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Italian grammar is the body of rules describing the properties of the Italian language. Italian words can be divided into the following lexical categories: articles, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
- 1 Articles
- 2 Inflection of nouns and adjectives
- 3 Nouns
- 4 Adjectives
- 5 Pronouns
- 6 Verbs
- 6.1 Tenses
- 6.2 Compound tense auxiliary verbs
- 6.3 Past participle
- 6.4 Tense relationship in subordinate sentences
- 6.5 Regular conjugation
- 6.6 Irregular verbs
- 7 Adverbs
- 8 Prepositions
- 9 Syntax
- 10 Disputed points in Italian grammar
- 11 Italian grammar books
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Italian articles vary according to definiteness (definite, indefinite, and partitive), number, gender, and the initial sound of the subsequent word. Partitive articles compound the preposition di with the corresponding definite article, to express uncertain quantity. In the plural, they typically translate into English as "few"; in the singular, typically as "some".
|Masculine||Singular||il||Standard masculine singular definite article, used in all cases other than those detailed below.|
|lo||Used before words with certain initial sounds:
|l'||Used before words that begin with a vowel (l'amico) or ⟨uo⟩ /wɔ/ (l'uomo).|
|Plural||i||Standard masculine plural definite article, used for plurals that take il in the singular: i cani (plural of il cane).|
|gli||Corresponds to lo and l' in the singular, i.e. before the consonants listed above for lo and before vowels: gli zii (plural of lo zio), gli amici (plural of l'amico).|
|Feminine||Singular||la||Standard form of the feminine singular definite article, used before consonants and before ⟨i⟩ when pronounced as semivowel /j/, e.g. la iarda.|
|l'||As with l', used before any word that begins with a vowel, not including ⟨i⟩ when pronounced as the semivowel /j/.|
|Plural||le||Standard form of the feminine plural definite article, never elided.|
|Masculine||un||Standard masculine singular indefinite article, used before vowels and simple consonants.|
|uno||Used instead of un before "impure s", self-geminating consonants, and complex consonant clusters, following the same rules as lo vs. il above, for example: uno studente.|
|Feminine||una||Standard feminine singular indefinite article.|
|un'||Used before any word that starts with a vowel, not including ⟨i⟩ when used as semivowel /j/.|
|Masculine||Singular||del||di + il|
|dell'||di + l'|
|dello||di + lo|
|Plural||dei||di + i|
|degli||di + gli|
|Feminine||Singular||della||di + la|
|dell'||di + l'|
|Plural||delle||di + le|
Inflection of nouns and adjectives
Nouns and adjectives generally inflect by gender (masculine and feminine, with only some instances of vestigial neuter) and number (singular and plural). Inflection patterns are similar for the two categories:
|Masculine||-o||-i||il capello nero, i capelli neri ("the black hair")|
|Feminine||-a||-e||la bella macchina, le belle macchine ("the beautiful car(s)")|
|Masculine and feminine||-e||-i||il/la comandante intelligente, i/le comandanti intelligenti ("the smart commander(s)")|
|Former neuter (singular masculine, plural feminine)||-o||-a||il lenzuolo leggero, le lenzuola leggere ("the light bed sheet(s)")|
|Masculine||-a||-i||l'atleta entusiasta, gli atleti entusiasti ("the enthusiastic athlete(s)")|
|Feminine||-ie||-ie||la specie estinta, le specie estinte ("the extinct species")|
|All nouns ending with a stressed vowel||singular = plural||la città, le città ("the city(-ies)")|
|Non-integrated loanwords||il/la manager trendy, i/le manager trendy ("the trendy manager(s)")|
In the last two examples, only the article carries information about gender and number.
Most masculine words that end in -io pronounced as /jo/ simply drop the -o and thus end in just -i in the plural: vecchio / vecchi ("old"), funzionario / funzionari ("functionary(-ies)"), esempio / esempi ("example(s)"), etc.
- Words in -cio and -gio form plurals in -ci and -gi, e.g. bacio / baci ("kiss(es)")
- Words in -cia and -gia have been a point of contention; according to a commonly employed rule, they:
- form plurals in -cie and -gie if the final letter before the suffix is a vowel: camicia, camicie ("shirt(s)"); ciliegia, ciliegie ("cherry"/"cherries").
- form plurals in -ce and -ge if the final letter before the suffix is a consonant: frangia, frange ("fringe(s)"); faccia, facce ("face(s)").
- when the i is stressed, it always remains in plural: farmacia / farmacie ("chemist's shop(s)"), nevralgia / nevralgie ("neuralgia(s)").
- Words in -co and -go behave quite irregularly: "the grammarians are skeptical of any attempt at giving a ruling about this area". There are only partial, empirical rules of thumb:
- plurals are formed with -chi and -ghi if the last letter before the suffix is a consonant or a stressed vowel: fungo / funghi ("mushroom(s)"), stecco / stecchi ("stick(s)"), mago / maghi ("magician(s)"), fuoco / fuochi ("fire(s)")
- plurals are formed with -ci and -gi if the last letter before the suffix is an unstressed vowel: comico / comici ("comedian(s)"), medico / medici ("physician(s)")
- in words ending with -logo suffix, the plural is usually in -gi when -logo means "expert" or "student", corresponding to English -logist (e.g. archeologo / archeologi, "archaeologist(s)"), while it is in -ghi when it means "speech" or "reasoning", corresponding often to English -logue/-log (e.g. catalogo / cataloghi, "catalogue(s)").
- there are exceptions such as amico / amici ("friend(s)"), greco / greci ("Greek(s)"), valico / valichi ("mountain pass(es)"), carico / carichi ("cargo(s)").
Although as in most Romance languages, the neuter gender has been lost in Italian, the neuter function has been absorbed into the masculine; masculine pronouns and adjectives are used to refer to and describe unspecified neuter things such as facts and ideas (e.g. Lo so ("I know it"), where lo is the masculine third-person singular unstressed direct object pronoun).
