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Itzhak Perlman

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Itzhak Perlman
יִצְחָק פרלמן
Perlman before playing The Star-Spangled Banner at Citi Field in New York City in 2016
Born (1945-08-31) August 31, 1945 (age 78)
Toby Friedlander
(m. 1967)

Itzhak Perlman (Hebrew: יִצְחָק פרלמן; born August 31, 1945) is an Israeli-American violinist. He has performed worldwide and throughout the United States, in venues that have included a state dinner for Elizabeth II at the White House in 2007, and at the 2009 inauguration of Barack Obama. He has conducted the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, and the Westchester Philharmonic. In 2015, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Perlman has won 16 Grammy Awards, including a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and four Emmy Awards.[2]

Early life

Perlman was born in 1945 in Tel Aviv. His parents, Chaim and Shoshana Perlman, were Jewish natives of Poland and had independently emigrated to Mandatory Palestine in the mid-1930s before they met and later married. Perlman contracted polio at age four and has walked using leg braces and crutches since then[3] and plays the violin while seated. As of 2018, he uses crutches or an electric scooter for mobility.[4]

When Perlman was three years old, he sat and listened attentively to a violin recital on the radio, which inspired him to become a violinist. His mother soon bought him a toy violin, and he instantly taught himself to play melodies. His parents tried to enroll him at the Shulamit Conservatory, but he was denied admission for being too small to hold a violin.[5] Despite his handicap, he began learning the violin a year later. His first teacher was a café violinist. At age five, Perlman was admitted to the Academy of Music in Tel Aviv (now the Buchmann-Mehta School of Music), where he studied for eight years with Rivka Goldgart, a violin teacher of Russian origin, and gave his first recital at age ten.[6][7] He moved to the United States at age 13 to study at the Juilliard School and Meadowmount School of Music[2] with the violin teacher Ivan Galamian and his assistant Dorothy DeLay.[8]



Ed Sullivan congratulates 13-year-old Perlman after a concert (1958)
Perlman in 1984

Perlman gained national attention when he appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show twice in 1958, and again in 1964, on the same show with the Rolling Stones.[9] His performances on the show included pieces such as Rimsky-Korsakov's "Flight of the Bumblebee", Wieniawski's "Polonaise Brillante", and Mendelssohn's first violin concerto.[10] In 1963 and 1964, Perlman made appearances with the National Orchestra Association in Wieniawski's Violin Concerto No. 1, the New York Youth Orchestra in Beethoven's Violin Concerto, and with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra.[11]

With the Zionist Organization of America's sponsorship, Perlman began touring cities in the U.S. and Canada as a soloist, and quickly established himself as a leading virtuoso.[10] He made his Carnegie Hall debut performing Wieniawski's Violin Concerto No. 1 in 1963 and won the Leventritt Competition in 1964.[2] From 1964 to 1966, Perlman embarked on his first notable concert tour in the United States, performed in 30 cities, including Buffalo, Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh, Denver, Honolulu, Indianapolis, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New Haven, Seattle, and St. Louis.[12][13] Perlman returned twice to the Ed Sullivan Show in 1964. During the later part of 1964, Perlman gave several concerts in Israel, a tour that concluded with the Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto at the Mann Auditorium in Tel Aviv.[14]

Perlman first appeared with the New York Philharmonic at the Philharmonic Hall as a soloist on May 9, 1965, playing Bruch's Violin Concerto No. 1 under William Steinberg.[15][16] He debuted with the Los Angeles Philharmonic with the same concerto on February 17, 1966.[17][18] In 1965, Perlman debuted with the Cleveland Orchestra at Severance Hall in Tchaikovsky's Violin Concert under Louis Lane.[19] He debuted with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra at the Ravinia Festival on August 4, 1966, in Tchaikovsky’s Violin Concerto with conductor Thomas Schippers.[20][21] Perlman made his debut with the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 16, 1966, playing Prokofiev's Violin Concerto No. 2 under Erich Leinsdorf.[22]

Starting in the late 1960s, Perlman began to tour Europe. He debuted with the London Symphony Orchestra in 1968, performing Tchaikovky's violin concerto under the direction of André Previn.[23] On May 25, 1972, Perlman debuted with the Berlin Philharmonic with the same concerto.[24] This was shortly followed by his debut at the Salzburg Festival with a solo performance of Schubert's Rondo and Fantasy for Violin and Piano and Brahms's Violin Sonata No. 3 with Joseph Kalichstein on August 19, 1972. The next day, Perlman performed Mozart's Violin Concerto No. 4 with the Vienna Philharmonic under Claudio Abbado.[25][26] In the following years, Perlman toured as a soloist worldwide.

