Italo-Dalmatian languages

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Italo-Dalmatian
Geographic
distribution
Italy, France, Croatia
Linguistic classification Indo-European
Glottolog ital1286[1]

The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).

Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:[2]

  • Italo-Romance, which includes most central and southern Italian languages.
  • Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.

The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmatian can be classified in these branches:

  • Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian), leading to: Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallic and Iberian languages) as Italo-Western, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Italo-Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
  • Corsican (from Italo-Dalmatian) and Sardinian are sometimes included together as Southern Romance, or Island Romance, leading to: Western, Italo-Dalmatian, Southern, and Eastern branches.

Languages[edit]

Based on mutual intelligibility, Dalby lists four languages: Corsican, Tuscan and Italian, NapolitanSicilian, and Dalmatian.[3]

Dalmatian Romance[edit]

Tuscan[edit]

  • Tuscan-Corsican: group of dialects spoken in the Italian region of Tuscany, and the French island of Corsica.
    • Northern Tuscan dialects:
      • Florentine is spoken in the city of Florence, and was the basis for Standard Italian.
      • Other dialects: Pistoiese; Pesciatino or Valdinievolese; Lucchese; Versiliese; Viareggino; Pisano-Livornese.
    • Southern Tuscan dialects:
      • Dialects of Aretino-Chianaiolo, Senese, Grossetano.
    • Corsican, spoken on Corsica, is thought to be descended mainly from Tuscan.[4]
      • Gallurese and Sassarese, spoken on the northern tip of Sardinia, can be considered as dialects of Corsican.

Italian[edit]

Central-Southern Italian[edit]

In addition, some Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in Central-Southern Italy.

Venetian[edit]

  • The Venetian language is sometimes added to Italo-Dalmatian when it is excluded from Gallo-Italic, and then usually grouped with Istriot.

Judeo-Italian[edit]

Judeo-Italian languages are varieties of Italian used by Jewish communities, between the 10th and the 20th centuries, in Italy, Corfu and Zante.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
  3. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.[1][2][3]
  4. ^ Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
  5. ^ "Romance languages". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 19 February 2017. ... if the Romance languages are compared with Latin, it is seen that by most measures Sardinian and Italian are least differentiated and French most 
  6. ^ La pronuncia italiana (Italian). treccani.it
  7. ^ a b c Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi.