Ivan the Terrible (Prokofiev)

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Ivan the Terrible (Russian: Иван Грозный), Op. 116, is the score composed by Sergei Prokofiev in 1942–45 for Sergei Eisenstein's film Ivan the Terrible and its sequel, the first two parts of an incomplete trilogy. The project was Prokofiev's second collaboration with Eisenstein, the first being the popular Aleksandr Nevskiy (1938). The majority of the non-liturgical song texts were written by Vladimir Lugovskoy, who collaborated with Prokofiev on the texts for Aleksandr Nevskiy.

The subject of the "First Tale" (Part 1) is the early years, 1547 to 1565, of the reign of Ivan IV of Russia: his coronation, his intent to curb the powers of the boyars, his wedding, his conquest of Kazan, his almost fatal illness, the poisoning and death of his first wife Anastasiya, the formation of the Oprichniki, and his abdication.

The "Second Tale" (Part 2), subtitled The Boyar Conspiracy, covers the years 1565 to 1569, and concerns the defection of Prince Kurbskiy to Poland-Lithuania, Ivan's disputes with Philip II, Metropolitan of Moscow, the intrigues of the boyars, the excesses of the Oprichniki, the attempted coup by the boyars and Ivan's aunt, Yefrosinya Staritskaya, the murder of her son Vladimir Staritsky, and Ivan's triumph over his domestic enemies.

The film scores were not published during Prokofiev's lifetime. They were arranged in 1961 as an oratorio for soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Levon Atovmyan, one of Prokofiev's assistants. However, before this version could be performed, the music received its concert premiere in 1961 in Moscow in the form of an oratorio for speaker, soloists, chorus, and orchestra by Abram Stasevich, who conducted the scores for Eisenstein.

In 1973 the composer Mikhail Chulaki and choreographer Yuri Grigorovich drew on Prokofiev's film scores to create the ballet Ivan the Terrible, which was given its premiere in 1975. Later performing editions of the scores include an oratorio put together by Michael Lankester (1989), and a concert scenario by Christopher Palmer (1991). The restoration of the entire original film score has been published and recorded.

History[edit]

Composition history[edit]

Performance history[edit]

The film Ivan the Terrible (Part One) premiered on 30 December 1944. The sequel, The Boyar Conspiracy (Part Two), was not shown until 1958.

The concert premiere of the soundtrack film score, as restored by Frank Strobel, took place on 16 September 2016 at the Musikfest Berlin, accompanied by a showing of the film in the Great Hall of the Konzerthaus Berlin. Strobel conducted the Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin and the Rundfunkchor Berlin, with soloists Marina Prudenskaya (contralto) and Alexander Vinogradov (bass).

Publication history[edit]

  • 1958, 'Songs and Choruses from the Music for the Film Ivan the Terrible', vocal scores, published by Levon Atovmyan in the magazine Sovetskaya Muzyka; the six numbers included:[1]
  1. 'The Black Cloud'
  2. 'Ocean-Sea'
  3. 'Song of Praise'
  4. 'The Swan'
  5. 'The Cannoneers'
  6. 'Song about the Beaver'
  • 1960, 'Songs and Choruses from Cantatas, Oratorios, and Films', published by Levon Atovmyan, vocal scores, Sovetskiy Kompozitor; the numbers from Ivan the Terrible included:[2]
  1. 'The Oath of the Oprichniki'
  2. 'Song of Fyodor Basmanov and the Oprichniki'
  3. 'Song of the Oprichniki'
  • 1997, Ivan the Terrible, manuscript film score, full score, edition by Marina Rakhmanova and Irina Medvedeva, Musikverlage Hans Sikorski, Hamburg[3]
  • 2016, Ivan the Terrible, soundtrack film score, full score, edition by Frank Strobel, Musikverlage Hans Sikorski, Hamburg

Manuscript numbers[edit]

The numbers in Prokofiev's manuscript scores are listed in the table below.

Note: The column marked 'S' shows the numbering of the musical numbers by Musikverlage Hans Sikorski, the publisher of the restored manuscript film score (zeros have been inserted before single digit numbers for sorting purposes). 'A' stands for Anhang (the appendix), which includes the liturgical numbers used in the film that were either arranged by Prokofiev or were not written into his score of Ivan the Terrible.