In addition to an extensive recording and performance career, Perlman has continued to make appearances on television shows such as The Tonight Show and Sesame Street as well as playing at a number of White House functions.

Although Perlman has never been billed or marketed as a singer, he sang the role of "Un carceriere" ("a jailer") on a 1981 EMI recording of Puccini's "Tosca" that featured Renata Scotto, Plácido Domingo, and Renato Bruson, with James Levine conducting. He had earlier sung the role in an excerpt from the opera on a 1980 Pension Fund Benefit Concert telecast as part of the Live from Lincoln Center series with Luciano Pavarotti as Cavaradossi and Zubin Mehta conducting the New York Philharmonic.

On July 5, 1986, Perlman performed at the New York Philharmonic's tribute to the 100th anniversary of the Statue of Liberty, which was televised live on ABC.[27] The orchestra, conducted by Mehta, performed in Central Park.

In 1987, Perlman joined the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra (IPO) for its concerts in Warsaw and Budapest as well as other cities in Eastern bloc countries. He toured with the IPO in the spring of 1990 for its first-ever performance in the Soviet Union, with concerts in Moscow and Leningrad, and again in 1994, performing in China and India.

In 2015, on a classical music program titled The Chamber Music Society of Lincoln Center produced by WQXR in New York City, it was revealed that Perlman performed the uncredited violin solo on the 1989 Billy Joel song "The Downeaster Alexa".

While primarily a solo artist, Perlman has performed with a number of other musicians, including Yo-Yo Ma, Pinchas Zukerman, Jessye Norman, Vladimir Ashkenazy, Isaac Stern, and Yuri Temirkanov at the 150th anniversary celebration of Tchaikovsky in Leningrad in December 1990.

As well as playing and recording the classical music for which he is best known, Perlman has also played jazz, including an album made with jazz pianist Oscar Peterson, klezmer, and bluegrass music.[28] He has been a soloist in a number of film scores, such as the theme of the 1993 film Schindler's List by John Williams, which won an Academy Award for Best Original Score. More recently, he was the violin soloist in the 2005 film Memoirs of a Geisha along with cellist Yo-Yo Ma. Perlman played selections from the musical scores of the movies nominated for "Best Original Score" at the 73rd Academy Awards with Ma[29][30] and at the 78th Academy Awards.[31]

Selected performances

Perlman at the White House in 2007

Perlman played at the state dinner attended by Queen Elizabeth II on May 7, 2007, in the East Room at the White House.[32]

He performed John Williams's "Air and Simple Gifts" at the 2009 inauguration ceremony for Barack Obama along with Yo-Yo Ma (cello), Gabriela Montero (piano), and Anthony McGill (clarinet). The quartet played live, but the music played simultaneously over speakers and on television was a recording made two days earlier due to concerns that the cold weather could damage the instruments. Perlman was quoted as saying: "It would have been a disaster if we had done it any other way."[33]

He made an appearance in Disney's Fantasia 2000 to introduce the segment Pines of Rome, along with Steve Martin.

On November 2, 2018, Perlman reprised the 60th anniversary of his first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show as a guest on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert.[34]


In 1975, Perlman accepted a faculty post at the Conservatory of Music at Brooklyn College. In 2003, he was named the Dorothy Richard Starling Foundation Chair in Violin Studies at the Juilliard School, succeeding his teacher, Dorothy DeLay. He also teaches students one-on-one at the Perlman Music Program on Long Island, NY, rarely holding master classes.

