Ivar the Boneless

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"Hyngwar", Ivar's name as it appears in Harley MS 2278, a fifteenth-century Middle English manuscript.[1]

Ivar the Boneless (Old Norse: Ívarr hinn Beinlausi; Old English: Hyngwar) was a Viking leader and a commander who invaded what is now England. According to the Tale of Ragnar Lodbrok, he was the son of Ragnar Lodbrok and Aslaug. His half brothers included Björn Ironside, Halfdan Ragnarsson, Hvitserk, Sigurd Snake-in-the-Eye and Ubba.

The origin of the nickname is not known. The sagas describe him as lacking bones. According to the Tale of Ragnar Lodbrok, Ivarr's bonelessness was the result of a curse. His mother was Ragnar's third wife and had powers of sorcery. She said that she and her husband must wait three nights before consummating their marriage, but he ignored this warning, and the result was that Ivar was born without bones.[2]

While the sagas describe Ivar's physical disability, they also emphasise his wisdom, cunning, and mastery of strategy and tactics in battle.

He is often considered identical to Ímar, the founder of the Uí Ímair dynasty which at various times, from the mid-9th to the 10th century, ruled Northumbria from the city of York, and dominated the Irish Sea region as the Kingdom of Dublin.[3]

Chronology[edit]

  • 865: the Great Heathen Army, led by Ivar invades the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.[4] The Heptarchy was the collective name for the seven kingdoms East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex. The invasion was organised by the sons of Ragnar Lodbrok, to wreak revenge against Ælla of Northumbria who had supposedly executed Ragnar in 865 by throwing him in a snake pit, but the historicity of this explanation is unknown.[5][6] According to the saga, Ivar did not overcome Ælla and sought reconciliation. He only asked for as much land as he could cover with an ox's hide and swore never to wage war against Ælla. Then Ivar cut the ox's hide into so fine strands that he could envelop a large fortress (in an older saga it was York and according to a younger saga it was London) which he could take as his own. (Compare the similar legendary ploy of Dido.)
  • Late the next year the army turned north and invaded Northumbria, eventually capturing Ælla at York in 867.[7] According to legend, Ælla was executed by Ivar and his brothers using the blood eagle, a method of execution whereby the ribcage is opened from behind and the lungs are pulled out, forming a wing-like shape.[3] Later in the year the Army moved south and invaded the kingdom of Mercia, capturing the town of Nottingham, where they spent the winter. King Burgred of Mercia, responded by allying with the West Saxon king Æthelred of Wessex, and with a combined force they laid siege to the town. The Anglo-Saxons were unable to recapture the city, but a truce was agreed whereby the Danes would withdraw to York.[7] The Great Heathen Army remained in York for over a year, gathering its strength for further assaults.[7]
  • Ivar and Ubba are identified as the commanders of the Danes when they returned to East Anglia in 869, and as the executioners of the East Anglian king, Edmund the Martyr, for refusing their demand that he renounce Christ.[8] How true the accounts are of Edmund's death is unknown, but it has been suggested that his capture and execution is not an unlikely thing to have happened.[9]
  • Ivar disappears from the historical record sometime after 870.[7] His ultimate fate is uncertain.

Death[edit]

The Anglo-Saxon chronicler Æthelweard records his death as 870.[10] The Annals of Ulster describe the death of Ímar in 873. The death of Ímar is also recorded in the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland under the year 873.[11]

The identification of the king of Laithlind as Gothfraid (i.e. Ímar's father) was added by a copyist in the 17th century. In the original 11th-century manuscript the subject of the entry was simply called righ Lochlann ("the king of Lochlainn"), which more than likely referred to Ímar, whose death is not otherwise noted in the Fragmentary Annals. The cause of death – a sudden and horrible disease – is not mentioned in any other source, but it raises the possibility that the true provenance of Ivar's Old Norse sobriquet lay in the crippling effects of an unidentified disease that struck him down at the end of his life.

In 1686, a farm labourer called Thomas Walker discovered a Scandinavian burial mound at Repton in Derbyshire close to a battle site where the Great Heathen Army dispossessed the Mercian king Burgred of his kingdom. The number of partial skeletons surrounding the body, two hundred warriors and fifty women, signified that the man buried there was of very high status, and it has been suggested that such a burial mound would be expected to be the last resting-place for a Viking of Ivar's reputation.[12]

According to the saga, Ivar ordered that he be buried in a place which was exposed to attack, and prophesied that, if that was done, foes coming to the land would meet with ill-success. This prophecy held true, says the saga, until "when Vilhjalm bastard (William I of England) came ashore[,] he went [to the burial site] and broke Ivar's mound and saw that [Ivar's] body had not decayed. Then [Vilhjalm] had a large pyre made [upon which Ivar's body was] burned... Thereupon, [Vilhjalm proceeded with the landing invasion and achieved] the victory."

Fictional portrayals[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hervey, Francis (1907-01-01). Corolla Sancti Eadmundi = The garland of Saint Edmund, king and martyr. London : J. Murray. 
  2. ^ Baker, Mick. "Anglo-Saxon Britain: In the Footsteps of Ivarr the Boneless". The History Files. Retrieved 1 September 2016. 
  3. ^ a b Holman, Katherine (2007-10-29). The Northern Conquest: Vikings in Britain and Ireland. Signal Books Ltd. ISBN 9781904955344. 
  4. ^ Venning, Timothy (2013-06-19). The Kings & Queens of Anglo-Saxon England. Amberley. ISBN 9781445608976. 
  5. ^ Munch, Peter Andreas (2010-09-10). Olsen, Magnus, ed. Norse Mythology: Legends Of Gods And Heroes. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 9781164510307. 
  6. ^ Jones, Gwyn (1984-11-01). A History of the Vikings (Revised ed. edition ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192158826. 
  7. ^ a b c d Forte, Angelo; Oram, Richard; Pedersen, Frederik (2005-05-30). Viking Empires (First Edition edition ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521829922. 
  8. ^ Swanton, Michael J., ed. (1998-08-18). The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (First Edition edition ed.). Routledge. ISBN 9780415921299. 
  9. ^ Mostert, Marco (1987-01-01). The political theology of Abbo of Fleury: A study of the ideas about society and law of the tenth-century monastic reform movement. Verloren. ISBN 9789065502094. 
  10. ^ Giles, J. A., ed. (2010-09-10). Six Old English Chronicles: Ethelwerd's Chronicle, Asser's Life Of Alfred, Geoffrey Of Monmouth's British History, Gildas, Nennius And Richard Of Cirencester. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 9781163125991. 
  11. ^ "Fragmentary Annals of Ireland 409". CELT. Retrieved 2 February 2009. 
  12. ^ Arnold, Martin (1562-01-01). The Vikings: A Short History by Martin Arnold. The History Press.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  13. ^ "Vikings (2013 - ) Full Cast and Crew". IMDB. Retrieved 9/10/2016.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)