|Chirin nu Ibatan|
Filipinos in Taiwan
Official language in
|Regional language in the Philippines|
|Regulated by||Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino|
Although the islands are closer to Taiwan than to Luzon, it is not one of the Formosan languages. Ivatan is one of the Batanic languages, which are perhaps a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian family of Austronesian languages.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Variations in language
- 3 Phonology
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Cultural terms of the Ivatan people
- 6 Literature
- 7 Phrases
- 8 Ivatan words
- 8.1 Etymology
- 8.2 Similarities with other Philippine languages
- 8.3 Similarities with the Tao language
- 8.4 Similarities with other Austronesian languages
- 8.5 Accommodation
- 8.6 Approval and disapproval
- 8.7 Bank, telephone and post office
- 8.8 Colors
- 8.9 Days of the week
- 8.10 Direction
- 8.11 Cardinal numbers
- 8.12 Ordinal numbers
- 9 Notes
- 10 External links
Ivatan is especially characterized by its words, which mostly have the letter v, as in vakul, Ivatan, and valuga. The letter e is pronounced as the schwa oun, or uh, as in Dios Mamajes, 'di-yos-ma-ma-huhs', and palek 'pa-luhk'. While related to the Northern Philippine group of languages, Ivatan, having been isolated, is most close to the two other members of the Bashiic sub-group of languages, Yami (Tao) and Itbayat, neither of which is indigenous to Luzon. Ibatan, spoken on the nearby Babuyan group of islands, is so similar to Ivatan that it is not entirely clear whether it should be classified as a dialect of Ivatan or a separate language, though each does receive its own code in ISO taxonomy.
Supporting separate listings is that Ibatan is 31% mutual intelligible with Basco Ivatan, the standard form of the language. With Basco Ivatan, more commonly known as Ivasayen, an adjective denoting the Ivasayen people who inhabit the main island of Batan, and Itbayaten, derived from Itbayat,[but we just said this is a different language] the name for the northernmost of the three islands, is a third dialect, Isamurongen, a dialect with a vocabulary identical to Ivasayen spoken on the southern half of Batan and on the most southern island, Sabtang.
As implied, notable variation exists in spoken Ivatan although Batanes makes up roughly 200 and is home to only 18,000 inhabitants. Examination of the linguistic zones suggests that this is best explained by Batanes being composed of three islands rather than a single landmass, as these linguistic divisions roughly follow geographic ones, the notable exception being Isamurongen which is spoken on not only Sabtang, but Batan as well.
Perhaps this explanation can be seen most clearly in the differences in the dialects themselves, where lexical variation is insignificant, but phonological variation, often indicative of geographic isolation, is highly pronounced; The late advent of writing, which might have standardized pronunciation prior to divergence, could have also been a factor.
Variations in language
In the capital of Basco and the surrounding northern half of Batan, the area encompassed by Ivasayen, t is prominent, whereas in the Isamurongen zone to the south (Mahatao, Ivana, Uyugan and Sabtang) that phoneme becomes a ch.
Examples of the more visible variations of the Ivasayen and Isamurongen words and pronunciations are:
- tiban (to look) in Basco is chiban in the southern towns
- antiyaw (later) in Basco is anchiyaw in the southern towns
- kabatiti (patola) in Basco is kabachichi in the southern towns
- timoy (rain) in Basco is chimoy in the southern towns
Itbayaten is sometimes also considered a dialect. 2% of the total vocabulary does not occur in Ivatan dialects. Examples of different Ivasayen, Isamurongen and Itbayaten words that have the same English translation:
- adkan (to kiss) in Basco and the southern towns is umahan in Itbayat.
- arava (none) in Basco and the southern towns is aralih in Itbayat.
- bago (pig) in Basco and the southern towns is kuyis in Itbayat.
- otioyan (nest) in Basco, is ochoyan in the southern towns and hangtay in Itbayat.
- ipos (tail) in Basco is vochivot in the southern towns and also ipos in Itbayat.
The Ivatan language is basically a spoken language. Until lately,[when?] little effort was made to record the language in written form. What the young generation know about it is largely through hearing it spoken and speaking it.
Some[who?] tend to mix the Ivatan words to Filipino or vice versa in sentences, much worset is the combining or compounding of the Filipino words to the Ivatan words. One common example of this is – mapatak. This is derived from marunong (Filipino) and chapatak (Ivatan) which literally means "someone who knows" which were then compounded to form the word mapatak. This is actually the result of the influence of non-Ivatans who tend to speak the language and were then eventually adopted.