The Perlman Music Program

The Perlman Music Program, founded in 1994 by Perlman's wife, Toby Perlman, and Suki Sandler, started as a summer camp for exceptional string musicians between the ages of 12 and 18.[35] Over time, it expanded to a yearlong program. Students have the chance to have Perlman coach them before they play at venues such as the Sutton Place Synagogue and public schools.[36] By introducing students to each other and requiring them to practice together, the program strives to have musicians who would otherwise practice alone develop a network of friends and colleagues. Rather than remain isolated, participants in the program find an area where they belong.[37]


At the beginning of the new millennium, Perlman began to conduct.[38] He took the post of principal guest conductor at the Detroit Symphony Orchestra. He served as music advisor to the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra from 2002 to 2004. In November 2007, the Westchester Philharmonic announced his appointment as artistic director and principal conductor. His first concert in these roles was on October 11, 2008, in an all-Beethoven program featuring pianist Leon Fleisher performing the Emperor Concerto.


Perlman plays the Soil Stradivarius violin of 1714, formerly owned by Yehudi Menuhin and considered one of the finest violins made during Stradivari's "golden period." Perlman also plays the Guarneri del Gesù 1743 'Sauret'[39] and the Carlo Bergonzi 1740 'ex-Kreisler'.

Personal life

Perlman lives in New York City with his wife, Toby, also a classically trained violinist. They have five children, including Navah Perlman, a concert pianist and chamber musician. Perlman is a distant cousin of the Canadian comic and television personality Howie Mandel.[40] He has synesthesia and was interviewed for Tasting the Universe by Maureen Seaberg, which is about the condition.[41]