The table can be sorted by clicking on the buttons in the title bar. The default sequence can be restored by refreshing the browser (press F5).

No. S Title English Source Scoring
01 01 Увертюра Overture Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
02 02 Смерть Глинской Death of Glinskaya Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
03 03 Марш молодого Ивана March of the Young Ivan Prokofiev Orchestra
04 04a Океан-море Ocean-Sea Prokofiev Soloist, chorus, orchestra
05 04b Океан-море Ocean-Sea Prokofiev Orchestra
06 05 Шуйский и псари Shuyskiy and the Huntsmen Prokofiev Orchestra
07 A01 Кирие элейсон Kyrie eleison Liturgy Chorus
08 A02 Софрониевская херувимская песнь Sofroniy's Cherubic Song Monastic song, transcribed by Kastalsky Chorus
09 06 Многая лета! Many Years! Traditional, arranged by Prokofiev Chorus
10 07 Величание Praise Song Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
11 08 Лебедь The Swan Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
12 09 Юродивый The Holy Fool Prokofiev Orchestra
13 10 Бунт The Riot Prokofiev Orchestra
14 11 Выход татар Entrance of the Tatars Prokofiev Orchestra
15 12 Пушки движутся на Казань The Cannons Move to Kazan Prokofiev Orchestra
16 13 Палатка Ивана Ivan's Tent Prokofiev Orchestra
17 14 Степь татарская Tatar Steppe Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
18 15 Пушкари The Cannoneers Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
19 16 Татары The Tatars Prokofiev Orchestra
20 17 Трубы Курбского Kurbskiy's Trumpets Prokofiev Brass
21 18 Атака Attack Prokofiev Orchestra
22 19 Зависть Малюты Malyuta's Jealousy Prokofiev Orchestra
23 20 Казань взята Kazan is Taken Prokofiev Orchestra
24 A04 Душе моя My Soul Obikhod Chorus
25 A05 Многомилостиве Господи Most Merciful Lord Obikhod Chorus
26 21 Иван умоляет бояр Ivan Implores the Boyars Prokofiev Orchestra
27 22 Болезнь Анастасии Anastasiya's Illness Prokofiev Orchestra
28 23 Отравление Анастасии The Poisoning of Anastasiya Prokofiev Orchestra
29 A06 Вечная память Eternal Remembrance Obikhod Chorus
30 A07 Со святыми упокой Rest with the Saints Obikhod Chorus
31 A08 Сам един еси Thou Alone Obikhod, transcribed by Vinogradov Chorus
32 24 Иван у гроба Анастасии Ivan at Anastasiya's Coffin Prokofiev Orchestra
33 25 Клятва опричников Oath of the Oprichniki Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
34 26 Вернись! Come Back! Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
35 27 Фанфары Fanfares Prokofiev Brass
36 27a Полонез Polonaise Prokofiev Orchestra
37 A09 Не рыдай мене, мати Do not Sob for Me, Mother Ivanov Chorus
38 A10 Уне тебе бяше, Иудо It Were Better for You, Judas Liturgy Chorus
39 28a Дивен Бог Wondrous is God Bortnyansky Chorus
40 28b Пение отроков Singing of the Boys Prokofiev 3 Boys
41 29 Песня про бобра Song about the Beaver Prokofiev Soloist, orchestra
42 30a Пляски опричников:
Хаотическая пляска
Dances of the Oprichniki:
Chaotic Dance
Prokofiev Orchestra
43 30b Пляски опричников:
Организованная пляска
Dances of the Oprichniki:
Orderly Dance
Prokofiev Orchestra
44 31 Куплеты опричников Song of the Oprichniki Prokofiev Soloist, chorus, orchestra
45 31a Куплеты опричников Song of the Oprichniki Prokofiev Orchestra
46 32a
32b
Хор опричников Chorus of the Oprichniki Prokofiev Chorus, orchestra
47 32c Убийство Владимира Vladimir's Murder Prokofiev Orchestra
48 33 Выход Ивана Entrance of Ivan Prokofiev Orchestra

The performance duration is about 100 minutes.

Several numbers can be divided into two parts, each of which are sometimes quoted in the film separately:

  • The first half of the 'Overture' is the orchestral 'A Storm Approaches' (the Ivan theme); the second half is the chorus 'The Black Cloud'.
  • The first part of 'The Death of Glinskaya' accompanies, in the second film, the flashback of the poisoning of the 8-year-old-Ivan's mother; the second part is the chorus 'On the Bones of our Enemies'.
  • The first half of 'Come Back!' depicts the people's chorus of supplication after Ivan's abdication; the second half is the 'Finale' (a variation of 'A Storm Approaches'), which concludes both films.

