of his party's leader. He was subsequently subjected to the abuse of his colleagues, being called an "hysteric faggot", "traitor", and reportedly spat on by a member of the conservative UDEUR party. At this point Cusumano apparently fainted, and was carried out on a stretcher.[12] Cusumano's defection had no effect, however: Prodi lost the vote with 161 to 156 votes (one member abstained from voting, while three were absent), and promptly handed in his resignation.[11]

On 30 January, Napolitano appointed Franco Marini to try to form a caretaker government with the goal of changing the current electoral system, rather than call a quick election.[13] The state of the electoral system had been under criticism not only within the outgoing government, but also among the opposition and in the general population, because of the impossibility to choose candidates directly and of the risks that a close-call election may not grant a stable majority in the Senate.

On 4 February 2008 Marini acknowledged that he had failed to find the necessary majority for an interim government,[14] and resigned his mandate,[15] after having met with all major political forces and having found opposition to forming an interim government mainly from center-right parties Forza Italia and National Alliance, favoured in a possible next election and strongly in favour of an early vote.,[16]

President Napolitano summoned Bertinotti and Marini, the two speakers of the houses of the Italian parliament, acknowledging the end of the legislature, on 5 February 2008.[17] He dissolved parliament on 6 February 2008.

Campaign[edit]

Major competitors in the election were Silvio Berlusconi, as leader of the centre-right opposition coalition, and Walter Veltroni, leader of the Democratic Party. Berlusconi's right coalition was leading by a significant margin in opinion polls.[18] The 71-year-old Berlusconi, who was twice prime minister—from May 1994 to January 1995 and again from May 2001 to May 2006—was not considered too old for the job though he had had heart surgery since leaving office.[19]

Veltroni's campaign has been compared to Barack Obama's presidential run in the United States. The most apparent of the similarities is his slogan, "Si può fare" (literally, "it can be done").[19]

Walter Veltroni in Trento during the electoral campaign.

Following the calling of the election, Veltroni stated his party will not make any alliance in either Chamber, choosing instead to run alone with its own platform, and challenged Berlusconi to do likewise with his Forza Italia party. The main four left-wing parties not part of the PD decided to contest the election together under the banner of The Left – The Rainbow. On 8 February, Berlusconi announced Forza Italia and Gianfranco Fini's National Alliance will run together under the common symbol of The People of Freedom, being regionally allied with Lega Nord.[20]

On 13 February, Veltroni announced to have reached an agreement with the Italy of Values, led by Antonio Di Pietro, which agreed for an electoral alliance with the Democratic Party, accepting also to join the Democratic Party parliamentary groups after the election.[21] On 21 February the Italian Radicals announced an agreement with the Democratic Party, accepting to present themselves in list with the latter, under the agreement they will have nine MPs elected in the Parliament, and appointment of Emma Bonino as Minister in case of victory.[22]

Though Berlusconi and Veltroni were in opposite parties, they allegedly represent such similar policies that they were dubbed "Veltrusconi". Both candidates supported big tax cuts and generous spending programs.[19]

The Union of Christian and Centre Democrats was invited to support Berlusconi, but refused and decided to run on its own instead. The Rose for Italy originally planned to run alone with Bruno Tabacci as their PM candidate, but shortly before the filing deadline, they decided to form joint lists with the UDC.[citation needed]

Electoral system[edit]

The electoral system had been last reformed by Law no. 270, 21 December 2005.[23]

Chamber of Deputies[edit]

For the election of the lower house,[24] all seats in the Chamber of Deputies (excluding one deputy for the region of Aosta Valley and twelve deputies for Italians residing abroad) are allocated based on the national vote in a form of party-list proportional representation with a series of thresholds to encourage parties to form coalitions. Voters cast one vote for a closed list, meaning they cannot express a preference for individual candidates.

Parties can choose to run in coalitions. Seats are first allocated based on coalition votes, then divided among parties belonging to the same coalition by the largest remainder method. To guarantee a working majority, the coalition or party that obtains a plurality of the vote, but fewer than 340 seats, is assigned additional seats to reach that number, which is roughly 54% of all seats.

The autonomous region of Aosta Valley elects one deputy through a first-past-the-post system. Italians abroad are divided into four constituencies, which elect a total of twelve seats based on proportional representation.

Senate[edit]

For the election of the upper house,[24] a similar system is used. However, the results are based on regional, rather than national, vote. This means the coalition or party that wins a plurality of votes in each region is guaranteed a majority of the seats assigned to that region. As this mechanism is region-based, opposing parties or coalitions may benefit from the majority bonus in different regions. It therefore does not guarantee any party or coalition a majority in the Senate.

Three regions have exceptions to the system detailed above. In the region of Molise, that is granted two seats in the Senate, seats are allocated proportionally, with no majority bonus. The region of Aosta Valley, which elects one senator, uses a first-past-the-post system. Finally, the region of Trentino-South Tyrol elects seven senators with a mixed-member proportional system: six senators are elected in six single-member constituencies, while the seventh is allocated to the most underrepresented list based on the regional votes.

Six seats in the Senate are assigned to Italians living abroad and are allocated using the same system used for the Chamber of Deputies.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
The People of Freedom (PdL) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Democratic Party (PD) Social democracy Walter Veltroni
Lega Nord (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Union of the Centre (UdC) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
Italy of Values (IdV) Populism Antonio Di Pietro
The Left – The Rainbow (SA) Left-wing politics Fausto Bertinotti
The Right – Tricolour Flame (LD-FT) National conservatism Daniela Santanché
Movement for Autonomy (MpA) Regionalism Raffaele Lombardo

Coalitions and electoral list[edit]

Political force or alliance Constituent lists Leader
Centre-right coalition
(Coalizione di centrodestra)
The People of Freedom (Il Popolo della Libertà)
Silvio Berlusconi
Northern League (Lega Nord)
Movement for Autonomy (Movimento per l'Autonomia)
Centre-left coalition
(Coalizione di centrosinistra)
Democratic Party (Partito Democratico)
Walter Veltroni
Italy of Values (Italia dei Valori)
Union of the Centre
(Unione di Centro)
Union of the Centre (Unione di Centro)
Pier Ferdinando Casini
The Left – The Rainbow
(La Sinistra – L'Arcobaleno)
Communist Refoundation Party (Rifondazione Comunista)
Fausto Bertinotti
Party of Italian Communists (Partito dei Comunisti Italiani)
Federation of the Greens (Federazione dei Verdi)
Democratic Left (Sinistra Democratica)
The Right – Tricolour Flame
(La Destra – Fiamma Tricolore)
The Right (La Destra)
Daniela Santanché
Tricolour Flame (Fiamma Tricolore)

Main leaders[edit]

Coalition Portrait Name Most recent position
Centre-right coalition Berlusconi-2010-1.jpg Silvio Berlusconi Prime Minister of Italy
(2001–2006)
President of The People of Freedom
(2008–incumbent)
Centre-left coalition Walter Veltroni cropped.jpg Walter Veltroni Mayor of Rome
(2001–2008)
Secretary of the Democratic Party
(2007–incumbent)
Union of the Centre Pierferdy Casini.jpg Pier Ferdinando Casini President of the Chamber of Deputies
(2001–2006)
Leader of the Union of the Centre
(2002–incumbent)
The Left – The Rainbow Fausto Bertinotti.jpg Fausto Bertinotti President of the Chamber of Deputies
(2006–2008)
Secretary of the Communist Refoundation Party
(1993–2006)
The Right–Tricolour Flame Daniela Santanchè daticamera.jpg Daniela Santanchè Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(2001–incumbent)

Opinion polls[edit]

Results for the Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Overall results[edit]

Summary of the 13–14 April 2008 Chamber of Deputies election results
Italian Chamber of Deputies, 2008.svg
Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom (PdL) 13,965,781 37.17% 276
Lega Nord (LN) 3,026,865 8.06% 60
Movement for Autonomy (MpA) 410,499 1.09% 8
Total seats 344
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD) 12,434,260 33.09% 217
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,636,173 4.35% 29
Total seats 246
Union of the Centre (UdC) 2,138,246 5.69% 36
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 147,718 0.39% 2
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 86,970 0.23% 1
Autonomy Liberty Democracy (ALD) 29,314 0.08% 1
Other parties 3,699,885 9.85% 0
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 1,533,953 3.06%
Total 39,109,664 100.00% 630
Registered voters/turnout 50,066,615 78.12%
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Results for parties and lists[edit]

Popular vote
PdL
  
37.17%
PD
  
33.09%
LN
  
8.06%
UdC
  
5.69%
IdV
  
4.35%
SA
  
3.07%
LD-FT
  
2.39%
MpA
  
1.09%
Others
  
5.09%
Seat distribution
PdL
  
43.81%
PD
  
34.45%
LN
  
9.52%
UdC
  
5.71%
IdV
  
4.60%
MpA
  
1.27%
Others
  
0.63%

Results for coalitions[edit]

