Ivatan language

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Ivatan
Ibatan
Chirin nu Ibatan
Native toPhilippines
RegionBatanes Islands
EthnicityIvatan
Native speakers
33,000 (1996–2007)[1]
Dialects
  • Ivasay
  • Isamurung
  • Babuyan
Official status
Official language in
Regional language in the Philippines
Regulated byKomisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-3Either:
ivv – Ivatan
ivb – Ibatan (Babuyan)
Glottologivat1242  Ivatan[2]
ibat1238  Ibatan[3]
The Batanic languages.png
The location of the Ivatan language

The Ivatan (Ibatan) language, also known as Chirin nu Ibatan ("language of the Ivatan people"), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Batanes Islands of the Philippines

Although the islands are closer to Taiwan than to Luzon, it is not one of the Formosan languages. Ivatan is one of the Batanic languages, which are perhaps a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian family of Austronesian languages.

The language of Babuyan Island is sometimes classified as a dialect. Babuyan was depopulated by the Spanish and only repopulated at the end of the 19th century with families from Batan Island, most of them speakers of one of the Ivatan dialects.[4]

Introduction[edit]

Ivatan is especially characterized by its words, which mostly have the letter v, as in vakul, Ivatan, and valuga. While related to the Northern Philippine group of languages, Ivatan, having been isolated, is most close to the two other members of the Bashiic sub-group of languages, Yami (Tao) and Itbayat, neither of which is indigenous to Luzon. Ibatan, spoken on the nearby Babuyan group of islands, is so similar to Ivatan that it is not entirely clear whether it should be classified as a dialect of Ivatan or a separate language, though each does receive its own code in ISO taxonomy.

Ivatan has two dialects; Basco Ivatan, more commonly known as Ivasay, spoken on the main island of Batan, and Southern Ivatan or Isamurung, spoken on the southern half of Batan and on the most southern island, Sabtang.[4]

Variations in language[edit]

In the capital of Basco and the surrounding northern half of Batan, the area encompassed by Ivasayen, t is prominent, whereas in the Isamurongen zone to the south (Mahatao, Ivana, Uyugan and Sabtang) that phoneme becomes a ch.

Examples of the more visible variations of the Ivasayen and Isamurongen words and pronunciations are:

  • tiban (to look) in Basco is chiban in the southern towns
  • antiyaw (later) in Basco is anchiyaw in the southern towns
  • kabatiti (patola) in Basco is kabachichi in the southern towns
  • timoy (rain) in Basco is chimoy in the southern towns

Itbayaten is sometimes also considered a dialect. 2% of the total vocabulary does not occur in Ivatan dialects. Examples of different Ivasayen, Isamurongen and Itbayaten words that have the same English translation:

  • adkan (to kiss) in Basco and the southern towns is umahan in Itbayat.
  • arava (none) in Basco and the southern towns is aralih in Itbayat.
  • bago (pig) in Basco and the southern towns is kuyis in Itbayat.
  • otioyan (nest) in Basco, is ochoyan in the southern towns and hangtay in Itbayat.
  • ipos (tail) in Basco is vochivot in the southern towns and also ipos in Itbayat.

Some[who?] tend to mix the Ivatan words to Filipino or vice versa in sentences, much worset is the combining or compounding of the Filipino words to the Ivatan words. One common example of this is – mapatak. This is derived from marunong (Filipino) and chapatak (Ivatan) which literally means "someone who knows" which were then compounded to form the word mapatak. This is actually the result of the influence of non-Ivatans who tend to speak the language and were then eventually adopted.

Another common mistakes that are often heard, is the mispronunciation of the Ivatan word like iskarayla – the correct is iskalayra – which means "stairs", and tumaraya – the correct is tumayara – which means "going up".

One unique characteristic of the language is its enormous street language. It is called street language because it emanated from the streets. Examples of these are: tanchew, coined from mirwa ta anchiyaw – literally means "we’ll meet again later", and nganmu, coined from jinu ngayan mu, literally means "where are you going". These are results of shortening the Ivatan phrases or sentences into one or two words depending on its usage.

Common Ivatan expressions have various origin such as:

  • Dios mamajes or Dios Mamajes nu mapia
    Literally: "God reward you with goodness" or "God bless you"
    Usage: Used to show gratitude to someone
  • Dios mavidin
    Literally: "May God remain with you"
    Usage: Used by the person who is leaving
  • Dios machivan
    Literally: "May God go with you"
    Usage: Used by the person who is staying behind

Phonology[edit]

The Ivatan language consists of five vowels, 21 consonants and five diphthongs.

  • Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
  • Diphthongs: aw, iw, ay, ey, oy
  • Consonants: b, ch, d, f, g, h, hh, j, k, l, m, n, ng, ny, p, r, s, t, v, w, y

Grammar[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

The following set of pronouns are the pronouns found in the Ivatan language.[5]

  Nominative free Nominative bound Genitive free Genitive bound Locative
1st person singular yaken 'ako niaken ko diaken
2nd person singular 'imo 'ka nimo mo dimo
3rd person singular sia sia nia na dia
1st person plural inclusive yaten ta niaten ta diaten
1st person plural exclusive yamen kami niamen namen diamen
2nd person plural 'inio kamo ninio nio dinio
3rd person plural sira/sa sira/sa nira da dira

Cultural terms of the Ivatan people[edit]

  • uve, ubi, sudiyam; staple crop
  • suditaro
  • wakaysweet potato
  • bulyas – onions
  • baka – cow
  • kaddin – goat
  • kayvayvananfriendship; cooperative work by a community which starts at the blow of a shell horn called a vodiadong
  • payohoan – helping one another; work club of teenagers who alternate their shifts
  • paluwa; chinarem; tataya – three boats used for fishing
  • kabbatalegends
  • laji- – lyric folk songs
  • kalusanworking songs
  • sisyavakhumorous anecdotes and tales
  • kabbuniriddles
  • pananahanproverbs
  • vachisong leader
  • maiscorn
  • palay – rice plant
  • dukaylesser yam
  • rakarakanen- vegetables
  • hagsa – an extinct wild deer
  • vulaw a baguwild boar
  • tatuscoconut crabs
  • lakasan – tops of wooden trunks used for storing cloth and other valuables serve as benches
  • dulang – low dining table
  • bangku – low bench
  • rahaung, camarin – a storeroom for larger farm equipment such as plows, harrows, sleds, card, and the ox-drawn pole used for clearing off sweet potatoes and other vines from fields being prepared for re-cultivation
  • vuyavuyPhoenix loureiroi, a small palm growing usually on Batanes coastal hills
  • talugung – a kind of conical hat woven from strips made from the stalk of a local plant called nini
  • pasikin – small bamboo or rattan baskets worn on the back
  • lukoybolo knife
  • suhut – sheath of a bolo knife
  • suut, vakul – a head-and-back covering woven from the stripped leaves of banana or the vuyavuy
  • alatbaskets
  • batulinaw – a necklace made of hollow globules (1½ cm. in diameter) interspersed with smaller pieces of gold in floral patterns and held together by a string made of fiber
  • tamburin – an all-gold necklace whose beads are smaller and more ornate than the batulinaw, and lockets
  • seseng, pamaaw, chingkakawayan, liyano, de pelo, dima s'bato, pitu s'bato, de perlas, bumbolya, karakol, pinatapatan- traditional earrings that come from the Spanish period
  • angangjars
  • dibangflying fish
  • payilobster
  • arayudorado
  • matawdorado fisherman
  • tipuhobreadfruit
  • uhangopandan
  • tamidokfern
  • chayi – fruit similar to lychee Pometia Pinnata
  • soot – generic term referring to the Ivatan rain cape made from the finely stripped leaves of the vuyavuy palm.
  • vakul – woman's soot, worn on the head.
  • kanayi – man's soot, worn on the shoulders.
  • falowaIvatan boat, now usually motorized, for 10–20 passengers.
  • tatayaIvatan dory with twin oars, for 2–4 passengers.
  • timbanchurch
  • vanuwa – port
  • avayat – a broad directional term used to indicate the west, a western direction or the western side.
  • valugan – a broad directional term sued to indicate the east, an eastern direction or the eastern side.
  • paleksugar cane wine
  • malistofast
  • mawadislow
  • mavidbeautiful
  • kumaneat
  • minem- drink
  • bapor, tataya- boat
  • taw – sea
  • ranum – water
  • salawsaw – wind
  • kayvanfriend
  • mahakay – man
  • mavakes – woman
  • masalawsaw - windy
  • makuhat - hot
  • matimuy/machimuy - raindrops

Phrases[edit]

  • Hello – Kapian capa nu dios
  • How are you? – Ara ca mangu?
  • I am fine – Taytu aco a mapia
  • I am not fine – Ara coava mapia
  • Thank you – Dios mamajes
  • Where are you going? – Ngayan mo?
  • I am going to... – Mangay aco du...
  • Where is ___? – Ara dino si ___?
  • Straight ahead – Direcho
  • How much? – Manyi Pira?
  • How many? – Pira?
  • Good – Mapia
  • No good – Mapia/Mavid ava
  • Yes – Oon
  • I want ___ – Makey ako no ___
  • I don't want – Makey aco ava
  • I have a problem – Mian problema ko
  • No problem – Arava o problema
  • Good luck – Mapia palak
  • What's your name? – Angu ngaran mo?
  • Where is the house of ___? – Jino vahay da ___?
  • There – Du nguya, du daw, dawr
  • Here – Diaya
  • Hungry – Mapteng
  • Thirsty – Ma-waw
  • Tired – Mavanah, chinagagan (south), navanax
  • Happy – Masuyot, masaray
  • Whistling – Mamito, mihiñoxay (Itbayat)
  • Soft – mahma, maxma & mayuxma (Itbayat)
  • Sea – Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
  • Bird – manumanok, kangkang (Itbayat)
  • Perpendicular – maybatbat, mipatinu-nong (Itbayat)
  • Mud – hetek, xetek (Itbayat)
  • Sea – Taw, hawa (Itbayat)
  • Yesterday – Kakuyab
  • Afternoon – Makuyab
  • When are we going? – Antin mangu ta mangay?
  • When are you going to cut your hair? – Antin mangu ka mapagugud?