  • Prokofieff: Concerto No.2 in G Minor / Sibelius: Concerto in D Minor (RCA Victor, 1967)
  • Violin Concertos / Romance (RCA Red Seal 1968, BMG Classics, 2000)
  • Franck: Sonata for Violin & Piano (Vladimir Ashkenazy) in A Major / Brahms: Trio for Violin, Horn (Barry Tuckwell) and Piano in E flat Major (London Records, 1969)
  • Lalo: Symphonie Espagnole / Ravel: Tzigane (RCA Gold Seal, 1969)
  • Prokofiev: Sonatas for Violin and Piano, No. 1, Op.80 / No.2, Op. 94a (RCA Red Seal, 1969 & RCA Gold Seal, 1975)
  • The 24 Caprices, Op.1 by Paganini (Angel Records, 1972)
  • Bach: Double Concerto in D Minor, Violin Concerto No.2 in E, Violin Concerto in G Minor (Angel 1972)
  • Wieniawski: The Two Violin Concertos (Angel, 1973)
  • Bartok: Violin Concerto No.2 (Angel, 1974)
  • Perpetual Motion (Angel, 1974)
  • Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto / Dvořák: Romance (RCA Gold Seal, 1975)
  • Ravel; Saint-Saëns; Chausson (Angel, 1975)
  • Paganini; Giuliani: Duos for Violin & Guitar (John Williams) (CBS, 1976)
  • Sibelius Violin Concerto / Prokofieff Violin Concerto No.2 (RCA, 1976)
  • Itzhak Perlman plays Stravinsky (1976)
  • Itzhak Perlman plays Fritz Kreisler (1976)
  • Itzhak Perlman plays Fritz Kreisler, Volume 2 (1977)
  • Goldmark: Violin Concerto No.1 / Sarasate: Zigeunerweisen (Angel, 1977)
  • Bruch: Scottish Fantasy, Op. 46 / Violin Concerto No.2 in D Minor, Op.44 (Angel, 1977)
  • Duets for Two Violins (Angel, 1977)
  • Beethoven: Sonatas for Violin and Piano, Volume 4 (London Records, 1977)
  • Brahms: Violin Concerto (Angel, 1977)
  • Vieuxtemps: Violin Concertos No.4 in D Minor / No.5 in A Minor (Angel, 1978)
  • First Recording of the Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto (Quintessence Records, 1978)
  • Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto in D Major & Serenade Melancolique (Angel, 1979)
  • Virtuoso Violinist (Angel, 1979)
  • Berg: Violin Concertos (Deutsche Grammophon, 1979)
  • Beethoven: Sonatas for Violin and Piano (London Records, 1979)
  • Encores (Angel, 1979)
  • Dohnanyi: Serenade / Beethoven: Serenade (Columbia Masterworks, 1979)
  • The Spanish Album (Angel, 1980)
  • Itzhak Perlman plays Fritz Kreisler, Volume 3 (1980)
  • Berg: Violin Concerto / Stravinsky: Violin Concerto (Deutsche Grammophon, 1980)
  • Itzhak Perlman & Pinchas Zukerman Play Music for Two Violins (1980)
  • Sibelius: Violin Concerto / Sinding: Suite in A Minor (Angel, 1980)
  • Bartok Duos For Two Violins (Angel, 1981)
  • Itzhak Perlman (Great Performers series, 1981)
  • The Great Romantic Violin Concertos (Angel, 1981)
  • Beethoven: Violin Concerto, Op.61 (EMI, 1981)
  • Korngold: Concerto in D / Conus: Concerto in E Minor (EMI, 1981)
  • Lalo: Symphonie Espagnole / Berlioz: Reverie Et Caprice (Deutsche Grammophon, 1981)
  • The Two Violin Concertos by Prokofiev (Angel, 1982)
  • Elgar: Violin Concerto (Deutsche Grammophon, 1982)
  • Beethoven: Violin Sonatas, Kreutzer - Spring (London Records, 1983)
  • Mozart: Violin Concertos Nos. 3 & 5 (Deutsche Grammophon, 1983)
  • Saint-Saëns: Violin Concerto No.3 / Wieniawski: Violin Concerto No.2 (Deutsche Grammophon, 1983)
  • Lalo: Symphonie Espagnole / Saint-Saëns: Violin Concerto No.3 (Deutsche Grammophon, 1983)
  • Bach: Double Concerto, with Isaac Stern (CBS Records, 1983)
  • Chausson: Concert for Violin, Piano and String Quartet (CBS Masterworks, 1983)
  • Kim: Violin Concerto / Starer: Violin Concerto (Angel, 1984)