Popular vote (Italy only, excluding Aosta Valley)
CDX
  
46.81%
CSX
  
37.55%
UdC
  
5.62%
SA
  
3.08%
LD-FT
  
2.43%
Others
  
4.51%
Seat distribution
CDX
  
55.11%
CSX
  
38.74%
UdC
  
5.83%
Others
  
0.32%

Italy (19 regions out of 20)[edit]

Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom 13,629,464 37.38 272
Lega Nord 3,024,543 8.30 60
Movement for Autonomy 410,499 1.13 8
Total 17,064,506 46.81 340
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party 12,095,306 33.18 211
Italy of Values 1,594,024 4.37 28
Total 13,689,303 37.55 239
Union of the Centre 2,050,229 5.62 36
The Left – The Rainbow 1,124,298 3.08 0
The Right – Tricolour Flame 884,961 2.43 0
Socialist Party 355,495 0.98 0
Workers' Communist Party 208,296 0.57 0
Critical Left 168,916 0.46 0
South Tyrolean People's Party 147,718 0.41 0
Abortion? No, Thanks 135,535 0.37 0
For the Common Good 119,569 0.33 0
New Force 109,699 0.30 0
Italian Liberal Party 104,053 0.29 0
Democratic Union for Consumers 91,106 0.25 0
List of Talking Crickets 66,835 0.18 0
Liga Veneta Repubblica 31,353 0.09 0
Die Freiheitlichen 28,340 0.08 0
MEDA 16,483 0.05 0
Sardinian Action Party 14,860 0.04 0
League for Autonomy–Lombard Alliance–Pensioners League 13,992 0.04 0
Citizens' Union for South Tyrol 12,981 0.04 0
Sardinia Nation 7,176 0.02 0
Lega Sud Ausonia 4,399 0.01 0
Venetian Agreement 2,388 0.01 0
Communist Alternative Party 1,993 0.01 0
The Lotus 1,797 0.00 0
Thought Action Party 946 0.00 0
Total 36,457,254 100.00 617

Results by Regions[edit]

Region Centre-right Coalition Centre-left Coalition Union of the Centre The Left – The Rainbow The Right – Tricolour Flame Others
Abruzzo 43.2 40.5 5.9 3.2 3.2 4.0
Apulia 47.4 35.6 8.0 3.0 2.1 3.9
Basilicata 37.6 44.5 6.9 3.5 2.3 5.2
Calabria 43.8 36.2 8.2 3.2 2.2 6.4
Campania 51.5 33.9 6.5 2.7 1.6 3.8
Emilia-Romagna 36.4 50.0 4.3 3.0 2.5 3.8
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 47.8 35.7 6.0 3.1 3.0 4.4
Lazio 43.7 40.9 4.8 3.3 3.4 3.9
Liguria 43.6 42.5 3.8 3.7 2.7 3.7
Lombardy 55.1 32.1 4.3 2.9 2.1 3.5
Marche 37.2 45.9 6.0 3.0 3.4 4.5
Molise 41.8 45.6 5.8 1.9 1.7 3.2
Piedmont 47.0 37.4 5.2 3.4 3.2 3.8
Sardinia 43.0 40.0 6.6 3.6 1.5 5.3
Sicily 54.3 28.8 9.4 2.6 2.0 2.9
Trentino-Alto Adige 30.4 27.8 4.2 3.1 2.0 32.5
Tuscany 33.6 50.3 4.2 4.5 2.9 4.5
Umbria 36.1 47.4 4.5 3.5 3.6 4.9
Veneto 54.4 30.8 5.6 2.2 2.0 5.0

Aosta Valley[edit]

The autonomous region of Aosta Valley, in northwestern Italy, elects one member to the Chamber of Deputies through a direct first-past-the-post election. Some parties that formed electoral coalitions in Italy, might have opted to run against one another (or form different coalitions) in this particular region.

Party % Votes Seats
Autonomy Liberty Democracy 39.12 29,314 1
Aosta Valley coalition (UV-SA-FA) 37.84 28,357 0
The People of Freedom 18.52 13,880 0
Lega Nord 3.10 2,322 0
Social Action 1.42 1,066 0
Total 100.00 74,939 1

Italians abroad[edit]

Twelve members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by Italians abroad. Two members are elected for North America and Central America (including most of the Caribbean), three members for South America (including Trinidad and Tobago), six members for Europe, and one member for the rest of the world (Africa, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica). Voters in these regions select candidate lists and may also cast a preference vote for individual candidates. The seats are allocated by proportional representation.

The electoral law allows for parties to form different coalitions on the lists abroad, compared to the lists in Italy.

