Italian general election, 2001

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Italian general election, 2001
Italy
← 1996 13 May 2001 2006 →

All 630 seats in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
315 seats in the Italian Senate
Turnout 81.4%
  First party Second party Third party
  Silvio Berlusconi 1994.jpg Francesco Rutelli 2008.jpg Fausto Bertinotti 2001.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Francesco Rutelli Fausto Bertinotti
Party Forza Italia The Daisy Communist Refoundation
Alliance House of Freedoms The Olive Tree
Leader's seat Milan Centre Rome Praenestine Turin Centre
Seats won 368 C / 176 S 241 C / 128 S 11 C / 4 S
Seat change Increase96 C / Increase33 S Decrease82 C / Decrease29 S Decrease30 C / Decrease6 S
Coalition vote 18,398,246 C
14,406,519 S
13,023,651 C
13,106,860 S
1,868,659 C
1,708,707 S
Percentage 49.56% (C)
42.53% (S)
35.08% (C)
38.70% (S)
5.03% (C)
5.04% (S)

Italian 2001 elections.png
Election results maps for the Chamber of Deputies (on the left) and for the Senate (on the right). On the left, the color identifies the coalition which received the most votes in each province. On the right, the color identifies the coalition which won the most seats in respect to each Region. Blue denotes the Centre-right coalition, Red the Centre-left coalition and Gray regional parties.

Prime Minister before election

Giuliano Amato
The Olive Tree

Elected Prime Minister

Silvio Berlusconi
House of Freedoms

A national general election was held in Italy on 13 May 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The 14th Parliament of the Italian republic was chosen.

The election was won by the centre-right coalition House of Freedoms led by Silvio Berlusconi, defeating Francesco Rutelli, former Mayor of Rome, and Prime Ministerial candidate of the centre-left coalition The Olive Tree, and rising back to power after Berlusconi's first victory, in the 1994 general election.

Electoral system[edit]

The intricate electoral system, called scorporo, provided 75% of the seats on the Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House) as elected by first-past-the-post system, whereas the remaining 25% was assigned on a proportional way with a minimum threshold of 4%.

The method used for the Senate was even more complicated: 75% of seats by uninominal method, and 25% by a special proportional method that assigned the remaining seats to minority parties. Formally, these were examples of additional member systems.

General election[edit]

Campaign[edit]

For this election Berlusconi again ran as leader of the centre-right coalition the House of Freedoms (Italian: La Casa delle Libertà), which included the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, the Northern League, the National Alliance and other parties.

On the television interviews programme Porta a Porta, during the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani (English: Contract with the Italians), an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from the Newt Gingrich's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the 1994 US Congressional election,[1] which was widely considered to be a creative masterstroke in his 2001 campaign bid for prime ministership. In this solemn agreement, Berlusconi claimed his commitment on improving several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Firstly, he undertook to simplify the complex tax system by introducing just two tax rates (33% for those earning over 100,000 euros, and 23% for anyone earning less than that figure: anyone earning less than 11,000 euros a year would not be taxed); secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate; thirdly, he undertook to finance and develop a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to 516 euros; and fifthly, he would suppress the crime wave by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities.[2] Berlusconi undertook to refrain from putting himself up for re-election in 2006 if he failed to honour at least four of these five promises.

Parties and leaders[edit]

Party Ideology Leader
Forza Italia (FI) Liberal conservatism Silvio Berlusconi
Democrats of the Left (DS) Social democracy Walter Veltroni
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy (DL) Centrism Francesco Rutelli
National Alliance (AN) Conservatism Gianfranco Fini
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) Communism Fausto Bertinotti
Northern League (LN) Regionalism Umberto Bossi
Italy of Values (IdV) Populism Antonio Di Pietro
Whiteflower (CCD-CDU) Christian democracy Pier Ferdinando Casini
European Democracy (DE) Christian democracy Sergio D'Antoni
Bonino List (LB) Liberalism Emma Bonino
The Sunflower (FdV-SDI) Green politics/Social democracy Enrico Boselli
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) Communism Oliviero Diliberto

Coalitions and electoral list[edit]

Political force or alliance Constituent lists Leader
House of Freedoms
(Casa delle Libertà)
Forward Italy (Forza Italia)
Silvio Berlusconi
National Alliance (Alleanza Nazionale)
Northern League (Lega Nord)
Christian Democratic Centre (Centro Cristiano Democratico)
United Christian Democrats (Cristiani Democratici Uniti)
New Italian Socialist Party (Nuovo PSI)
Italian Republican Party (Partito Repubblicano Italiano)
The Olive Tree
(L'Ulivo)
Democrats of the Left (Democratici della Sinistra)
Francesco Rutelli
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy (Democrazia è Libertà – La Margherita)
The Sunflower (Il Girasole)
Party of Italian Communists (Partito dei Comunisti Italiani)
Communist Refoundation Party
(Partito della Rifondazione Comunista)
Communist Refoundation Party (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista)
Fausto Bertinotti
Italy of Values
(Italia dei Valori)
Italy of Values (Italia dei Valori)
Antonio Di Pietro
European Democracy
(Democrazia Europea)
European Democracy (Democrazia Europea)
Sergio D'Antoni
Bonino List
(Lista Bonino)
Bonino List (Lista Bonino)
Emma Bonino