Another common mistakes that are often heard, is the mispronunciation of the Ivatan word like iskarayla – the correct is iskalayra – which means "stairs", and tumaraya – the correct is tumayara – which means "going up".
One unique characteristic of the language is its enormous street language. It is called street language because it emanated from the streets. Examples of these are: tanchew, coined from mirwa ta anchiyaw – literally means "we’ll meet again later", and nganmu, coined from jinu ngayan mu, literally means "where are you going". These are results of shortening the Ivatan phrases or sentences into one or two words depending on its usage.
Common Ivatan expressions have various origin such as:
- Dios mamajes or Dios Mamajes nu mapia
Literally: "God reward you with goodness" or "God bless you"
Usage: Used to show gratitude to someone
- Dios mavidin
Literally: "May God remain with you"
Usage: Used by the person who is leaving
- Dios machivan
Literally: "May God go with you"
Usage: Used by the person who is staying behind
- Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
- Diphthongs: aw, iw, ay, ey, oy
- Consonants: b, ch, d, f, g, h, hh, j, k, l, m, n, ng, ny, p, r, s, t, v, w, y
Cultural terms of the Ivatan people
- uve, ubi, sudi- yam; staple crop
- sudi- taro
- wakay- sweet potato
- bulyas- onions
- baka- cow
- kaddin- goat
- kayvayvanan- friendship; cooperative work by a community which starts at the blow of a shell horn called a vodiadong
- payohoan- helping one another; work club of teenagers who alternate their shifts
- paluwa; chinarem; tataya- three boats used for fishing
- kabbata- legends
- laji- lyric folk songs
- kalusan- working songs
- sisyavak- humorous anecdotes and tales
- kabbuni- riddles
- pananahan- proverbs
- vachi- song leader
- mais- corn
- palay- rice plant
- dukay- sprouted mung beans
- rakarakanen- vegetables
- hagsa- an extinct wild deer
- vulaw a bagu- wild boar
- tatus- coconut crabs
- lakasan- tops of wooden trunks used for storing cloth and other valuables serve as benches
- dulang- low dining table
- bangku- low bench
- rahaung, camarin- a storeroom for larger farm equipment such as plows, harrows, sleds, card, and the ox-drawn pole used for clearing off sweet potatoes and other vines from fields being prepared for re-cultivation
- vuyavuy- a small palm growing usually on Batanes coastal hills
- talugung- a kind of conical hat woven from strips made from the stalk of a local plant called nini
- pasikin- small bamboo or rattan baskets worn on the back
- lukoy- bolo knife
- suhut- sheath of a bolo knife
- suut, vakul- a head-and-back covering woven from the stripped leaves of banana or the vuyavuy
- alat- baskets
- batulinaw- a necklace made of hollow globules (1½ cm. in diameter) interspersed with smaller pieces of gold in floral patterns and held together by a string made of fiber
- tamburin- an all-gold necklace whose beads are smaller and more ornate than the batulinaw, and lockets
- seseng, pamaaw, chingkakawayan, liyano, de pelo, dima s'bato, pitu s'bato, de perlas, bumbolya, karakol, pinatapatan- traditional earrings that come from the Spanish period
- angang- jars
- dibang – flying fish
- payi – lobster
- arayu – dorado
- mataw – dorado fisherman
- tipuho – breadfruit
- uhango – pandan
- tamidok – fern
- chayi – tree
- soot – generic term referring to the Ivatan rain cape made from the finely stripped leaves of the vuyavuy palm.
- vakul – woman's soot, worn on the head.
- kanayi – man's soot, worn on the shoulders.
- falowa – Ivatan boat, now usually motorized, for 10–20 passengers.
- tataya – Ivatan dory with twin oars, for 2–4 passengers.
- timban – church
- vanuwa – port
- avayat – a broad directional term used to indicate the west, a western direction or the western side.
- valugan – a broad directional term sued to indicate the east, an eastern direction or the eastern side.
- palek – sugar cane wine
- malisto- fast
- mawadi- slow
- mavid- beautiful
- kuman- eat
- minom- drink
- bapor, tataya- boat
- taw- sea
- ranum- water
- salawsaw- wind
- kayvan- friend
- mahakay- man
- mavakes- woman
- Datu Tayong and Batbatan Otang
- Orayen and Pudalan
- The Origin of the "Nato"
- The Origin of the People of Sabtang
- The Legend of Layin
- The Two Fishermen
- An Domana ‘O’ Vohan
- Taao Di Valogan
- Ladji No Minasbang
- I Wanted Wings
- Guide Me, My Guardian Angel
An kalilyak mu
- Ipangudidi mu u mapya nanawu.