Party % Votes Seats
Democratic Party 32.48 338,954 6
The People of Freedom 30.90 322,437 4
Union of the Centre 8.43 88,017 0
Associative Movement Italians Abroad 8.33 86,970 1
Italian Associations in South America 6.16 64,325 0
Italy of Values 4.04 42,149 0
Socialist Party 3.12 32,513 0
The Left – The Rainbow 2.73 28,495 0
The Right – Tricolour Flame 1.43 14,974 0
The Other Sicily 0.89 9,251 0
Critical Left 0.58 6,062 0
Italian Civic Consumers 0.47 4,878 0
Values and Future 0.43 4,493 0
Total 100.00 1,043,518 12

Results for the Senate of the Republic[edit]

Overall results[edit]

Summary of the 13–14 April 2008 Senate of the Republic election results
Italian Senate, 2008.svg
Coalition Party Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom (PdL) 147
Lega Nord (LN) 25
Movement for Autonomy (MpA) 2
Total 174
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party (PD) 118
Italy of Values (IdV) 14
Total 132
Union of the Centre (UdC) 3
South Tyrolean People's Party – Together for the Autonomies 2
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 2
Associative Movement Italians Abroad (MAIE) 1
Aosta Valley coalition (VdA) Valdostan Union (UV) 1
Total 315
Seat distribution for coalition
CDX
  
55.24%
CSX
  
41.90%
UdC
  
0.95%
Others
  
0.98%

Results by region[edit]

Region Coalitions Majority bonus
winner
Senators
Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Union of the Centre Others
Lombardy
Lombardy
19 (PdL)
11 (LN)
15 (PD)
2 (IdV)
CDX 47
Campania
Campania
18 (PdL) 10 (PD)
2 (IdV)
CDX 30
Lazio
Lazio
15 (PdL) 11 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 27
Sicily
Sicily
13 (PdL)
2 (MpA)
7 (PD)
1 (IdV)
3 (UdC) CDX 26
Veneto
Veneto
8 (PdL)
7 (LN)
8 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 24
Piedmont
Piedmont
10 (PdL)
3 LN
8 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 22
Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
7 (PdL)
2 (LN)
11 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CSX 21
Apulia
Apulia
12 (PdL) 8 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 21
Tuscany
Tuscany
7 (PdL) 10 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CSX 18
Calabria
Calabria
6 (PdL) 4 (PD) CDX 10
Sardinia
Sardinia
5 (PdL) 4 (PD) CDX 9
Liguria
Liguria
4 (PdL)
1 (LN)
3 (PD) CDX 8
Marche
Marche
3 (PdL) 5 (PD) CSX 8
Abruzzo
Abruzzo
4 (PdL) 2 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CDX 7
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
3 (PdL)
1 (LN)
3 (PD) CDX 7
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Trentino-South Tyrol
3 (PdL) 2 (SVP - IpA)
2 (SVP)
N/A 7
Umbria
Umbria
3 (PdL) 4 (PD) CSX 7
Basilicata
Basilicata
3 (PdL) 3 (PD)
1 (IdV)
CSX 7
Molise
Molise
1 (PdL) 1 (PD) N/A 2
Aosta Valley
Aosta Valley
1 (VA) N/A 1
Italians abroad 3 (PdL) 2 (PD) 1 (MAIE) N/A 6
Total 174 132 3 5 315

Italy (18 regions out of 20)[edit]

Coalition Party Votes % Seats
Centre-right coalition The People of Freedom 12,511,258 38.17 141
Lega Nord 2,642,280 8.06 25
Movement for Autonomy 355,361 1.08 2
Total 15,508,899 47.32 168
Centre-left coalition Democratic Party 11,042,452 33.69 116
Italy of Values 1,414,730 4.32 14
Total 12,457,182 38.07 130
Union of the Centre 1,866,356 5.69 3
The Left – The Rainbow 1,053,228 3.21 0
The Right – Tricolour Flame 686,926 2.10 0
Socialist Party 284,837 0.87 0
Workers' Communist Party 180,442 0.55 0
Critical Left 136,679 0.42 0
For the Common Good 105,827 0.32 0
Italian Liberal Party 100,759 0.31 0
New Force 85,564 0.26 0
Democratic Union for Consumers 78,139 0.24 0
List of Talking Crickets 49,535 0.15 0
Liga Veneta Repubblica 47,647 0.15 0
League for Autonomy–Lombard Alliance–Pensioners League 45,623 0.14 0
MEDA 19,899 0.06 0
Sardinian Action Party 15,280 0.05 0
United Populars 12,389 0.04 0
Marxist–Leninist Italian Communist Party 8,094 0.02 0
Lega Sud Ausonia 7,109 0.02 0
Sardinia Nation 6,972 0.02 0
Independence Front Lombardy 5,234 0.02 0
Venetian Agreement 4,600 0.01 0
Party of the South 3,727 0.01 0
Free South 1,795 0.01 0
Thought Action Party 1,597 0.00 0
Total 32,774,339 100.00 301