Main leaders[edit]

Coalition Portrait Name Most recent position
House of Freedoms Silvio Berlusconi 1994.jpg Silvio Berlusconi Prime Minister of Italy
(1994–1995)
President of Forza Italia
(1994–incumbent)
The Olive Tree Francesco Rutelli 2008.jpg Francesco Rutelli Mayor of Rome
(1993–2001)
Leader of the Olive Tree
(2000–incumbent)
Communist Refoundation Party Fausto Bertinotti 2001.jpg Fausto Bertinotti Secretary of the Communist Refoundation Party
(1993–incumbent)
Italy of Values Antonio Di Pietro 2006.jpg Antonio Di Pietro President of Italy of Values
(1998–incumbent)
European Democracy Sergio D'Antoni.jpg Sergio D'Antoni General Secretary of CISL
(1991–2000)
Bonino List Emma Bonino 2006.jpg Emma Bonino European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Protection
(1995–1999)

Results for the Chamber of Deputies[edit]

Overall results[edit]

Summary of the 13 May 2001 Chamber of Deputies election results
Italian Chamber of Deputies, 2001.svg
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 10,923,431 29.43 62 16,915,513 45.57 132 194[3] +71
National Alliance (AN) 4,463,205 12.02 24 75 99 +6
Northern League (LN) 1,464,301 3.94 0 30 30 −29
White Flower (CCDCDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0 40 40 +10
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 353,269 0.95 0 3 3 New
Sardinian Reformers (RS) N/A N/A 0 1 1 +1
New Sicily (NS) N/A N/A 0 1 1 New
Total seats 86 282 368
The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left (DS) 6,151,154 16.57 31 16,019,388 43.15 105 136 −36
The Daisy (DL) 5,391,827 14.52 27 56 83 −12
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 805,340 2.17 0 17 17
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 620,859 1.67 0 10 10 New
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 200,059 0.54 0 3 3 ±0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 0 1 1 New
Total seats 58 192 250
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,868,659 5.03 11 N/A N/A 0 11 −24
Aosta Valley (VdA) N/A N/A 0 25,577 0.07 1 1 ±0
Total 630

Proportional[edit]

In 2001 the proportional list exhausted before all the deputies - which the winning party was entitled to - were declared elected.[4]

Party Votes % Seats
Forza Italia 10,923,431 29.43 62
Democrats of the Left 6,151,154 16.57 31
Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy 5,391,827 14.52 27
National Alliance 4,463,205 12.02 24
Communist Refoundation Party 1,868,659 5.03 11
Northern League 1,464,301 3.94 0
Italy of Values 1,443,725 3.89 0
White Flower (CCDCDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0
European Democracy 888,269 2.39 0
Bonino List 832,213 2.24 0
The Sunflower (FdVSDI) 805,340 2.17 0
Party of Italian Communists 620,859 1.67 0
New Italian Socialist Party 353,269 0.95 0
South Tyrolean People's Party 200,059 0.54 0
Tricolour Flame 143,963 0.39 0
Liga Fronte Veneto 74,353 0.20 0
Pensioners' Party 68,349 0.18 0
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation 34,412 0.09 0
New Country 34,193 0.63 0
Abolizione Scorporo 26,917 0.07 0
Southern Action League 23,779 0.06 0
National Social Front 22,985 0.06 0
Greens Greens 18,262 0.05 0
New Force 13,622 0.04 0
Amadu List 11,517 0.03 0
European Republicans Movement 7,997 0.02 0
We the Sicialians 7,637 0.02 0
Movement of Freedoms 6,754 0.02 0
Free and Strong 6,722 0.02 0
Autonomist Socialists 6,492 0.02 0
Stop! 6,332 0.02 0
Communism 5,244 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 2,915 0.01 0
Total 37,122,776 100.00 155
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 2,962,621
Total 40,085,397
Registered voters/turnout 49,256,295 81.38
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote (Proportional)
FI
  
29.43%
DS
  
16.57%
DL
  
14.52%
AN
  
12.02%
PRC
  
5.03%
LN
  
3.94%
IdV
  
3.89%
CCD-CDU
  
3.22%
DE
  
2.39%
Bonino
  
2.24%
FdV-SDI
  
2.17%
PdCI
  
1.67%
Others
  
2.90%

First-past-the-post[edit]