Scoring and instrumentation[edit]

The two film scores together require a contralto or mezzo-soprano (in 'Ocean-Sea' and 'Song about the Beaver'), a baritone or bass (in 'Song of the Oprichniki'), a bass (in 'Many Years!'), mixed (SATB) chorus, and the following instrumentation:

Versions by other hands[edit]

Oratorio by Levon Atovmyan (1961)[edit]

Performance history

Atovmyan's oratorio finally received its public premiere on 28 January 2012 at the Royal Festival Hall, London. Vladimir Jurowski conducted the London Philharmonic Orchestra and Chorus. The soloists were Ewa Podleś and Andrey Breus.

The Russian premiere took place on 2 April 2012 in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory. Vladimir Jurowski conducted the London Philharmonic Orchestra with the Sveshnikov State Academic Russian Choir and the Chamber Choir of the Moscow Conservatory. The soloists were Elena Zaremba and Andrey Breus.

The North American premiere took place on 18 October 2012 at Davies Symphony Hall, San Francisco. Vladimir Jurowski conducted the San Francisco Symphony and Chorus. The soloists were Elena Zaremba and Andrey Breus.

Numbers

Atovmyan's oratorio is in 8 sections, some consisting of several numbers (or parts of numbers) from the film score—refer to 'Sequence' below:[4]

No. Original English Sequence
1
Иван и бояре Ivan and the Boyars • A Storm Approaches
• The Black Cloud
• The Riot
• Ivan Implores the Boyars
• Come back!
• On the Bones of Our Enemies
• A Storm Approaches
2
Песня про бобра Song about the Beaver Song about the Beaver
3
Опричнина The Oprichnina • Chaotic Dance of the Oprichniki
• Chorus of the Oprichniki
• Orderly Dance of the Oprichniki
• Song of the Oprichniki
• Oath of the Oprichniki
• Orderly Dance of the Oprichniki
4
Лебедь The Swan The Swan
5
Анастасия Anastasiya • Anastasiya's Illness
• The Poisoning of Anastasiya
• Anastasiya's Illness
6
Океан-море Ocean-Sea • The Entrance of Ivan
• Ocean-Sea
7
Взятие Казани The Taking of Kazan • Ivan's Tent
• The Tatars
• Entrance of the Tatars
• The Tatars
• The Cannoneers
• The Cannons Move to Kazan
• Kurbskiy's Trumpets
• Attack
• Kazan is Taken
• Ivan's Tent
8
Величание Praise Song • March of the Young Ivan
• Praise Song
• The Death of Glinskaya
• On the Bones of our Enemies
• A Storm Approaches

The performance duration is about 45 minutes.

Scoring and instrumentation

Atovmyan's oratorio is scored for contralto or mezzo-soprano (in 'Ocean-Sea' and 'Song about the Beaver') and baritone (in 'Song of the Oprichniki'), mixed (SATB) chorus, and the following instrumentation:

Oratorio by Abram Stasevich (1961)[edit]

The following commentary, by one T. Korganov, was printed in the preface to Stasevich's vocal score in 1961:

"Without adding material of his own or making changes to the composer's manuscript, A. Stasevich approached the music for the film in a creative manner turning it into an oratorio consisting of 20 numbers. By repeating certain episodes and sections, and by linking them in a variety of ways, Stasevich was able to turn the various parts of this substantial work into self-contained numbers. In order to comply with the dictates of musical logic, he did not always adhere strictly to the order of the musical episodes prescribed by the plot. Thus certain episodes were transformed into tripartite structures, and others expanded to become rather large movements. Certain changes were also made to the orchestration, and certain instrumental lines were reinforced ... Stasevich also added another formal determinant in the shape of a speaker."[5]

Performance history

The premiere took place on 23 April 1961 in the Great Hall of the Moscow Conservatory. Abram Stasevich conducted the Moscow State Philharmonic Orchestra.[6]

