August 29, 1769 |
(September 9, 1769 N.S.)
Poltava, Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
|Died||October 29, 1838O.S.
(aged 69) |
(November 10, 1838 N.S.)
Poltava, Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
Ivan Petrovych Kotliarevsky (Ukrainian: Іван Петрович Котляревський) (9 September [O.S. 29 August] 1769 in Poltava – 10 November [O.S. 29 October] 1838 in Poltava, Russian Empire, now Ukraine), was a Ukrainian writer, poet and playwright, social activist, regarded as the pioneer of modern Ukrainian literature. Kotlyarevsky was a veteran of the Russo-Turkish War.
Kotlyarevsky was born in the Ukrainian city of Poltava in the family of a clerk. After studying at the Poltava Theological Seminary (1780–1789), he worked as a tutor for the gentry at rural estates, where he became familiar with Ukrainian folk life and the peasant vernacular. He served in the Imperial Russian Army between 1796 and 1808 in the Siversky Karabiner Regiment. Kotlyarevsky participated in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812) as a staff-captain (something of 1LT or junior CPT) during which the Russian troops laid the siege to the city of Izmail. In 1808 he retired from the Army. In 1810 he became the trustee of an institution for the education of children of impoverished nobles. In 1812, during the French invasion of Imperial Russia he organized the 5th Ukrainian Cossack Regiment in the town of Horoshyn (Khorol uyezd, Poltava Governorate) under the condition that it will be left after the war as a permanent military formation. For that he received a rank of major.
He helped stage theatrical productions at the Poltava governor-general's residence and was the artistic director of the Poltava Free Theater between 1812 and 1821. In 1818 together with Vasyl Lukashevych, V.Taranovsky, and others he was the member of the Poltava Freemasonry Lodge The Love for Truth (Ukrainian: Любов до істини). Kotlyarevsky participated in the buyout of Mikhail Shchepkin out of the serfdom. From 1827 to 1835 he directed several philanthropic agencies.
The first modern Ukrainian writer
Ivan Kotlyarevsky's mock-heroic 1798 poem Eneyida (Ukrainian: Енеїда), is considered to be the first literary work published wholly in the modern Ukrainian language.
It is a loose translation of an earlier poem Eneida travestied (Russian: Вирги́лиева Энеи́да, вы́вороченная наизна́нку) published in 1791 by the Russian poet N. P. Osipov
Although Ukrainian was an everyday language to millions of people in Ukraine, it was officially discouraged from literary use in the area controlled by Imperial Russia. Eneyida is a parody of Virgil's Aeneid, where Kotlyarevsky transformed the Trojan heroes into Zaporozhian Cossacks. Critics believe that it was written in the light of the destruction of Zaporizhian Host by the order of Catherine the Great.
His two plays, also living classics, Natalka Poltavka (Natalka from Poltava) and Moskal-Charivnyk (The Muscovite-Sorcerer), became the impetus for the creation of the Natalka Poltavka opera and the development of Ukrainian national theater.
|“||the love to Fatherland that is glorified no enemy force will withstand, a chest will become stronger than guns.
(любов к Отчизні де героїть, там сила вража не устоїть, там грудь сильніша від гармат)
|— Ivan Kotlyarevsky|
- The Kharkiv National University of Arts 'L P Kotlyarevsky', in Kharkiv, Ukraine, is named in his honour.
- Monument to Kotlyarevsky was erected by Fedir Lyzohub in Poltava
Partial translations of Eneyida date back to 1933 when a translation of first few stanzas of Kotlyarevsky's Eneyida by Wolodymyr Semenyna was published in the American newspaper of Ukrainian diaspora Ukrainian Weekly on October 20, 1933. However, the first full English translation of Kotliarevsky's magnum opus Eneida was published only in 2006 in Canada by a Ukrainian-Canadian Bohdan Melnyk, most well known for his English translation of Ivan Franko's Ukrainian fairy tale Mikita the Fox (Ukrainian: Лис Микита)
But when the Greeks felt very bitter
He quickly built some boats of timber,
But cackling Juno, dog-gone-daughter,
Еней був парубок моторний
Но греки, як спаливши Трою,
Він, швидко поробивши човни,
Но зла Юнона, суча дочка,
List of English translations:
- Ivan Kotliarevsky. Aeneid: [Translated into English from Ukrainian by Bohdan Melnyk]. — Canada, Toronto: The Basilian Press, 2004. — 278 pages. ISBN 978-0921-5-3766-3
- Ivan Kotliarevsky. Eneida: Excerpts. Translated by Andrusyshen C. H & Kirkconnell W. in the anthology The Ukrainian Poets 1189–1962. Published for the Ukrainian Canadian Committee by the University of Toronto Press in Toronto, 1963.
- Sliusarenko, A. H., Tomenko, M. V. Istoriia Ukrainskoi Konstytytsii, "Znannia", (Ukraine 1993), ISBN 5-7770-0600-0, pg. 38 (Ukrainian)
- List of freemasonry lodges in Ukraine (Ukrainian)
- Олександр Палій. "Чому «вороженьки» бояться пам’яті героїв Крут?". unian.net.
- "1933" The Ukrainian Weekly 1933-03.pdf (English)
- "Eneïda". worldcat.org.
- http://svitlytsia.crimea.ua/?section=article&artID=12820 Кримська Теплиця #4 За 24.01.2014 Штрихи До Портрета Перекладача Богдана Мельника
- http://www.infoukes.com/newpathway/37-2005_Page_06.htm New Pathway: Melnyk's Monumental Task: Toronto translator publishes English version of Kotliarevsky's Aeneid
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ivan Kotlyarevsky.|
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Ivan Kotlyarevsky in Encyclopædia Britannica
- Ivan Kotliarevsky in Encyclopedia of Ukraine
- Works by Ivan Kotliarevsky for reading online in Ukrainian
- Eneyida - a living classic of Ukrainian literature in Welcome to Ukraine, 1999, 1
- Excerpts from Eneyida (translated into English)
- Text of Eneyida (Ukrainian)