Most nouns are derived from Latin. Many of these are themselves borrowed from Greek (e.g. poeta below):
|1st (-a / -ae)||poeta / poeti "poet(s)"||rosa / rose "rose(s)"|
|2nd (-us / -ī; -um / -a)||carro / carri "truck(s)"
vezzo / vezzi "habit(s)"
|3rd (-Ø, -is / -ēs)||cane / cani "dog(s)"||parete / pareti "wall(s)"|
|3rd (-ās / -ātēs)||cittade / cittadi "town(s) (archaic)"|
|4th (-us / -ūs)||passo / passi "step(s)"||mano / mani "hand(s)"|
|5th (-ēs / -ēs)||fede / fedi "faith(s)"|
Any other noun, both those from Latin with an unusual ending and those derived from languages other than Latin or Greek, and not Latinized citation needed], and nouns ending with a stressed vowel are not inflected; thus:[
- il re / i re ("the king(s)": rex / reges)
- il caffè / i caffè ("the coffee(s)")
- il film / i film ("the film(s)")
There are certain words (neuter in Latin) that are masculine in the singular and feminine or masculine in the plural:
- il braccio / le braccia or i bracci ("the arm(s)")
- l'uovo / le uova ("the egg(s)")
- il ginocchio / le ginocchia or i ginocchi ("the knee(s)")
- il sopracciglio / le sopracciglia or i sopraccigli ("the eyebrow(s)")
These nouns' endings derive regularly from the Latin neuter endings of the second declension (sg. -um / pl. -a), but there are some from the third declension as well: e.g. il gregge / le greggi (flock(s), but i greggi works, too); the tradition of calling them "irregular" or "mobile gender" (genere mobile) would come from the paradigm that there are so few nouns of this kind that the existence of neuter can be considered vestigial. The choice of plural is sometimes left to the user, while in some cases there are differences of meaning:
- Sometimes, for body parts, the feminine/neuter plural denotes the literal meaning while the masculine one denotes a figurative meaning: il braccio ("the arm") / le braccia ("the arms") / i bracci ("the isthmuses", "the inlets"); il corno ("the horn") / le corna ("the horns" of an animal) / i corni ("the horns" as musical instruments)
- Sometimes, especially in poetic and old-fashioned Italian, the masculine plural acts as a count noun, while the neuter/feminine plural acts as a mass noun: il cervello ("the brain") / due cervelli ("two brains") / le cervella ("the cerebral matter"); l'anello ("the ring") / due anelli ("two rings") / le anella ("ringlets"); furthermore, il dito ("the finger") / le dita ("the fingers") and also due dita ("two fingers") / but i diti indici ("the index fingers")
There are a few genuine irregular plurals in Italian (plurali irregolari). Most of these were introduced in Vulgar Latin, but some derive from irregular Latin plurals. Examples include:
- uomo / uomini (man/men; Latin homo / homines )
- il dio / gli dei (god(s); note also the irregularity in the article: gli instead of i)
- bue / buoi (ox(en); Latin bovem / boves)
- tempio / templi (temple(s); the plural retains the l from Latin templum/templi which is lost in the singular in order to distinguish it from tempi, the plural of tempo)
- il carcere / le carceri (prison (masculine) / prisons (feminine))
- l'eco / gli echi (echo (feminine) / echoes (masculine))
In Italian, altered nouns are nouns with particular shades of meaning. They are divided into diminutives, "vezzeggiativi" (diminutives with kindness and sympathy nuance), augmentatives and pejoratives.
|-ino||tavolo (table)||tavolino (small table)|
|-ello||bambino (child)||bambinello (small child)|
(terms of endearment)
|-olo||figlio (son)||figliolo (also figliuolo)|
|-one||libro (book)||librone (big book)|
|-accio||libro (book)||libraccio (bad book)|
|-astro||medico (medic)||medicastro (quack doctor)|
|-uncolo||uomo (man)||omuncolo (insignificant man)|
Many other alterations can be built, sometimes with more than one suffix: for example, libro (book) can become libretto (diminutive), libricino (double diminutive), libercolo (diminutive + pejorative), libraccio (pejorative), libraccione (pejorative + augmentative). Uomo (man), coming from Latin homo, becomes om- in altered forms: omino/ometto (diminutive), omone (augmentative), omaccio (pejorative), omaccione (augmentative + pejorative).
In Italian, an adjective can be placed before or after the noun. The unmarked placement for most adjectives (e.g. colours, nationalities) is after the noun, but this is reversed for a few common classes of adjective — those denoting beauty, age, goodness, and size are placed before the noun in the unmarked case, and after the noun for emphasis.
- un libro rosso = a red book (the unmarked case)
- un rosso libro = a book that is red (the marked case; it is especially important to the intended meaning that the book is *red*, as opposed to some other color)
- un buon uomo = a good man (the unmarked case)
- un uomo buono = a man who is good (the marked case; it is especially important to the intended meaning that he is good, the adjective is emphasized)
Adjectives are inflected for gender and number:
|Gender||Grammatical number||Case 1||Case 2|
Degrees of comparison
The comparative and relative superlative are formed with più ("more", "most"); for instance:
- sono più alto di te ("I am taller than you")
- sono il più alto fra gli uomini ("I am the tallest of men")
Vice versa, inverting the order of the words, it's required to replace più with meno ("less, fewer"); for instance:
- sono il meno forte del campionato ("I am the least strong of the championship")
- tu sei meno alto di me ("You are less tall than me")
Another comparative form is made with the word come ('as', 'like'); for instance:
- sono alto come te ("I am as tall as you")
The absolute comparative is formed by placing troppo ("too") before the adjective; for instance:
- sei troppo buono ("you are too good").
The absolute superlative, derived from the Latin synthetic superlative in -issimus, is formed by adding -issimo to an adjective: intelligente ("intelligent"), intelligentissimo ("very intelligent"); sporco ("dirty") sporchissimo ("very dirty"). If the two letters before the last vowel are pr or br (e.g., aspro, celebre), the r is removed and -errimo is the suffix used (asperrimo, celeberrimo) ("very sour", "very famous"). Another way to form the absolute superlative is to place either molto or assai ("very") before the adjective. For instance sporchissimo and molto sporco ("very dirty") are the same, although the form ending in issimo is usually perceived as more emphatic; that is, sporchissimo is dirtier than molto sporco.