Publication history
  • 1962, Ivan the Terrible, oratorio by Abram Stasevich, vocal score, Sovetskiy Kompozitor, Moscow[7]
  • 1972, Ivan the Terrible, oratorio by Stasevich, full score, Sovetskiy Kompozitor, Moscow[8]
Numbers

Stasevich's oratorio is in 20 movements, some consisting of several numbers (or parts of numbers) from the film score—refer to 'Sequence' below:

No. Original English Sequence
1
Увертюра Overture • A Storm Approaches
• The Black Cloud
• The Death of Glinskaya
• Shuyskiy and the Huntsmen
• The Death of Glinskaya
• The Black Cloud
• A Storm Approaches
2
Марш молодого Ивана March of the Young Ivan March of the Young Ivan
3
Океан-море Ocean-Sea Ocean-Sea
4
Царём буду! I Shall Be Tsar! A Storm Approaches
5
Дивен Бог Wondrous is God Wondrous is God
6
Многая лета! Many Years! • Many Years
• Ocean-Sea
• Many Years!
7
Юродивый The Holy Fool • The Holy Fool
• The Riot
• The Holy Fool
8
Лебедь The Swan • The Swan
• Praise Song
• The Swan
9
На костях врагов On the Bones of Our Enemies On the Bones of Our Enemies
10
Татары The Tatars • Entrance of the Tatars (2 times)
• The Tatars
• Entrance of the Tatars
11
Пушкари The Cannoneers • The Cannoneers
• Ivan's Tent
• The Cannoneers
12
На Казань! To Kazan! • The Cannons Move to Kazan
• Entrance of Ivan
• The Tatar Steppe
• Entrance of Ivan
• Ivan's Tent
• The Tatar Steppe
• Ivan theme
• Kurbskiy's Trumpets
• Attack
• Malyuta's Jealousy
• Attack
• The Tatars
• The Cannoneers
• Kazan is Taken
13
Иван умоляет бояр Ivan Implores the Boyars • Ivan Implores the Boyars
• The Tatar Steppe
14
Ефросинья и Анастасия Yefrosinya and Anastasiya • The Poisoning of Anastasiya
• Anastasiya's Illness
• The Poisoning of Anastasiya
15
Песня про бобра
(колыбельная Ефросиньи)
Song about the Beaver
(Yefrosinya's Lullaby)
Song about the Beaver
16
Иван у гроба Анастасии Ivan at the Coffin of Anastasiya Singing of the Boys
17
Клятва Опричников Oath of the Oprichniki • Chorus of the Oprichniki
• Oath of the Oprichniki
18
Песня Фёдора Басманова
с опричниками
Song of Fyodor Basmanov
with the Oprichniki
Song of the Oprichniki
19
Пляска Опричников Dance of the Oprichniki • Chaotic Dance of the Oprichniki
• Orderly Dance of the Oprichniki
20
Финал Finale • Ivan at the Coffin of Anastasiya
• Come Back!
• Finale
• On the Bones of Our Enemies
• Ivan Theme

Performance duration is about 75 minutes.

Scoring and instrumentation

Stasevich's oratorio is scored for contralto (in 'Ocean-Sea' and 'Song about the Beaver') and baritone (in 'Song of the Oprichniki'), mixed (SATB) chorus, and the following instrumentation:

Ballet by Mikhail Chulaki (1975)[edit]

The ballet Ivan the Terrible was arranged by Mikhail Chulaki for a 1975 production by choreographer Yuriy Grigorovich at the Bolshoy Theatre. The two act (7 scenes) work consists of selections from Prokofiev's film score for Ivan the Terrible supplemented with excerpts from his Symphony No. 3 (1928), Russian Overture (1936), and 'The Field of the Dead' from the film score for Aleksandr Nevskiy (1938).

Performance history

The world premiere performance took place on 20 February 1975 at the Bolshoy Theatre. Algis Zhuraitis conducted. The cast included Yuriy Vladimirov (Ivan), Natalya Bessmertnova (Anastasiya), and Boris Akimov (Kurbskiy).

Oratorio by Michael Lankester (1988)[edit]

Performance history

The premiere took place on 4 May 1988. Michael Lankester conducted the Hartford Symphony Orchestra.[9]

Numbers

This version of Ivan the Terrible consists of 29 numbers.[10]

The performance duration is about 95 minutes.

