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|Ithaca Model 37|
Ithaca 37 riot version with a pistol grip
|Place of origin||United States|
|Wars||World War II
1989 attack on La Tablada barracks
|Manufacturer||Ithaca Gun Company
|Variants||Bataan Modelo 71|
|Barrel length||13 inches (330 mm) to
30 inches (760 mm)
|Cartridge||12, 16, 20, or 28 gauge|
|Action||manually operated, pump-action|
|Feed system||4, 5, or 7-round tubular magazine (riot, standard, and extended tube versions)|
The Ithaca 37 is a pump-action shotgun made in large numbers for the civilian, military, and police markets. It utilizes a novel combination ejection/loading port on the bottom of the gun which leaves the sides closed to the elements. Since shotshells load and eject from the bottom, operation of the gun is equally convenient for both right and left hand shooters. This makes the gun popular with left-handed shooters.
The Ithaca 37 is based on a 1915 patent by the famous firearms designer John Browning, initially marketed as the Remington Model 17. The Model 17 was a 20-gauge of trim proportions, which Remington later redesigned and refined into the popular side-ejecting Remington Model 31. The Model 31 would eventually be replaced in production by the Remington 870 which was less expensive to manufacture.
Following the First World War, the Ithaca Gun Company was searching for a pump-action shotgun to produce, primarily to compete with the ubiquitous Winchester Model 1912. They settled on waiting for Remington Model 17 patents to expire. After gearing for production of the Ithaca Model 33, they discovered a Pedersen patent that would not expire until 1937; along with the introduction date, they changed the model designation from 33 to 37.
With the depression dragging on and war looming on the horizon, it was possibly the worst time to introduce a sporting arm. Many sporting arms ceased production entirely during the same period. While Ithaca did produce some shotguns for military use during the war, they also produced M1911 pistols and M3 Grease Guns.
After WW-II, Ithaca resumed production of the Model 37. Made in many different models, the Ithaca 37 has the longest production run for a pump-action shotgun in history, surpassing that of the Winchester Model 12 that had originally inspired Ithaca to produce pump-action shotguns. Ithaca has suffered many setbacks in its history, changing hands numerous times. At one time, the Ithaca 37 was renamed the Model 87, although it was soon changed back in one of many ownership changes. Production paused in 2005 when Ithaca once again changed hands. Production has resumed in Ohio.
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The largest single users outside the US Military were the New York City Police Department in 2 versions- 13" barrel with forend hand-strap for the Emergency Service Unit and 18" barrel for the Highway Patrol and the Los Angeles Police Department. Along with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, numerous other users include military, police, security agencies, and prisons. The Ithaca 37 was a popular choice among civilians for both sport and personal protection. The Ithaca model 37 feather light was commonly seen in the hands of farmers in the Midwestern United States. With higher prices for new Ithacas and decreasing availability compared to the Mossberg 500 and Remington 870, use of the Ithaca 37 continues to decline. Interestingly, Ithaca's loss of market share was hastened by competition from a copy of the shotgun. Chinese copies of the Ithaca 37 have been imported recently. Additionally, the supply of used civilian and departmental shotguns has been a steady competitor.
Loading the Ithaca 37 involves inserting shotshells of the proper gauge through the loading/ejection port in the bottom of the receiver and pushing them forward into the magazine until retained by the shell stop. The slide release is pressed and the slide retracted completely then pushed forward. Pulling the trigger fires the gun and releases the slide for reloading. On most models up to 1975, holding the trigger down allows the gun to fire the instant a new round is cycled into the chamber without requiring the trigger to be released, a process known as slamfire. Otherwise, the model 37 operates in much the same way as other pump-action shotguns.
There are versions too numerous to mention. Here are some popular models:
- S-prefix: were manufactured for a 1962 United States military contract. S-prefixed serial numbers ran from approximately 1,000 to 23,000 with "U.S." on the receiver and "P" proof markings on the barrel and receiver. The guns have a Parkerized finish with a 20 inches (51 cm) barrel and plain stock with plastic butt plate and no sling swivels. A few later contracts produced smaller numbers of guns with sling swivels and serial numbers in the high 900,000 range. Some had "duckbill spreader" shot diverters for use by United States Navy SEALs. Others were fitted with a ventilated handguard and bayonet adopter. New bayonets were manufactured by General Cutlery, Inc. and Canada Arsenal, Ltd.
- Ultralite: an aluminum receiver variation.
- Deerslayer: a version with a shortened barrel and rifle-style sighting system.
- DSPS: for Deerslayer Police Special. A military and police version
- Stakeout: short version with a 13 inches (330 mm) barrel and pistol grip stock, which was notable for being the signature weapon for Ricardo Tubbs, Philip Michael Thomas' character on Miami Vice as well as being the secondary weapon of Corporal Hicks in Aliens (although it was technically a modified hunting variant) and Aliens: Colonial Marines, where it has the words "no fate" carved into the top, a reference to Michael Biehn's role in The Terminator.
- 28 Gauge: 28 gauge model built on traditional size 28 gauge receiver.
- Defense: an affordable 12 gauge model built for home defense purposes. 18.5" barrel with 5-round capacity or 20" barrel with 8-round capacity.
- Argentina: Used by the military and the police.