Some adjectives have irregular comparatives (though with regularly-formed variants also in common use), like
- buono ("good"), migliore / più buono ("better" or "best"), migliore / ottimo / buonissimo ("very good")
- cattivo ("bad"), peggiore / più cattivo ("worse" or "worst"), pessimo / cattivissimo ("very bad")
- grande ("big"), maggiore / più grande ("bigger"), massimo / grandissimo ("very big")
- piccolo ("small"), minore / più piccolo ("smaller"), minimo / piccolissimo ("very small")
With the exception of 3rd person plural loro 'their', possessive adjectives, like articles, must agree with the gender and number of the noun they modify. Hence, mio zio (my uncle), but mia zia (my aunt). So depending on what is being modified, the possessive adjectives are:
In most cases the possessive adjective is used with an article, usually the definite article:
|Ho perso la mia penna.||("I have lost my pen.")|
|Mi piace il mio lavoro.||("I like my job.")|
|Hanno rubato la mia automobile!||("They have stolen my car!")|
And sometimes with the indefinite article:
|Un mio amico mi ha detto che...||("A friend of mine told me that...")|
|Ho visto una sua foto.||("I have seen a photograph of him/her.")|
|Luca è un mio amico.||("Luke is a friend of mine.")|
The only exception is when the possessive refers to an individual family member (unless the family member is described or characterized in some way):
|Laura è mia sorella||("Laura is my sister.")|
|Ieri ho visto mia sorella Diana||("I saw my sister Diana yesterday.")|
|Questa penna è di mia zia.||("This pen is my aunt's.")|
Mamma and papà (or babbo, in Central Italy; "mother" and "father"), however, are usually used with the article.
For emphasis, however, possessive adjectives are sometimes placed after the noun. This is usually after words like 'colpa' (fault, sin); 'casa' (house, home); 'merito' (merit); 'piacere' (pleasure); or in vocative expressions.
|È colpa sua.||("It is his/her fault.")|
|Oh dio mio!||("Oh, my god!")|
|Arrivederci, amico mio!||("Goodbye, my friend!")|
|Vorresti andare a casa mia?||("Would you like to come over to my house?")|
If the antecedent of a third person possessive (being used as an object) is the subject of the sentence, proprio can be used instead of suo, though the usage of proprio is declining in spoken language:
|Marco e Maria hanno discusso di filosofia. Marco ha scelto il proprio punto di vista.||("Marco and Maria discussed philosophy. Marco took his own point of view.")|
|Marco e Maria hanno discusso di filosofia. Marco ha scelto il suo punto di vista.||("Marco and Maria discussed philosophy. Marco took his/her point of view.")|
The first sentence is unambiguous and states that Marco took his own point of view, whereas the second sentence is ambiguous because it may mean that Marco took either his own or Maria's point of view.
Italian originally had three degrees of demonstrative adjectives: questo (for items near or related to the first person speaker: English "this"), quello (for items near or related to an eventual third person: English "that"), and codesto (for items near or related to an eventual second person). The usage has undergone a simplification, including the meaning of codesto in quello, and only Tuscan speakers still use codesto. Its use is very rare in modern language, and the word has acquired a rather pejorative connotation.
Italian features a sizeable set of pronouns. Personal pronouns are inflected for person, number, case, and, in the third person, gender. Literary subject pronouns also have a distinction between animate (egli, ella) and inanimate (esso, essa) antecedents, although this is lost in colloquial usage, where lui, lei and loro are the most used forms for animate subjects, while no specific pronoun is employed for inanimate subjects (if needed, demonstrative pronouns such as "questo" or "quello" may be used). There is also the uninflected pronoun ciò, which is only used with abstract antecedents.
Personal pronouns are normally dropped in the subject, as the conjugation is usually enough to determine the grammatical person. They are used when some emphasis is needed, e.g. sono italiano ("I am Italian") vs. io sono italiano ("I [specifically, as opposed to others] am Italian").
The words ci, vi and ne act both as personal pronouns (respectively instrumental and genitive case) and clitic pro-forms for "there" (ci and vi, with identical meaning – as in c'è, ci sono, v'è, vi sono, ci vengo, etc.) and "from there" (ne – as in è entrato in casa alle 10:00 e ne è uscito alle 11:00).
|Clitic form[a]||Stressed form||Clitic form I.[a][b]||Clitic form II.[c]||Stressed form||Clitic form[a][d]||Stressed form[e]||Clitic form I.[a][f]||Clitic form II.[g]||Stressed form|
|sg.||1st||io||—||di me||mi||me||a me||mi||me||—||—||con me|
|2nd||tu[h]||—||di te||ti||te||a te||ti||te||—||—||con te|
|3rd||m.||egli, esso, lui[i]||ne||di lui, di esso||gli||glie-[j]||a lui, a esso||lo||lui, esso||ci||ce||con lui, con esso|
|f.||ella, essa, lei[i][k]||di lei, di essa||le||a lei, a essa||la||lei, essa||con lei, con essa|
|refl.||—||di sé||si||se||a sé||si||sé||con sé|
|pl.||1st||noi||—||di noi||ci||ce||a noi||ci||noi||—||—||con noi|
|2nd||voi[h]||—||di voi||vi||ve||a voi||vi||voi||—||—||con voi|
|3rd||m.||essi,[k] loro[i]||ne||di loro, di essi[l]||loro[m][n]||a loro, a essi[l]||li||loro, essi[l]||ci||ce||con loro, con essi[l]|
|f.||esse,[k] loro[i]||di loro, di esse[l]||a loro, a esse[l]||le||loro, esse[l]||con loro, con esse[l]|
|refl.||—||di sé||si||se||a sé||si||sé||con sé|
|Clitic form I.[a]||Clitic form II.||Stressed form||Clitic form[a]||Stressed form|
|ci, vi||ce, ve||qui, qua / lì, là||ne||da qui, da qua / da lì, da là|
|Clitic form[r]||Clitic form[r]||Stressed form||Clitic form[r]||Stressed form||Stressed form|
|sg./pl.||che||cui[s][t]||di cui||cui[u][t]||a cui||con cui|
- Often elided to m', t', c', n', etc. (except for li, le (both senses), gli, and loro) before vowels (especially i) and h in colloquial speech, especially in Central and Southern Italy, and less often in written language. The extent to which individual pronouns are elided varies, ranging from virtually always (lo and la) to rarely (ne).
- Alone, as in Ti do un libro, and sometimes with other clitic pronouns (see below)
- Sometimes before other clitic pronouns (see below), as in Te lo do
- When unstressed accusative pronouns are used in compound tenses, the final vowel of the past participle must agree in gender and number with the accusative pronoun. For example, Hai comprato i cocomeri e le mele? ("Did you buy the watermelons and the apples?") - Li [i cocomeri] ho comprati ma non le [le mele] ho comprate ("I bought them [the former] but I did not buy them [the latter]"). This also happens when the underlying pronoun is made opaque by elision: l'ho svegliato ("I woke him up"), versus L'ho svegliata ("I woke her up").