  • Khatchaturian: Violin Concerto / Tchaikovsky: Meditation Op.42, No.1 (Angel, 1984)
  • Vivaldi: Four Violin Concertos (Angel, 1984)
  • Mozart: Violin Sonatas, K.301, 302, 303 & 304 (Deutsche Grammophon, 1984)
  • Mendelssohn: Concerto in E Minor / Concerto No.1 in G Minor (Angel, 1984)
  • Bach: Violin Concertos in D Minor & G Minor / Concerto for Violin & Oboe in C Minor (Angel, 1984)
  • Brahms: The Sonatas for Violin and Piano / Sonatensatz / Four Hungarian Dances (Angel, 1985)
  • Dvořák: Sonatine in G, Four Romantic Pieces; Smetana: From My Homeland (Angel, 1985)
  • Mozart: Sinfonia Concertante K.364 / Concertone K.190 (Deutsche Grammophon, 1985)
  • Violinkonzerte Nos. 3 & 4 by W.A. Mozart (1986)
  • Mozart: The 5 Violin Concertos (Deutsche Grammophon, 1986)
  • Mozart: Violin Concerto No.1, Adagio K.261, Rondo K.373, Rondo K.261a (Deutsche Grammophon, 1986)
  • Tradition: Itzhak Perlman Plays Jewish Melodies (1987)
  • Tchaikovsky: Piano Trio in A Minor, Op.50 (EMI, 1987)
  • My Favourite Kreisler (Angel, 1987)
  • Dvořák: Violin Concerto, Romance (EMI, 1987)
  • Bach: Sonatas and Partitas (EMI, 1988)
  • A Tribute To Jascha Heifetz (EMI, 1989)
  • Tchaikovsky: Violin Concerto (1990)
  • Saint-Saëns; Sarasate; Chausson / Ravel (Deutsche Grammophon, 1990)
  • Brahms: The 3 Violin Sonatas (Sony Classical, 1990)
  • Mozart: Sonatas for Piano and Violin, K.378, K.379 & K.380 (DG, 1990)
  • 24 Caprices: Paganini (EMI, 1991)
  • Paganini: Violin Concerto no.1 / Sarasate: Carmen Fantasy (EMI, 1991)
  • Mozart: Sonatas for Piano and Violin, K.526 & K.547 (DG, 1991)
  • Vivaldi: Four Violin Concertos (EMI, 1991)
  • Vivaldi: The Four Seasons (EMI, 1991)
  • Mozart: Duos for Violin & Viola / Leclair: Sonata for 2 Violins (RCA Victor, 1991)
  • Vivaldi: The Four Seasons / 3 Violin Concertos (1992)
  • Castelnuovo-Tedesco & Ben-Haim: Violin Concertos (EMI, 1992)
  • Brahms: Violin Concerto (EMI, 1992)
  • The Art of Itzhak Perlman (1993)
  • Prokofiev: Violin Sonatas / Concerto No.2 (1994)
  • Bits and Pieces (EMI, 1994)
  • The American Album (EMI, 1994)
  • Dvořák in Prague: A Celebration (Sony Classical, 1994, and Kultur Video, 2007)
  • The American Album (1995)
  • In the Fiddler's House (1995)
  • A La Carte (EMI, 1995)
  • Wieniawski by Itzhak Perlman (EMI, 1995)
  • Live In The Fiddler's House (Angel, 1996)
  • Bruch: Violin Concerto No.1 (EMI, 1997)
  • Cinema Serenade (Sony Classical, 1997)
  • Stravinsky: Violin Concerto / Prokofiev: Violin Concerto No.2 (Teldec, 1997)
  • Brahms: Double Concerto / Mendelssohn: Violin Concerto (Teldec, 1997)
  • Holiday Tradition (1998)
  • Brahms: Violin Sonatas Nos. 1-3 (EMI, 1998)
  • Itzhak Perlman's Greatest Hits (EMI, 1998)
  • Concertos from My Childhood (EMI, 1999)
  • Violin Concertos / Romance (BMG Classics, 2000)
  • Mozart: Violin Concerto No.3 (EMI, 2002)
  • Classic Perlman - Rhapsody (2002)
  • Beethoven: The Violin Sonatas (Decca, 2002)
  • The Perlman Edition: Tradition (EMI, 2003)
  • Perlman Rediscovered (2004)
  • The Essential Itzhak Perlman (Sony Classical, 2009)
  • Eternal Echoes: Songs and Dances for the Soul (Sony Classical, 2012) with Yitzchak Meir Helfgot
  • Itzhak Perlman & Emanuel Ax: Fauré & Strauss Violin Sonatas (Universal Music Classics/Deutsche Grammophon, 2015)
  • The Perlman Sound (Warner Classics, 2015)
  • Schumann – Bach – Brahms (Warner Classics, 2016)
  • The Art of Itzhak Perlman (Sony Classical, 2016)