Ivatan words[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Coined words are two words combined to form one new word.

Sentence Coined word Meaning Usage
Mirwa ta anchiyaw Tanchew We’ll meet again later. Street language
Jinu ngayan mu Nganmu Where are you going? Street language

Similarities with other Philippine languages[edit]

  Person House Dog Coconut Day New
Ivatan Tawo Vahay Chito Niyoy Araw Va-yo
Tagalog Tao Bahay Aso Niyog Araw Bago
Bikol Tawo Harong Ayam Niyog Aldaw Ba-go
Cebuano Tawo Balay Iro Lubi Adlaw Bag-o
Tausug Tau Bay Iru' Niyug Adlaw Ba-gu
Kinaray-a Taho Balay Ayam Niyog Adlaw Bag-o
Kapampangan Tau Bale Asu Ngungut Aldo Bayu
Pangasinan Too Abong Aso Niyog Agew Balo
Ilocano Tao Balay Aso Niog Aldaw Baro
Gaddang Tolay Balay Atu Ayog Aw Bawu
Tboli Tau Gunu Ohu Lefo Kdaw Lomi

Similarities with the Tao language[edit]

  Day Home Friend Eat Drink
Ivatan Araw Vahay Cayvan Kuman Minom
Yami 雅美/達悟 Araw Vahay Kagagan Kuman Minum

Accommodation[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Room Cuarto Cuarto
Mail Tulas Turas
Water Danum Ranum
Time Oras Oras

Approval and disapproval[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Good Mapia Map'pia
Of course Siyempre Siyempre
Ok Okay Okay
Pretty Mavid Mavij
Yes Oon Uwen
No Omba Engga
Nothing Arava Aralih
Perhaps Siguro Siguro

Colors[edit]

  Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
Black Mavaweng Mavajeng
Blue A'sul Maanil
Brown Chocolati Chocolati
Dark Masarih Masari
Gray Mavu-avo Mavuavo
Green Birdi Berde
Light Marengang Marial
Red Mavayah Mavaya
White Mahilak Maydac
Yellow Mayuxama Mañujama

Days of the week[edit]

  Ivasayen Isamurongen Itbayaten
Sunday Domingo Lumingu
Monday Lunis Lunis
Tuesday Martis Martis
Wednesday Miyirkolis Mirkulis
Thursday Juibis Juybis
Friday Biyernis Birnis
Saturday Sabado Sabalu

Direction[edit]

  Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
Left Guri Huli
Right Wanan Wanan
Straight ahead Diricho Diricho

Cardinal numbers[edit]

    Itbayaten Isamurongen Ivasayen
0 Zero Siro; a'bu Siro; abu
1 One A'sa Asa
2 Two Daduha Dadua
3 Three Atlu Tatdu
4 Four A'pat Apat
5 Five Lalima Dadima
6 Six A'nem Anem
7 Seven Pito Papito
8 Eight Waxo Wawajo
9 Nine Sasyam Sasyam
10 Ten Sapuxu Sapujo

Writing system[edit]

Ivatan is written using the Latin alphabet. As Ivatan is primarily a spoken language and seldom used in written form, there is currently no consistent way of writing the language and different conventions may be used by different writers. An orthography devised for use in public schools by the Department of Education uses the full 26 letter Latin alphabet, with three extra letters, ch, ñ, and ng.[6]

The shwa oun, or uh, is normally represented by the letter e as in Dios Mamajes, 'di-yos-ma-ma-huhs', and palek 'pa-luhk'.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ivatan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Ibatan (Babuyan) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Itbayat". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ibatan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  4. ^ a b Ross, Malcolm (2005). "The Batanic Languages in Relation to the Early History of the Malayo-Polynesian Subgroup of Austronesian" (PDF). Journal of Austronesian Studies. 1 (2). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  5. ^ Reid, Lawrence Andrew (1966). "An Ivatan Syntax". Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications. University of Hawai'i Press (2): 1–160. JSTOR 20019114.
  6. ^ Gabilo-Cariaso, Georgann (2015). Ortograpiya Ivatan. SCHOOLS DIVISION OF BATANES. Retrieved 7 June 2020.

External links[edit]