- The stressed form of the accusative also acts as the prepositional object.
- Alone, as in Ci chiacchiero volentieri ("I am happy to chat with him/her"), and sometimes with other clitic pronouns (see below)
- Sometimes before other clitic pronouns (see below), as in:
– Vedresti Carla con una gonna lunga e un cappello?
– Sì, ce la vedrei.
- Informal (see below)
- Previously only accusative, today lui, lei and loro are also accepted as nominative.
- Combines with the following pronoun to form one word; compare Gliene sono grato with Te ne sono grato. Only possible with lo, la, li, le, and ne (see below) to form glielo, gliela, glieli, gliele, and gliene, respectively.
- Lei, Loro, Essi and Esse (spelled this way) are also used as formal second-person pronouns (see below).
- When a distinction is made between egli / ella (animate) and esso/a (inanimate), in the nominative case essi/e is always the plural of both the animate and the inanimate pronouns. However, in the accusative, as well as the object of prepositions (as in di lui / di lei, di esso/a), essi/e can be used only for inanimate nouns, while loro must be used for animate nouns instead.
- Not used like most clitics, simply follows the verb as with normal nouns. Compare Gli dico (3rd person m. sg., clitic form I.) with Dico loro (3rd person m. and f. pl.) and Gliene do due (3rd person m. and f. sg., clitic form II.) with Ne do loro due (3rd person m. and f. pl.).
- In spoken Italian, gli ("to him") and glie- ("to him/her") are often used as the plural ("to them") instead of classical loro. So: Conosci Luca: gli ho sempre detto di stare lontano dalle cattive compagnie ("You know Luca: I have always told him to stay away from bad companies") and: Conosci Luca e Gino: gli ho sempre detto... ("...I have always told them...") instead of ... ho sempre detto loro di stare.... It also works in the feminine: Conosci Lucia e Gina: gli ho sempre detto... instead of the more classical ... ho detto loro.... However, classical loro is normally never replaced with gli/glie- in written language.
- As in c'è, vi sono, Ce l'ha messo ("He/she/you put it there), etc.
- As in Ne sono uscito alle... ("I left (from) there at...")
- Che and cui can always be replaced with the pro-form il quale / la quale, which is always stressed.
- Differently from personal pronouns, clitic forms of relative pronouns do not rely on the verb for their accent, but might use the accent of any other part of speech instead. Compare ne ho studiato a fondo le parti più rilevanti ("I have studied the most relevant parts of it in depth"), where ne (personal pronoun, genitive) must rely on the verb ho for its accent, with le cui parti più rilevanti ho studiato a fondo ("whose most relevant parts I have studied in depth"), where cui (relative pronoun, genitive) relies on the noun parti for its accent.
- Always positioned between the article and the noun, as in Ieri lì sedeva un uomo il cui sguardo rivelava una certa malinconia. ("Yesterday a man was sitting there, whose look revealed some sort of melancholia"), or Fu un virtuosissimo violinista, la cui fama ancora riecheggia tra le sale da concerto. ("He was a virtuoso violinist, whose fame still echoes among concert halls.")
- Cui (by itself) also acts as the prepositional object (as in per cui). Note that as the prepositional object cui is always stressed.
- Example: L'unica persona cui confessai tutti i miei segreti adesso mi odia. ("The only person to whom I confessed all my secrets now hates me.")
Clitic pronouns generally come before the verb, but in certain types of constructions, such as lo devo fare, they can also appear as enclitics (attached to the verb itself) – in this case, devo farlo. In the gerund and the imperative mood clitic pronouns must always be used as enclitics (as in confessalo! and ricordandolo).
|Genitive||Non vedo Francesca, ma ne vedo la bicicletta.||I don't see Francesca, but I see her bike (the bike of her).|
|Dative||Gli parlai per un'ora intera.||I spoke to him for a whole hour.|
|Accusative||La vedo.||I see her.|
|Instrumental||Sì! Lo conosco! Una volta ci giocai a pallacanestro!||Yes! I know him! Long ago I played basketball with him!|
|Davide lascia la sua penna in ufficio.||(David leaves his pen in the office.)|
|Davide la lascia in ufficio.||(David leaves it in the office.)|
|Davide me la lascia.||(David leaves it to me.)|
|Davide te ne lascia una.||(David leaves one of them to you.))|
|Davide potrebbe lasciargliene una.||(David might leave one of them to him/her.))|
|or Davide gliene potrebbe lasciare una.||(exactly the same as above)|
Finally, in the imperative mood, the objective pronouns come once again after the verb, but this time as a suffix:
|Davide lascia la sua penna in ufficio.||(David leaves his pen in the office.)|
|"Lasciala in ufficio!"||("Leave it in the office!")|
|"Lasciamela!"||("Leave it to me!")|
|Davide potrebbe lasciarla in ufficio.||(David might leave it in the office.)|
|"Non lasciargliela!"||("Do not leave it to him/her!")|
|Davide dovrebbe lasciargliela.||("David should leave it for him/her.")|
- Stressed forms of all four non-subject cases are used when emphasized (e.g. uccidi me, non lui ("kill me, not him"), dallo a lei ("give it to her"), lo farò con lui ("I'll do it with that"), etc.).
- In colloquial speech, form I. of the dative (mi, ti, gli, le, si, ci, vi) is often associated with the emphasized form of the dative (a me, a te, a lui, a lei, a sé, a noi, a voi, a loro) in such a way: a me mi danno un libro ("they give me a book"), a loro gli hanno venduto una casa ("they sold them a house"). Though widely used, this redundant usage is considered non-standard.