Concert Scenario by Christopher Palmer (1991)[edit]

Christopher Palmer discusses his Ivan the Terrible concert scenario in the notes to a Chandos CD recording made a few days after the work's premiere:

"...in 1962 Abram Stasevich (1906-1971), who had conducted Ivan for the film soundtrack, published his Ivan the Terrible 'oratorio' for speaker, soloists, chorus and orchestra which incorporated all the major musical sequences in the film plus a few that had been left out (notably 'Russian Sea'). It is in this form that the Ivan music has been known outside the film ever since, and in this form that critics have tended to find it long and diffuse. The main problem is the speaker, introduced by Stasevich primarily because he had been unwise enough to try and incorporate a large number of short fragmentary episodes, and had to find a way of stitching them together. Unfortunately once the speaker was in, he seemed to take over the entire work—much to its detriment in terms of narrative intelligibility and tightness of structure. My new 'performing version' eliminates the speaker and shorter sections (most of which are pastiche Russian-liturgical music of minimal Prokofievian interest). It also restores a number of episodes to their original format, most importantly the assassination of the Pretender in Part II—the climax of the film and one of the most electrifying moments in film music. While retaining Stasevich's make-up of most of the larger movements, I have reverted largely to the film's original sequence of musical events."[11]

Performance history

The concert scenario received its premiere on 28 February 1991 at the Royal Festival Hall in London. Neeme Järvi conducted the Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus.[12]

Numbers

The 'new' work is in 13 movements,[13] some consisting of several numbers (or parts of numbers) from the film score—refer to 'Sequence' below:

No. Title Sequence
1
Overture • A Storm Approaches
• The Black Cloud
• The Death of Glinskaya
• Shuyskiy and the Huntsmen
• The Death of Glinskaya
• The Black Cloud
• A Storm Approaches
2
Russian Sea Ocean-Sea
3
Wedding • The Swan
• Praise Song
• The Swan
4
Fire • The Holy Fool
• The Riot
• The Holy Fool
5
Tartars and Cannoneers • Entrance of the Tatars (2 times)
• The Tatars
• Entrance of the Tatars
• The Cannoneers
• Ivan's Tent
• The Cannoneers
6
The Storming of Kazan • The Cannons Move to Kazan
• Entrance of Ivan
• The Tatar Steppe
• Entrance of Ivan
• Ivan's Tent
• The Tatar Steppe
• Ivan theme
• Kurbskiy's Trumpets
• Attack
• Malyuta's Jealousy
• Attack
• The Tatars
• The Cannoneers
• Kazan is Taken
7
Ivan's Sickness Ivan Implores the Boyars
8
At the Polish Court • Fanfares
• Polonaise
9
Anastasia • The Poisoning of Anastasiya
• Anastasiya's Illness
• The Poisoning of Anastasiya
10
Song of the Beaver
(Ephrosynia's Lullaby)
Song about the Beaver
11
The Banquet • Chaotic Dance of the Oprichniki
• Orderly Dance of the Oprichniki
• Song of the Oprichniki
• Chaotic Dance of the Oprichniki
• Orderly Dance of the Oprichniki
12
Murder in the Cathedral • Chorus of the Oprichniki
• Vladimir's Murder
13
Finale (Coda) Finale (Ivan theme)

The performance duration is about 60 minutes.

Recordings[edit]

Audio[edit]