With Andre Previn

  • The Easy Winners (Angel Records, 1975 / EMI, 1986)
  • A Different Kind of Blues (EMI/Angel, 1980)
  • It's a Breeze (EMI/Angel, 1981)

With Placido Domingo

  • Together (EMI, 1991)

With Oscar Peterson

  • Side by Side (TELARC CD-83341 1994)

Honors and awards


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  2. ^ a b c "Itzhak – Itzhak Perlman Biography". American Masters. PBS. October 4, 2018. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
  3. ^ "'I Woke Up and I Couldn't Walk': This is the Polio That should become Just a Memory". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
  4. ^ Lee, Ji Hyun (December 26, 2014). "How They Roll". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
  5. ^ "Israeli Violin Prodigy Admits He Likes Jazz: But Doesn't Play It, Says Lad, 13, Who Overcame Polio to Become Noted Artist". Los Angeles Times. November 29, 1958. p. B1. ProQuest 167374800.
  6. ^ "Perlman, Itzhak". Oxford Music Online. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  7. ^ Potter, Tully (January 20, 2001). "Perlman, Itzhak". Grove Music Online. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.21349.
  8. ^ "Perlman, Itzhak Biography: Contemporary Musicians". Enotes.com. Retrieved July 1, 2011.
  9. ^ Duration: 60 min. "Watch The Ed Sullivan Show Season 12 Episode 8 Itzhak Perlman / Carol Lawrence & Larry Kert / Film: Ed Sullivan Visits Jerusalem". Ovguide.com. Archived from the original on March 17, 2012. Retrieved July 1, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ a b Predota, Georg (August 31, 2022). "On This Day 31 August: Itzhak Perlman Was Born". Interlude. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  11. ^ "1965 May 09 Subscription". NY Phil Archives. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  12. ^ "Boston Symphony Orchestra Eighty-Sixth Season 1966-1967: Eleventh Program". Archive.org. p. 645. Retrieved February 1, 2024.
  13. ^ "Itzhak Perlman: Virtuoso of the Violin". Academy of Achievement.
  14. ^ Predota, George (August 31, 2022). "On This Day 31 August: Itzhak Perlman Was Born". Interlude. Retrieved February 1, 2024.
  15. ^ "1965 May 09 / Subscription Season / Steinberg". Archives New York Philharmonic. Retrieved February 1, 2024.
  16. ^ "New York Philharmonic Daily Digital Archives". New York Phil. Retrieved January 17, 2024.
  17. ^ Cariaga, Daniel (July 12, 1991). "MUSIC REVIEW : Good News Follows Perlman to Bowl". Los Angeles Times.
  19. ^ Rosenberg, Donald (2000). The Cleveland Orchestra Story: "second to none". Gray. p. 365. Retrieved February 1, 2024.
  20. ^ "Classical Music: Chicago Plans 3 Subscription Pkgs". Billboard. 72. September 17, 1966.
  21. ^ "Ravinia Festival Opens June 28". Musical Leader and Concert Goer. 98 (9): 5. 1966.
  22. ^ "Boston Symphony Orchestra Eighty-Sixth Season 1966-1967: Eleventh Program". Archive.org. p. 645. Retrieved February 1, 2024.
  23. ^ "Concert Annals: LONDON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA - 1964 - 1974". Orange Leaf.
  24. ^ "WayBackWednesday". Twitter. Berlin Philharmoniker. May 25, 2022. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  25. ^ "Itzhak Perlman". thirteen.org. Retrieved February 23, 2023.
  26. ^ "SALZBURG FESTIVAL ARCHIVE: Repertoire Archive 1972". Salzburger Festspiele. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  27. ^ "Liberty Receives Classical Salute, Sun Sentinel, July 5, 1986". Archived from the original on February 23, 2015.
  28. ^ "John Denver and Itzhak Perlman playing Bluegrass". YouTube.
  29. ^ Pincus, Andrew (2002). Musicians with a Mission: Keeping the Classical Tradition Alive. UPNE. p. 47. ISBN 9781555535162.
  30. ^ "20 years later: Stars at the 2001 Academy Awards and after-parties". New York Daily News. April 21, 2021.
  31. ^ "Itzhak Perlman at the Fox is the epitome of true mastery | The Spokesman-Review". www.spokesman.com.
  32. ^ "News releases for May 2007". whitehouse.gov (Press release). May 7, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007 – via National Archives.
  33. ^ Quartet pre-recorded Obama music. BBC News (January 23, 2009).
  34. ^ Norman Lebrecht (November 3, 2018). "60 Years On, Itzhak Perlman Reprises His Ed Sullivan Appearance". slippeddisc.com.
  35. ^ "The Perlman Music Program: Toby's Project Grows and Grows". Strings. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  36. ^ "Perlmans' Proteges: The Perlman Music Program". Strings. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  37. ^ "Perlman Student Stirling Trent". Strings. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  38. ^ "The Daily Gazette – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  39. ^ "Cozio.com – comprehensive information about antique Italian stringed instruments". Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  40. ^ Brownfield, Paul (June 21, 1998). "New Afternoon Arrival". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  41. ^ Seaberg, Maureen (2011). Tasting the Universe: People Who See Colors in Words and Rainbows in Symphonies. Red Wheel/Weiser. ISBN 978-1-60163-667-6.
  42. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved December 9, 2021.
  43. ^ "Newsweek cover story 1980". Archived from the original on September 14, 2002. Retrieved March 25, 2008.
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  46. ^ "2005 Summit Highlights Photo". 2005. Itzhak Perlman, 2005 Academy guest of honor and legendary violinist and conductor, at Jazz at Lincoln Center.
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  48. ^ Phil Helsel – "Obama honoring Spielberg, Streisand and more with medal of freedom," NBC News, November 24, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2015.
  49. ^ "Genesis Prize". Retrieved May 7, 2015.
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External links