Combinations of clitics
In Italian it is possible to append more than one clitic to a single verb. In normal usage, two is the usual limit, although clusters of three can occasionally arise for some speakers, especially with impersonal constructs (e.g. Ce la si sente = "One feels up to it", or Nessuno ha ancora visto l'ultimo film di Woody Allen… Ma quindi ce lo si vede tutti insieme! = "Nobody has watched the last Woody Allen movie yet… But then (someone, i.e. we people) have to watch it together!"). Any two cases can be used together, except for accusative + genitive, and word order is strictly determined according to one of the following two patterns:
- When one clitic is third-person non-reflexive accusative or genitive, form II. of the other clitic is generally used. Thus:
- Impersonal si; used to form quasi-passive constructions and essentially the same case as the pronoun that precedes it: Lo si vede spesso = "You/we/one see(s) him a lot" (lit. more like "He is seen a lot"). Se is used with ne instead, however: Se ne parla = "You talk about it". Cannot be used with form II. of other clitics; used with form I. otherwise (see below).
|me, te, glie-, se, ce, ve||lo, la, li, le||ne si[a]|
- Ve lo dico già da ora: io non verrò! = "I already told you [pl.] (said it to you): I'm not coming!" (accusative + dative)
- Ce li ha già dati = "He/she/you already gave them to us" (accusative + dative)
- Ecco l'uomo di cui mi innamorai! Te ne ho portato la foto! = "Here's the man I fell in love with! I brought the picture (of him to you)!" (dative + genitive)
- Vedresti Carla con una gonna lunga e un cappello? – Sì, ce la vedrei = "Could you imagine Carla with a long skirt and a hat? – Yes, I could imagine her with that" (accusative + instrumental)
- Riuscirai a trasportare abbastanza mele con quel piccolo furgoncino? – Uomo di poca fede! Ce ne trasporterò quintali! = "Will you be able to transport enough apples with such a small van? – Man of little faith! I'll transport quintals of them (with it)!" (instrumental + genitive)
- Simply reflexive or impersonal
- Mi ti mostro senza veli = "I'm showing myself without veils to you" (accusative + dative)
- Ti si fece incontro = "He/she approached you (moved himself/herself to you)" (accusative + dative)
- [G]li ti darò nelle mani, perché in pezzi ti faccia come tu meriti = "I will deliver you to him, so that he will tear you to pieces as you deserve" (accusative + dative)
- Marco ha vinto! Che farà con tutti quei soldi? – Ci si pagherà l'Università = "Marco won! What's he going to do with all that money? – He'll pay for college (for himself with it)" (dative + instrumental)
- Metti via quella pistola! Ti ci ammazzi! = "Put away that pistol! You'll use it to kill yourself (kill yourself with it)!" (accusative + instrumental)
Italian makes use of the T–V distinction in second-person address. The second-person nominative pronoun is tu for informal use, and for formal use, the third-person form Lei has been used since the Renaissance. It is used like "Sie" in German, "usted" in Spanish, and "você" in Portuguese. Lei was originally an object form of ella, which in turn referred to an honorific of the feminine gender such as la magnificenza tua/vostra ("Your Magnificence") or Vossignoria ("Your Lordship"), and by analogy, Loro came to be used as the formal plural. Previously, and in some Italian regions today (e.g. Campania), voi was used as the formal singular, like French "vous". The pronouns lei (third-person singular), Lei (formal second-person singular), loro (third-person plural), and Loro (formal second-person plural) are pronounced the same but written as shown, and formal Lei and Loro take third-person conjugations. Formal Lei is invariable for gender (always feminine), but adjectives that modify it are not: one would say to a man La conosco ("I know you") but Lei è alto ("You are tall"). Formal Loro is variable for gender: Li conosco ("I know you [masc. pl.]") vs. Le conosco ("I know you [fem. pl.]"), etc. The formal plural is very rarely used in modern Italian; the unmarked form is widely used instead. For example: Gino, Lei è un bravo ingegnere. Marco, Lei è un bravo architetto. Insieme, voi sarete una gran bella squadra ("Gino, you are a good engineer. Marco, you are a good architect. Together, you will make a very good team").
Italian infiniti presenti may end in one of these three endings, either -are, -ere, or -ire. Exceptions are also possible: fare "to do/make" (from Latin facere); and verbs ending in -urre or -arre, most notably tradurre (Latin traducere) "to translate". Italian grammar does not have distinct forms to indicate specifically verbal aspect, though different verbal inflections and periphrases do render different aspects, in particular the perfective and imperfective aspects and the perfect tense–aspect combination. While the various inflected verbal forms convey a combination of tense (location in time), aspect, and mood, language-specific discussions generally refer to these inflectional forms as "tempi", for this reason it is impossible to make comparisons between the tenses of English verbs and the tempi of Italian verbs as there is no correspondence at all.
|Tense||Italian name||Example||English equivalent|
|Present||indicativo presente||faccio||I do|
I am doing[verbs 1]
|Imperfect||indicativo imperfetto||facevo||I did/used to do|
I was doing[verbs 2]
|Preterite||passato remoto||feci||I did[verbs 3]|
|Future||futuro semplice||farò||I will do|
|Present||condizionale presente||farei||I would do|
|Present||congiuntivo presente||(che) io faccia||(that) I do|
|Imperfect||congiuntivo imperfetto||(che) io facessi||(that) I did/do|
|Present||imperativo||fa/fa'/fai!||do! (sing., informal)|
|Tense||Italian name||Example||English equivalent|
|Recent past||passato prossimo||ho fatto||I have done|
|Recent pluperfect||trapassato prossimo||avevo fatto||I had done[verbs 4]|
|Remote pluperfect||trapassato remoto||ebbi fatto||I had done[verbs 4]|
|Future perfect||futuro anteriore||avrò fatto||I will have done|
|Preterite||condizionale passato||avrei fatto||I would have done|
|Preterite||congiuntivo passato||(che) io abbia fatto||(that) I did|
|Pluperfect||congiuntivo trapassato||(che) io avessi fatto||(that) I had done|
|Tense||Italian name||Example||English equivalent|
|Present||infinito presente||fare||to do|
|Past||infinito passato||aver fatto||to have done|
|Past||gerundio passato||avendo fatto||having done|
Aspects other than the imperfective and aorist (which are rendered by simple tenses) and perfect (which is rendered by compound tenses) are rendered in Italian through periphrastical forms that aren't recognized by canonical Italian grammar as proper tenses.
- Present tense, indicative mood, progressive aspect: io sto facendo (English: I'm doing)
- Present tense, indicative mood, prospective aspect: io sto per fare (English: I'm about to do)
- Although Italian does have a present continuous tense that is similar to the present continuous in English, it is not considered a tense per se in Italian. It is also used less frequently than in English, except when emphasizing the ongoing nature of the action.
- As with the present continuous, the past continuous in Italian is not a standard tense per se, and its use is considered interchangeable in most situations with the imperfetto (imperfect).
- In spoken Italian, the preterite is sometimes replaced by the present perfect (ho fatto). It is regularly used in Southern Italy but is becoming uncommon in Northern Italy. It is, however, very common in literature, both old and modern.
- The Trapassato Prossimo (Recent Pluperfect) and the extremely rare Trapassato Remoto (Remote Pluperfect) are separate tenses in Italian though not in English.
