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|Central Romance languages|
|Italy, France, Croatia|
The Italo-Dalmatian languages in yellow, brown, orange, blue and green.
Italo-Dalmatian can be split into:
- Italo-Romance, which includes most central and southern Italian languages.
- Dalmatian Romance, which includes Dalmatian and Istriot.
The generally accepted four branches of the Romance languages are Western Romance, Italo-Dalmatian, Sardinian and Eastern Romance. But there are other ways that the languages of Italo-Dalmatian can be classified in these branches:
- Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Eastern Romance (which includes Romanian), leading to: Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Italo-Dalmatian is sometimes included in Western Romance (which includes the Gallic and Iberian languages) as Italo-Western, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Italo-Romance is sometimes included in Italo-Western, with Dalmatian Romance included in Eastern Romance, leading to: Italo-Western, Sardinian, and Eastern branches.
- Corsican (from Italo-Dalmatian) and Sardinian are sometimes included together as Southern Romance, or Island Romance, leading to: Western, Italo-Dalmatian, Southern, and Eastern branches.
- The Dalmatian language was spoken in the Dalmatia region of Croatia. It became extinct in the 19th century.
- The Istriot language is spoken in the southwestern part of Istrian peninsula in Croatia.
- Tuscan-Corsican: group of dialects spoken in the Italian region of Tuscany, and the French island of Corsica.
- Northern Tuscan dialects:
- Southern Tuscan dialects:
- Dialects of Aretino-Chianaiolo, Senese, Grossetano.
- Corsican, spoken on Corsica, is thought to be descended from Tuscan.
- Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City and western Istria (in Slovenia and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. The Italian language was initially and primarily based on Florentine: it has been then deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its received pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Italian differs significantly from Tuscan and its Florentine variety.
- Central Italian, or Latin-Umbrian-Marchegian dialects: mainly spoken in the regions of: Lazio (which includes Rome); Umbria; central Marche; a small part of Abruzzo and Tuscany.
- Romanesco, spoken in Rome and Lazio.
- Castelli Romani: spoken in the Castelli Romani, in the Provence of Rome, Lazio.
- Tuscia or Viterbo: spoken in the Province of Viterbo, Lazio.
- Ciociaro: spoken in Ciociaria, in the Province of Frosinone, Lazio.
- Umbrian: spoken in Umbria.
- Central Marchigiano: spoken in central Marche.
- Sabino: spoken in the city of L'Aquila (Abruzzo) and the Province of Rieti (Lazio).
Intermediate Southern Italian
- Neapolitan language, or known in the "southern dialect group" is spoken in: southern Marche; southern Lazio; Abruzzo; Molise; Campania (including Naples); Basilicata; and the north of both Apulia and Calabria.
- Campano dialects of Neapolitan, Irpino, Southern Laziale: spoken in Naples and Campania; and southern Lazio.
- Abruzzese-Southern Marchigiano: spoken in the Abruzzo region and southern Marche region.
- Molisan: spoken in the Molise region.
- Basilicatine (Lucanian): spoken in the region of Basilicata, also known as Lucania.
- Pugliese, or Apulian: spoken in the northern region of Apulia.
- Cosentino, also known as or Northern Calabrian: spoken in the Province of Cosenza, in northern Calabria.
- Lu indialett di lu Uašt Spoken in the town of Vasto.
Extreme Southern Italian
- Sicilian language, or known in Italian linguistics as the "extreme southern dialect group", is spoken on the island of Sicily; and in the south of both Calabria and Apulia; and some of Campania.
- Sicilian, spoken on the island of Sicily: Western Sicilian; Central Metafonetica; Southeast Metafonetica; Ennese; Eastern Nonmetafonetica; Messinese.
- Sicilian dialects on other islands: Isole Eolie, on the Aeolian Islands; Pantesco, on the island of Pantelleria.
- Calabro, or Central-Southern Calabrian: dialects are spoken in the central and southern areas of the region of Calabria.
- Salentino, spoken in the Salento region of southern Apulia.
- Southern Cilentan: spoken in Roccagloriosa and Rofrano in southern tip of Cilento, which is southern Province of Salerno, in the Campania region.
- Cilentan: spoken in Cilento, influenced by both Neapolitan language and Sicilian language.
In addition, some Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in Central-Southern Italy.
- The Venetian language is sometimes added to Italo-Dalmatian when it is excluded from Gallo-Italic, and then usually grouped with Istriot.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Italo-Dalmatian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald & Forkel, Robert & Haspelmath, Martin & Nordhoff, Sebastian. 2014. "Italo-Dalmatian" Glottolog 2.3. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere register of the world's languages and speech communities. Observatoire Linguistique, Linguasphere Press. Volume 2. Oxford.
- Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
- La pronuncia italiana (Italian). treccani.it
- Calabrian in Italian: Calabrese (pl. Calebresi). Synonyms: Calabro, Calabra, Calabri, calabre (m., f., m.pl., f.pl.). Sicilian: calabbrìsi, calavrìsi.