Carry with you good teaching, always bear in mind sound advice.
- Arava u mayet an namaes u ryes.
There is no strong man when the sea is at its worst.
- Arava u ryes an abu su vinyedi.
There is no current that does not bounce back.
- Tumuhutuhud makaysed a tachi.
The feces that is dropped is sure comfort.
- Ulungen mu ava u kakedkeran mu.
Do not gore the peg where you are tied.
- Matakaw ava dimu u kasulivan.
Nobody can steal your knowledge.
- Nyeng mu a hukbiten ta isek ni tatumuk.
Grasp the opportunity because the bed bugs will carry and hide them inside the floor.
- Kanen mu ava u kakamay mu.
Do not eat your fingers.
- Arava u susuhan da su vahay a mapsek.
No one burns the house of a good man.
- Mahmahma u vatu kan uhu naw.
Stones are softer than his head.
- Umsi ava su vahusa u kamates.
Tomatoes do not bear eggplant.
- Tud da payramun u vinata naw.
They washed their face with what he said.
- Inulay mu ta tya naydited u uhu na.
Leave him alone for his head is tangled.
- Machitbatbay ka avan asa ka kaban amed.
Do not speak of a cavan for a measuring lime unit.
- Hello – Kapian capa nu dios
- How are you? – Ara ca mangu?
- I am fine – Taytu aco a mapia
- I am not fine – Ara coava mapia
- Thank you – Dios mamajes
- Where are you going? – Ngayan mo?
- I am going to... – Mangay aco du...
- Where is ___? – Ara dino si ___?
- Straight ahead – Direcho
- How much? – Manyi Pira?
- How many? – Pira?
- Good – Mapia
- No good – Mapia/Mavid ava
- Yes – Oon
- I want ___ – Makey ako no ___
- I don't want – Makey aco ava
- I have a problem – Mian problema ko
- No problem – Arava o problema
- Good luck – Mapia palak
- What's your name? – Angu ngaran mo?
- Where is the house of ___? – Jino vahay da ___?
- There- Du nguya, du daw, dawr
- Here- Diaya
- Hungry- Mapteng
- Thirsty- Ma-waw
- Tired- Mavanah, chinagagan (south), navanax
- Happy- Masuyot, masaray
- Whistling- Mamito, mihiñoxay (Itbayat)
- Soft- mahma, maxma & mayuxma (Itbayat)
- Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
- Bird- manumanok, kangkang (Itbayat)
- Perpendicular- maybatbat, mipatinu-nong (Itbayat)
- Mud- hetek, xetek (Itbayat)
- Sea- Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
- Yesterday - Kakuyab
- Afternoon - Makuyab
- When are we going? - Antin mangu ta mangay?
- When are you going to cut your hair? - Antin mangu ka mapagugud?
Coined words are two words combined to form one new word.
|Mirwa ta anchiyaw||Tanchew||We’ll meet again later.||Street language|
|Jinu ngayan mu||Nganmu||Where are you going?||Street language|
Loanwords are words in the language that have been borrowed from other languages.
|Telefono||Spanish||An instrument for reproducing sounds at a distance|
Similarities with other Philippine languages
Similarities with the Tao language
Similarities with other Austronesian languages
Approval and disapproval
Bank, telephone and post office
Days of the week
|0||Zero||Siro; a'bu||Siro; abu|
- Ivatan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Ibatan (Babuyan) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ivatan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ibatan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (December 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Official Site of the Batanes Province
- The Ivatan
- Affiliation with the Yami of Taiwan
- Bansa.org Ivatan Dictionary
- Ivatan-English Dictionary from Webster's Dictionary
- IVATAN LANGUAGE: AN ANALYSIS – BatanesOnline.com
- Ivatan Language of the Batales Islands
- Batanes: Ivatan Songs composed and / or collected by Manuel Fajardo
- Batanes: Ivatan Legends
- I Wanted Wings: Poems
- Batanes, Philippines at 2005–2011 Philippine Travel Destinations Guide
- Uyugan, Batanes! On the Web! Batanes
- Orthography developed for the purpose of the Deped's Mother Tongue policy