Compound tense auxiliary verbs
- La porta è stata aperta. ("The door has been opened.")
- La porta viene aperta. ("The door is being opened.")
For intransitive verbs a reliable rule cannot be given, although a useful rule of thumb is that if a verb's past participle can take on adjectival value, essere is used, otherwise avere. Also, reflexive verbs and unaccusative verbs use essere (typically non-agentive verbs of motion and change of state, i.e. involuntary actions like cadere ("to fall") or morire ("to die")).
The distinction between the two auxiliary verbs is important for the correct formation of the compound tenses and is essential to the agreement of the past participle. Some verbs use can both, though, like vivere ("to live"): Io ho vissuto ("I have lived") can alternatively be expressed as, Io sono vissuto.
The past participle is used in Italian as both an adjective and to form many of the compound tenses of the language. There are regular endings for the past participle, based on the conjugation class (see below). There are, however, many irregular forms as not all verbs follow the pattern, particularly the -ere verbs. Some of the more common irregular past participles include: essere (to be) → stato (same for stare); fare (to do, to make) → fatto; dire (to say, to tell) → detto; aprire (to open) → aperto; chiedere (to ask) → chiesto; chiudere (to close) → chiuso; leggere (to read) → letto; mettere (to put) → messo; perdere (to lose) → perso; prendere (to take, to get) → preso; rispondere (to answer) → risposto; scrivere (to write) → scritto; vedere (to see) → visto.
For the intransitive verbs taking essere, the past participle always agrees with the subject—that is, it follows the usual adjective agreement rules: egli è partito; ella è partita. This is also true for reflexive verbs, the impersonal si construction (which requires any adjectives that refer to it to be in the masculine plural: Si è sempre stanchi alla fine della giornata - One is always tired at the end of the day), and the passive voice, which also use essere (Queste mele sono state comprate da loro - These apple have been bought by them, against Essi hanno comprato queste mele - They bought these apples).
The past participle when used with avere never changes to agree with the subject. It must agree with the object, though, in sentences where this is expressed by a third person clitic pronoun (e.g. Hai mangiato la mela? - Sì, l'ho mangiata (Have you eaten the apple? - Yes, I have eaten it)). When the object is expressed by a first or second person clitic pronoun instead, the agreement is optional: Maria! Ti ha chiamato / chiamata Giovanni? - No, non mi ha chiamato / chiamata (Maria! Has Giovanni called you? - No, he has not).
In all the other cases where the object is not expressed by a clitic pronoun, the agreement with the object is obsolescent in modern Italian (but still correct): La storia che avete raccontata (obsolete) / raccontato non mi convince (The story you told does not convince me); or compare Manzoni's Lucia aveva avute due buone ragioni with the more modern Lucia aveva avuto due buone ragioni (Lucia had had two good reasons).
Tense relationship in subordinate sentences
Italian inherits consecutio temporum, a grammar rule from Latin that governs the relationship between the tenses in principal and subordinate clauses. Consecutio temporum has very rigid rules. These rules require the subjunctive tense in order to express contemporaneity, posteriority and anteriority in relation with the principal clause.
- To express contemporaneity when the principal clause is in a simple tense (future, present, or simple past,) the subordinate clause uses the present subjunctive, to express contemporaneity in the present.
- Penso che Davide sia intelligente. I think David is smart.
- When the principal clause has a past imperfect or perfect, the subordinate clause uses the imperfect subjunctive, expressing contemporaneity in the past.
- Pensavo che Davide fosse intelligente. I thought David was smart.
- To express anteriority when the principal clause is in a simple tense (future, or present or passato prossimo) the subordinate clause uses the past subjunctive.
- Penso che Davide sia stato intelligente. I think David has been smart.
- To express anteriority when the principal clause has a past imperfect or perfect, the subjunctive has to be pluperfect.
- Pensavo che Davide fosse stato intelligente. I thought David had been smart.
- To express posteriority the subordinate clause uses not the subjunctive but instead the indicative mood, because the subjunctive has no future tense.
- Penso che Davide sarà intelligente. I think David will be smart.
- To express posteriority with respect to a past event, the subordinate clause uses the past conditional, whereas in other European languages (such as French, English, and Spanish) the present conditional is used.
- Pensavo che Davide sarebbe stato intelligente. I thought that David would have been smart.
The infinitive of first conjugation verbs ends in -are, that of second conjugation verbs in -ere, and that of third conjugation verbs in -ire. In the following examples for different moods, the first conjugation verb is parlare (meaning to talk/speak), the second conjugation verb is temere (to fear) and the third conjugation verb is partire (to leave/depart.)
|1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.||1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.||1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.||1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.|
|egli, ella, esso/essa||parla||teme||parte||parlò||temette; temé||partì||parlava||temeva||partiva||parlerà||temerà||partirà|
|Recent past = present of avere/essere + past participle||Remote pluperfect = preterite of avere/essere + past participle||Recent pluperfect = imperfect of avere/essere + past participle||Future perfect = simple future of avere/essere + past participle|
Some third conjugation verbs such as capire insert -isc- between the stem and the endings in the first, second, and third persons singular and third person plural of the present, e.g., capire -> capisco, capisci, capisce, capiamo, capite, capiscono. It is impossible to tell from the infinitive form which verbs exhibit this phenomenon, which often originated in Latin verbs denoting the "inchoative" aspect of an action, that is, verbs describing the beginning of an action. There are some 500 verbs like this, the first ones in alphabetic order being abbellire, abolire, agire, alleggerire, ammattire and so forth. In some grammatical systems, "isco" verbs are considered a fourth conjugation, often labelled 3b. There are also certain verbs that end in -rre, namely trarre, porre, (con)durre and derived verbs with different prefixes (such as attrarre, comporre, dedurre, and so forth). They are derived from earlier trahere, ponere, ducere and are conjugated as such.
The Italian subjunctive mood is used to indicate cases of desire, express doubt, make impersonal emotional statements, and to talk about impeding events.
|1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.||1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.|
|egli, ella, esso/essa||parli||tema||parta||parlasse||temesse||partisse|
|Past = present of avere/essere + past participle||Past perfect = imperfect of avere/essere + past participle|
- Third conjugation verbs like capire mentioned above insert -isc- in the first, second, and third persons singular and third person plural of the present.