Year Conductor Orchestra and choir Soloists Version
1965? Abram Stasevich Moscow State Philharmonic Orchestra,
Moscow State Choir
Valentina Levko (mezzo-soprano),
Anatoly Mokrenko (baritone),
Aleksandr Estrin (speaker)
Stasevich
1972 Maksim Shostakovich London Philharmonic Orchestra,
Yurlov Choral Kapella
Stasevich
1978 Riccardo Muti Philharmonia Orchestra,
Ambrosian Chorus
Irina Arkhipova (mezzo-soprano),
Anatoly Mokrenko (baritone),
Boris Morgunov (speaker)
Stasevich
1979 Leonard Slatkin Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra and Chorus Claudine Carlson (mezzo-soprano),
Samuel Timberlake (bass),
Without speaker
Stasevich
1984 Alipi Naydenov Russian Philharmonic Orchestra,
Danube Sounds Choir
Vessela Zorova (mezzo-soprano),
Dimiter Stanchev (bass),
Boris Morgunov (speaker)
Stasevich
1991 Neeme Järvi The Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus Linda Finnie (contralto),
Nikita Storojev (bass-baritone)
Palmer
1993 Mstislav Rostropovich London Symphony Orchestra and Chorus,
The New London Children's Choir
Tamara Sinyavskaya (mezzo-soprano),
Sergei Leiferkus (baritone),
Christopher Plummer (narrator)
Lankester
1993 Vladimir Fedoseyev Ostankino Television-Radio Symphony Orchestra,
Yurlov Choral Kapella
Nina Romanova (mezzo-soprano),
Grigory Gritsuk (bass),
Boris Morgunov (speaker)
Stasevich
1995 Dmitriy Kitayenko Radio-Sinfonie-Orchester Frankfurt,
Danish National Radio Choir,
Kinderchor Frankfurt
Tamara Sinyavskaya (mezzo-soprano),
Wolfgang Brendel (baritone),
Sergey Yursky (speaker)
Stasevich
1997 Valeriy Gergiev Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra,
Chorus of the Kirov Orchestra
Lyubov Sokolova (mezzo-soprano),
Nikolay Putilin (baritone),
Without speaker
Stasevich
2000 Vladimir Fedoseyev Tchaikovsky Symphony Orchestra,
Yurlov Choral Kapella,
Children's Choir of Studio Vesna
Irina Chistyakova (contralto),
Dmitry Stepanovich (bass)
Film score (manuscript)
2003 Valeriy Polyansky State Symphonic Kapella of Russia,
Russian State Symphonic Kapella
Lyudmila Kuznetsova (mezzo-soprano),
Sergey Toptygin (baritone)
Film score (manuscript)
2004 Leonard Slatkin BBC Symphony Orchestra and Chorus Irina Chistyakova (mezzo-soprano),
James Rutherford (bass-baritone),
Simon Russell Beale (speaker)
Stasevich
2013 Tugan Sokhiev Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin,
Rundfunkchor Berlin,
Staats- und Domchor Berlin
Olga Borodina (mezzo-soprano),
Ildar Abdrazakov (bass)
Stasevich
2018 Frank Strobel Rundfunk-Sinfonieorchester Berlin,
Rundfunkchor, Berlin
Marina Prudenskaya (mezzo-soprano),
Alexander Vinogradov (bass)
Film score (soundtrack)

Video[edit]

Year Conductor Orchestra Roles Version
1976 Algis Zhuraitis Bolshoy Theatre Orchestra Yuri Vladimirov (Ivan),
Natalia Bessmertnova (Anastasia),
Boris Akimov (Kurbsky),
Bolshoi Ballet
Chulaki
1990 Algis Zhuraitis Bolshoy Theatre Orchestra Irek Mukhamedov (Ivan),
Natalya Bessmertnova (Anastasia),
Gediminas Taranda (Kurbsky),
Bolshoi Ballet
Chulaki
2003 Vello Pähn Orchestre de l’Opéra de Paris Nicolas Le Riche (Ivan),
Eleonora Abbagnato (Anastasia),
Karl Paquette (Kurbsky),
Ballet de l'Opéra National de Paris
Chulaki

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ GSCMMC-Sikorski (2000: p. 10)
  2. ^ Kravetz (2010: p. 5
  3. ^ GSCMMC-Sikorski (2000: p. 1)
  4. ^ Kravetz, N. (2010: p. 7)
  5. ^ GSCMMC-Sikorski (2000: p.1)
  6. ^ Kravetz (2010: p. 13)
  7. ^ GSCMMC-Sikorski (2000: p. 10)
  8. ^ GSCMMC-Sikorski (2000: p. 10)
  9. ^ Kravetz (2010: p. 14)
  10. ^ Kravetz (2010: p. 14)
  11. ^ Palmer (1991)
  12. ^ Palmer (1991)
  13. ^ Palmer (1991)

Sources

  • Glinka State Central Museum of Musical Culture, Moscow, and Musikverlag Hans Sikorski, Hamburg, The complete music for the film 'Ivan the Terrible', notes to CD NI 5662/3, Nimbus Records Ltd. 2000
  • Kravetz, Nelly, An Unknown Ivan the Terrible Oratorio, Three Oranges Journal No. 19, 2010
  • Palmer, Christopher, Ivan the Terrible: Concert Scenario, notes to CD CHAN 8977, Chandos Records Ltd. 1991

External links[edit]