Parties and coalitions Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms 16,915,513 45.57 282
The Olive Tree 16,019,388 43.15 183
Italy of Values 1,487,287 4.01 0
European Democracy 1,310,119 3.53 0
Bonino List 457,117 1.23 0
South Tyrolean People's PartyThe Olive Tree 190,556 0.51 5
South Tyrolean People's Party 173,735 0.47 3
Liga Fronte Veneto 173,618 0.47 0
Tricolour Flame 121,527 0.33 0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 1
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation 40,692 0.11 0
Aosta Valley 25,577 0.07 1
Others 240,715 0.72 0
Total 37,259,705 100.00 475
Popular vote (First-past-the-post)
CdL
  
45.57%
Olive Tree
  
43.15%
IdV
  
4.01%
DE
  
3.53%
Bonino
  
1.23%
Others
  
2.89%

Results for the Senate of the Republic[edit]

Summary of the 13 May 2001 Senate of the Republic election results
Italian Senate, 2001.svg
Coalition Party First-past-the-post Proportional
(Seats)
Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 16,915,513 45.57 152 24 88 +40
National Alliance (AN) 45 +2
White Flower (CCDCDU) 29 +4
Northern League (LN) 17 −10
Italian Republican Party (PRI) 1 +1
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 1 New
Tricolour Flame (FT) 340,221 1.00 0 1 ±0
Total seats 176
The Olive Tree[5] Democrats of the Left (DS) 13,408,672[6] 39.59[7] 74 51 64 −38
The Daisy (DL) 43 −5
Federation of the Greens (FdV) 8 −6
Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) 6
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 3 +1
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 2 New
Independent candidates 4
Total seats 130
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,708,707 5.04 0 4 4 −6
European Democracy (DE) 1,066,908 3.15 0 2 2 New
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,140,489 3.37 0 1 1 New
League for Autonomy–Lombard Alliance–Pensioners League 308,559 0.91 0 1 1 +1
Aosta Valley (VdA) 32,429 0.10 0 1 1 ±0
Bonino List (LB) 677,725 2.00 0 0 0 −1
Liga Fronte Veneto (LFV) 138,134 0.41 0 0 0 New
Va' pensiero Padania 119,058 0.35 0 0 0 New
National Social Front (FSN) 98,132 0.29 0 0 0 New
European Democracy–Autonomist Socialists (DE–SA) 79,002 0.23 0 0 0 New
Pensioners' Party (PP) 39,545 0.12 0 0 0 ±0
New Force (FN) 78,572 0.23 0 0 0 New
Greens Greens (VV) 35,743 0.11 0 0 0 ±0
Sardinian Action PartySardinia Nation (PSd'Az–SN) 32,822 0.10 0 0 0 −1
Others 160,025 0.46 0 0 0
Total 33,871,262 100.00 232 83 315
Popular vote
CdL
  
42.53%
Olive Tree
  
38.70%
PRC
  
5.04%
IdV
  
3.37%
DE
  
3.15%
Bonino
  
2.00%
Others
  
5.21%

Leaders' races[edit]

General Election 2001: Milan Centre
Party Candidate Votes % ±
House of Freedoms Silvio Berlusconi 42,098 53.6
The Olive Tree Giovanni Rivera 28,651 36.5
Radicals Benedetto Della Vedova 4,874 6.21
Italy of Values Adriano Ciccioni 2,835 3.6
Majority 13,447 17.1
Turnout 81,412 80.4
General Election 2001: Rome Praenestine
Party Candidate Votes % ±
The Olive Tree Francesco Rutelli 36,457 56.7
House of Freedoms Elio Vito 25,463 39.6
Italy of Values Pietro Tagliatesta 2,348 3.6
Majority 10,994 17.1
Turnout 66,479 77.4

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Armey, Dick (1994). Contract With America: The Bold Plan. 
  2. ^ Ricolfi, Luca (2005). Dossier Italia: a che punto è il 'contratto con gli italiani. Il mulino. 
  3. ^ Including one deputy of the Italian Republican Party
  4. ^ Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Cercansi candidati per 14 seggi. La speranza della (lista) civetta". Diritto&Giustizia edizione online.   – via Questia (subscription required)
  5. ^ Including the results of SVP and SVP–Olive Tree
  6. ^ 13,106,860 votes for The Olive Tree, 175,635 votes for the SVP–Olive Tree and 126,177 votes for the SVP
  7. ^ 38.70% of the votes for The Olive Tree, 0.52% of the votes for the SVP–Olive Tree and 0.37% of the votes for the SVP

External links[edit]