- Compound forms (past and past perfect) are made by adding the past participle (e.g. parlato) to the corresponding auxiliary form (as "abbia") in the present and imperfect.
|1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.|
|egli, ella, esso/essa||parlerebbe||temerebbe||partirebbe|
|Past = conditional of avere/essere + past participle|
From the table we can see that the verbs each take their own root, from their class of verb, -are becomes -er-, -ere becomes -er-, and -ire becomes -ir-, the same roots as used in the future indicative tense. Onto this root, all verbs add on the same ending, depending on the conjugation.
Some verbs do not follow this pattern, but take irregular roots, these include: Andare (to go) ~ Andr-, Avere (to have) ~ Avr-, Bere (to drink) ~ Berr-, Dare (to give) ~ Dar-, Dovere (to have to) ~ Dovr-, Essere (to be) ~ Sar-, Fare (to make/do) ~ Far-, Godere (to enjoy) ~ Godr-, Potere (to be able to) ~ Potr-, Rimanere (to remain) ~ Rimarr-, Sapere (to know) ~ Sapr-, Sedere (to sit) ~ Sedr-, Stare (to be/feel) ~ Star-, Tenere (to hold) ~ Terr-, Vedere (to see) ~ Vedr-, Venire (to come) ~ Verr-, Vivere (to live) ~ Vivr-, Volere (to want) ~ Vorr- etc.
The Italian conditional mood is a mood that refers to an action that is possible or likely, but is dependent upon a condition. Example:
|Io andrei in spiaggia, ma fa troppo freddo.||("I would go to the beach, but it is too cold.")|
It can be used in two tenses, the present, by conjugation of the appropriate noun, or the past, using the auxiliary conjugated in the conditional, with the past participle of the appropriate noun:
|Mangerei un sacco adesso, se non stessi cercando di fare colpo su queste ragazze.||("I would eat a lot now, if I were not trying to impress these girls")|
|Sarei andato in città, se avessi saputo che ci andavano loro.||("I would have gone to the city, if I had known that they were going.")|
Many Italian speakers often use the imperfect instead of the conditional and subjunctive. Prescriptivists usually view this as incorrect, but it is frequent in colloquial speech and tolerated in all but high registers and in most writing:
|Se lo sapevo, andavo alla spiaggia||("If I had known it, I would have gone to the beach.")|
|Se Lucia non faceva quel segno, la risposta sarebbe probabilmente stata diversa.||("If Lucia had not made that sign, the answer would probably have been different.")|
The conditional can also be used in Italian to express "could", with the conjugated forms of potere ("to be able to"), "should", with the conjugated forms of dovere ("to have to"), or "would like", with the conjugated forms of "volere" (want):
|[Lui] potrebbe leggere un libro.||("He could read a book.")|
|[Loro] dovrebbero andare a letto.||("They should go to bed.")|
|Vorrei un bicchiere d'acqua, perfavore.||("I would like a glass of water, please.")|
|1st Conj.||2nd Conj.||3rd Conj.|
Verbs like capire insert -isc- in all except the noi and voi forms. Technically, the only real imperative forms are the second-person singular and plural, with the other persons being borrowed from the present subjunctive.
- Infinitive: present: -are, -ere, -ire; past: avere/essere + past participle
- Gerund: present: -ando, -endo, -endo; past: avendo/essendo + past participle
- Participle: present: -ante -ente -ente; past: -ato, -uto (though verbs of the second conjugation almost always have a contracted desinence, e.g. "cuocere" (to cook) "cotto" (cooked)), -ito
While the majority of Italian verbs are regular, many of the most commonly used ones are irregular. In particular, the auxiliary verbs essere and avere, and the common modal verbs potere (ability, to be able to, can), dovere (duty, to have to, must), sapere (knowledge, to know how to) and volere (will, to want to) are all irregular. Many of the irregularities are accounted for by the substance of Latin grammar; in Latin the verb had four principal parts, of which the third and fourth (perfect stem and perfect passive participle) were formed regularly from the present stem only in the first and second conjugations, whereas in the third and fourth (in -ere with short e and in -ire) the presence of the i on the stem caused a mutation of the following consonants and made irregularities at a very early stage of the language.
The first conjugation has the majority of regular verbs (except "andare" (to go), "fare" (to do, to make (from third Latin conjugation)), "dare" (to give) and "stare" (to stay), which are strongly irregular). Almost every new verb (as neologism) enters in first conjugation (e.g. formattare (to format)) and is perfectly regular.
The second conjugation is usually irregular. The few regulars are from Latin second conjugation: like "temere" (to fear), "godere" (to enjoy)... The majority is from Latin third conjugation. Most of these have developed irregularities in Italian.
The third conjugation (deriving from Latin fourth conjugation) has two different ways: Greek one (or incohative) with insertion of -sc-, "capire" (to understand), "io capisco" (I understand), and Latin one with no insertion, "sentire" (to feel), "io sento" (I feel). There are some irregulars, but not too many: example, "morire" (to die), "io muoio" (I die). The verb "dire" (to say, to tell) derives from Latin third conjugation, and is strongly irregular.
Most verbs of the second conjugation are irregular in the passato remoto (preterite) tense, which resembles the Latin perfect.
|lui, lei, esso/essa||è||fu||era||sarà||sia||fosse||sarebbe|
|lui, lei, esso/essa||ha||ebbe||aveva||avrà||abbia||avesse||avrebbe|
|lui, lei, esso/essa||può||poté||poteva||potrà||possa||potesse||potrebbe|
|lui, lei, esso/essa||deve||dovette||doveva||dovrà||debba||dovesse||dovrebbe|
|lui, lei, esso/essa||vuole||volle||voleva||vorrà||voglia||volesse||vorrebbe|
An adjective can be made into a modal adverb by adding -mente (from Latin "mente", ablative of "mens" (mind), feminine noun) to the ending of the feminine singular form of the adjective. E.g. lenta "slow (feminine)" becomes lentamente "slowly". Adjectives ending in -re or -le lose their e before adding -mente (facile "easy" becomes facilmente "easily", particolare "particular" becomes particolarmente "particularly").
These adverbs can also be derived from the absolute superlative form of adjectives, e.g. lentissimamente ("very slowly"), facilissimamente ("very easily").
There is also a plethora of temporal, local, modal and interrogative adverbs, mostly derived from Latin, e.g. quando ("when"), dove ("where"), come ("how"), perché ("why"/"because"), mai ("never"), sempre ("always"), etc.
In modern Italian the prepositions tra and fra are interchangeable, and often chosen on the basis of euphony: tra fratelli ("among brothers") vs. fra i tralicci ("between the power pylons").