Results for parties and lists[edit]

Popular vote (Italy only, except Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige)
PdL
  
38.2%
PD
  
33.7%
LN
  
8.1%
UdC
  
5.7%
IdV
  
4.3%
SA
  
3.3%
LD-FT
  
2.1%
Others
  
4.6%

Results for coalitions[edit]

Popular vote (Italy only, except Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige)
CDX
  
46.9%
CSX
  
37.8%
UdC
  
5.7%
SA
  
3.3%
LD-FT
  
2.1%
Others
  
4.1%

Aosta Valley[edit]

Party % Votes Seats
Aosta Valley coalition (UV-SA-FA) 41.39 29,191 1
Autonomy Liberty Democracy 37.40 26,377 0
The People of Freedom 17.25 12,167 0
Lega Nord 2.95 2,081 0
Social Action 1.01 712 0
Total 100.00 70,520 1

Trentino-Alto Adige/South Tyrol[edit]

Party % Votes Seats
The People of Freedom 28.18 156,126 3
South Tyrolean People's Party - Together for the Autonomies 27.75 153,721 2
South Tyrolean People's Party 17.86 98,948 2
The Left – The Rainbow 7.21 39,957 0
Union of the Centre 5.87 32,511 0
Die Freiheitlichen 4.47 24,772 0
Democratic Party 3.48 19,253 0
The Right-Tricolour Flame 2.97 16,462 0
Union for South Tyrol 2.13 11,820 0
Socialist Party 0.07 369 0
Total 100.00 553,939 7

Italians abroad[edit]

Party % Votes Seats
The People of Freedom 33.86 322,698 3
Democratic Party 33.02 314,703 2
Associative Movement Italians Abroad 7.61 72,511 1
Italian Associations in South America 6.38 60,794 0
Union of the Centre 6.07 57,817 0
Italy of Values 4.02 38,357 0
Socialist Party 2.95 28,149 0
The Left - The Rainbow 2.84 27,067 0
The Right-Tricolour Flame 1.38 13,139 0
The Other Sicily 0.88 8,391 0
Critical Left 0.61 5,855 0
Italian Civic Consumers 0.38 3,663 0
Total 100.00 953,144 6

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Italy's President Dissolves Parliament, Forces Vote". Bloomberg.com. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  2. ^ "Italy to hold snap April election". BBC News. 6 February 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008. 
  3. ^ "Berlusconi plans Naples clean-up". BBC News. 15 April 2008. 
  4. ^ "Berlusconi declares election win". BBC News. 14 April 2008. 
  5. ^ "Prodi loses crucial Senate vote". BBC. 2008-01-24. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  6. ^ "Italian court okays referendum on election law" Reuters, January 16th 2008
  7. ^ "Legge elettorale, Mastella minaccia la crisi" Corriere della Sera, April 10, 2007
  8. ^ "Mastella: Se c'è referendum si rischia la crisi di governo" La Stampa, April 10, 2007
  9. ^ "Prodi Likely to Quit, Prompt Vote or Election Reform" Bloomberg.com
  10. ^ a b Ian Fisher (2008-01-24). "Italy Backs Its Coalition but Only Just for Now". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  11. ^ a b "Prodi sconfitto in Senato: cade il governo, Il premier al Quirinale per le dimissioni" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 2008-01-24. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  12. ^ "Cusumano si dissocia: voto sì. È bagarre" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 2008-01-24. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  13. ^ "Crisi, Napolitano incarica Marini" (in Italian). Corriere della Sera. 2008-01-30. Archived from the original on 31 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  14. ^ SignOnSanDiego.com > News > World - Italy Senate speaker fails to form govt, vote looms Archived 12 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  15. ^ Italy's Marini says no majority for electoral reform govt, resigns mandate | Latest News | News | Hemscott
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  17. ^ "DOMANI LO SCIOGLIMENTO DELLE CAMERE" (in Italian). Ansa. 2008-02-05. Archived from the original on 2008-02-04. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  18. ^ Elisabeth Rosenthal (7 February 2008). "With Flawed System Unchanged, Italy Sets Elections for April". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
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  23. ^ http://www.parlamento.it/parlam/leggi/05270l.htm
  24. ^ a b http://www.senato.it/Leg17/1013?testo_generico=4&voce_sommario=58

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