In modern Italian, all the basic prepositions except tra, fra and per have to be combined with an article placed next to them.
|Italian||English||Preposition + article|
|di||of, from||del, dello, della, dell', dei, degli, delle|
|a||to, at||al, allo, alla, all', ai, agli, alle|
|da||from, by, since||dal, dallo, dalla, dall', dai, dagli, dalle|
|in||in||nel, nello, nella, nell', nei, negli, nelle|
|con||with||con il or col, con lo, con la, con l', con i or coi, con gli, con le|
|su||on, about||sul, sullo, sulla, sull', sui, sugli, sulle|
|per||for, through||per il, per lo, per la, per l', per i, per gli, per le|
|tra/fra||between, among||tra il, tra lo, tra la, tra l', tra i, tra gli, tra le|
Italian is an SVO language. Nevertheless, the SVO sequence is sometimes replaced by one of the other arrangements (SOV, VSO, OVS, etc.), especially for reasons of emphasis and, in literature, for reasons of style and metre: Italian has relatively free word order.
The subject is usually omitted when it is a pronoun – distinctive verb conjugations make it redundant. Subject pronouns are considered emphatic when used at all.
Questions are formed by a rising intonation at the end of the sentence (in written form, a question mark). There is usually no other special marker, although wh-movement does usually occur. In general, intonation and context are important to recognize questions from affirmative statements.
|Davide è arrivato in ufficio.||(David has arrived at the office.)|
|Davide è arrivato in ufficio?||("Talking about David… did he arrived at the office?" or "Davide has arrived at the office? Really?" - depending on the intonation)|
|Perché Davide è arrivato in ufficio?||(Why has David arrived at the office?)|
|Perché Davide è arrivato in ufficio.||(Because David has arrived at the office.)|
|È arrivato Davide in ufficio.||("It was David who arrived at the office" or "David arrived at the office" - depending on the intonation)|
|È arrivato Davide in ufficio?||(Has David arrived at the office?)|
|È arrivato in ufficio.||(He has arrived at the office.)|
|(Lui) è arrivato in ufficio.||(He has arrived at the office.)|
|Chi è arrivato in ufficio?||(Who has arrived at the office?)|
In general, adjectives come after the noun they modify, adverbs after the verb. But: as with French, adjectives coming before the noun indicate essential quality of the noun. Demonstratives (e.g. questo this, quello that) come before the noun, and a few particular adjectives (e.g. bello) may be inflected like demonstratives and placed before the noun.
Disputed points in Italian grammar
Among sometimes proscribed Italian forms are:
- The usage of an indicative form where a subjunctive one is traditional; for instance: credo che Giorgio ieri fosse a casa ("I believe that yesterday George was at home") is considered proper, while credo che Giorgio ieri era a casa may not be; se Maria fosse stata a casa, le avrei telefonato ("if Mary had been at home, I would have telephoned her") is preferred, se Maria era a casa le telefonavo is often proscribed, despite being found in classic Italian writers
- The use of the object forms (lui, lei, loro and Lei) of third person pronouns instead of the subject forms (egli, ella, essi and Ella), which are employed in formal language
- Ma però, despite being widespread in spoken language, is proscribed in formal usage because it is redundant (ma and però are synonyms).
Italian grammar books
The first Italian grammar was printed by Giovanni Francesco Fortunio in 1516 with the title Regole grammaticali della volgar lingua. Ever since, several Italian and foreign scholars have published works devoted to its description. Among others may be mentioned the famous Grammatica storica della lingua italiana e dei suoi dialetti written by the philologist Gerhard Rohlfs, published at the end of the 1960s.
Among the most modern publications are those by Luca Serianni, in collaboration with Alberto Castelvecchi, Grammatica italiana. Suoni, forme, costrutti (Utet, Torino, 1998); and by Lorenzo Renzi, Giampaolo Salvi and Anna Cardinaletti, Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione (3 vol., Bologna, Il Mulino, 1988-1995). The most complete and accurate grammar in English is A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian by Martin Maiden and Cecilia Robustelli (McGraw-Hill, Chicago, 2000; 2nd edition Routledge, New York, 2013).
- Accademia della Crusca, Guida alla scelta dell'articolo
- Accademia della Crusca, Articolo davanti a parole straniere inizianti per w e sw
- Self-geminating consonants are always long between vowels
- Accademia della Crusca, Sul plurale dei nomi in -cia e -gia e su una scelta d’autore
- Accademia della Crusca, Plurali difficili Archived 2012-02-17 at the Wayback Machine
- Serianni, Luca (1997). Italiano. Garzanti. ISBN 88-11-50470-8.
- Accademia della Crusca, Plurali doppi
- Accademia della Crusca, Sulla posizione dell'aggettivo qualificativo in italiano
- Accademia della Crusca, Impiego di Proprio e Suo'
- This was not always the case, however. It is not rare indeed to find in opera librettos the clitic before the imperative, (as in Ti ferma! instead of the standard Fermati!). However this usage today is completely non-standard and modern listeners might have difficulties with it when approaching old texts.
- Lepschy, Giulio and Anna Laura Lepschy. 1998. The Italian Language Today. New York: New Amsterdam Books. p. 214
- Lepschy, Giulio and Anna Laura Lepschy. 1998. The Italian Language Today. New York: New Amsterdam Books. p. 212
- Giraldi, Giovanni Battista (1565). Gli Ecatommiti [The Moor of Venice]. Tipografia Borghi & Compagni (published 1833). p. 1840.
- Maiden, Martin, M.Mair Parry. 1997. The dialects of Italy. P.113
- Accademia della Crusca, Sui pronomi di cortesia
- Accademia della Crusca, La scelta degli ausiliari
- Accademia della Crusca, Ausiliare con i verbi intransitivi
- Alessandro Manzoni, The Betrothed (1827)
- Moretti, G. Battista; Orvieto, Giorgio R. (1983). Grammatica Italiana, vol. III. Benucci. pp. 70–71.
- Fornaciari, Raffaello (1881). Sintassi italiana. Florence. See an excerpt at "Grammatica italiana - L'imperfetto nelle frasi condizionali". Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- Alessandro Manzoni, I promessi sposi, chapter 3
- Michael Metzeltin (2004). Las lenguas románicas estándar: (historia de su formación y de su uso). Uviéu, Asturias: Academia Llingua Asturiana. p. 221. ISBN 84-8168-356-6.